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Dec. 29, 1936. > w. c. GROENIGER‘ _ 2,065,523 METHOD OF UNITING FLUID STREAMS AND DEVICE THEREFOR Filed July 20, 1934 3 __ ‘ 2 Sheets-Sheet l ' . _.____._ _ ,_Z'_'1(9.2. fly-Z ' .78 "1737 ' 12 l ‘ Ii | .9 j; | * 7 /% § 5 T l l 10 ‘ l / - l 18? ZW7W7WTU7' 2 21 J9 / J9 INVENTOR _ Dec. 29, 1936. w. c. GROENIGER 2,065,523 METHOD OF UNITING FLUID STREAMS AND DEVICE THEREFOR Filed July 20, 1934 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented Dec. 29, “ 1936 2,065,523 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,065,523 METHOD OF UNITING FLUID STREAMS AND DEVICE‘ THEREFOR " William C..Groeniger, Columbus, Ohio, assignor ‘ to John B. Pierce FoundationgrNew York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application July 20, 1934', Serial No. 736,220 ~ 6Claims. (01. 285-210) This ‘invention relates broadly to methods of uniting ?uid streams and to devices for use in carrying out such methods. It further relates to conduit connecting devices‘ or ?ttings suitable ,/ 5 for joining together two ‘or more ?uid carrying conduits such, for example, as drainage and sew ‘ erage systems, air conditioning systems; vacuum cleaning systems etc. and 1A; bend fitting for uniting two ?uid streams. The use of ?ttings of this type enables introduc tion of the branch stream into the main stream at a considerably smaller angle so that the direction of flow of the ?uid introduced into the main more nearly parallels the direction of flow ‘of the ?uid moving in the main. This, of course, to a certain extent reduces the impedance o?ered by the in troduced ?uid, but inasmuch as there must al ‘ Among the im ortant considerations in con 10 nection with the ?ow of ?uids, and particularly the ?ow of ?uids in closed conduits or pipes, are ways be a substantial angle between the two con 10 duits, the impedance cannot by the use of any ordinary ?ttings be substantially entirely elimi the frictional resistance offered to'the ?owing ?uids by ?ttings, connections and‘joints, and the interference with ?uid ?ow occasioned by \the introduction of ‘?uid streams into moving bodies nated. ' . consideration is a of particular \concern in the In‘ a‘building drainage system the wastes or sewage must be quickly conducted 'from the re 16 spective ?xtures to the place of disposal with velocities which will guard against fouling and case ‘of conduits into which branch streams are the deposit‘ of solids and will prevent clogging, of ?uid in closed conduits. The last mentioned and provision must be made for adequate cir introduced transversely to the direction ‘of ?uid 20 flow therein.‘ culation of air in all conduits so as to avoid the 20 ‘ When a branch stream is introduced into a ?ow danger of siphoning of liquid trap seals or the ing body‘of‘?uld in a main the ?uid entering the main from the branch normally mingles with the ?uid moving in the main while the branch stream forcing oftrap seals under conditions of ordinary use. 25 tends to cross the main ?uid stream at an angle of from forty-?ve to ninety degrees. This has a serious effect in impeding the ?ow of ?uid both‘ in the main and in the branch and thus reducing the e?iciency of the system. ‘ example of a system in which the impedance ‘so to An the ?ow of ?uid occasioned by the introduction of branch streams into main streams at a sub stantial angle thereto is of serious consequence is to be found in a bullding‘drainage system. 35 More speci?cally,‘ there may be a battery of water closets, urinals and lavatories which may be dis charged into a common drain. As many as six to twelve or more of such ?xtures may be thus connected. Onaccount of the inherent nature 40 of the use to which the system is put efficient re moval of wastes from water closets, urinals, bath tubs, lavatories and other plumbing ?xtures is essential. In addition to the speedy and safe removal of sewage and wastes drainage systems 45 must also supply and discharge air through vent pipes. . When a standard T ?tting is utilized for intro ducing ?uid from a branch stream into a main, the ?uid in the branch stream. tends to cross the 50 fluid moving in the main substantially at right angles, and the impedance thus offered to ?uid flow is serious. In order to reduce such imped ance to a certain extent it has heretofore been proposed, and in fact is now commonhto utilize 55 a Y ?tting or what is known as a combination Y Furthermore‘, the various ?xtures are dis charged intermittently and at varying rates, Y which. presents a problem in the maintenance of 25 air throughout the system and the avoidance of seal breakage. The standard ?ttings heretofore in use con sume an undesirably great amount of space, and due to'this present dii?culties in connection with 30 installation and in many cases require special designing of surrounding parts of a building structure to accommodate them. I provide methods of uniting ?uid streams and devices for connecting a plurality of conduits 35 carrying ?owing ?uid which solve in a remark-‘ ably efficient manner the problems above men tioned. I am enabled to substantially entirely eliminate the undesirable impedance offered when ?uid streams are joined by ordinary ?ttings as 40 heretofore commonly utilized. I accomplish the more perfect and even introduction of a branch stream into a main ?uid stream and at the same time reduce the number of joints and‘the amount of extra piping necessary in closed systems, di 45 minish leakage and reduce the weight and cost of the ?ttings required. Provision is made for proper venting of the system and the e?icient and rapid movement of air therein so as to prevent seal breakage. At the same time I reduce the 50 space required for installation of ?ttings and am enabled to utilize a smaller space for installation and to avoid to a great extent the provision of special surrounding structuresto accommodate the piping. > 55 2 2,065,523 I provide for introducing ?uid from a branch vice or wall portion 6 extending into the interior into a main so that the ?uid introduced will be of the ?tting and having oppositely disposed walls moving substantially in the direction of ?ow of 1 and 8. The wall 7 is curvedly formed so as to the ?uid in the main. By this provision the en ergy of ?owing ?uids is employed to provide in change its direction smoothly through substan Jector action by-the ?uid stream having the higher velocity which aspirates the ?uid stream having the lower velocity, thus bringing about accelera tion of ?ow and eliminating the undesirable 10 impedance offered when ?uid streams are joined by ordinary ?ttings as heretofore commonly tially ninety degrees, one extremity 9 thereof be ing disposed in substantially tangential relation ship to the direction of ?ow of ?uid from the branch stream into the ?tting. The opposite extremity ID of the wall 1 extends substantially in the direction of ?ow of ?uid in the main,—that 10 is to say, generally in the direction of the ar utilized. The same effect is produced in connec rows A. tion with counter?ow of air in liquid systems. Fluid entering the ?tting in the direction of the arrow B impinges against the wall 7, 'and by I provide a method of uniting a plurality of 15 ?uid streams into a common stream, comprising de?ecting one of such ?rst mentioned streams, before it mingles with another thereof, so as to direct it substantially in the direction desired for said common stream, and introducing another of 20 such ?rst mentioned streams into said de?ected stream. I provide a conduit connecting device compris ing means for joining the device to each of a plu rality of conduits so that material moving from 25 the respective conduits is united within the de vice, and de?ecting means within the device for causing material from a plurality of conduits to move generally in the same direction immediately previous to uniting. I provide a conduit ?tting 30 comprising a portion adapted to form a part of a generally continuous conduit and a connection extending from such portion, there being a de ?ecting device extending into the ?tting at the angle between said portion and said connection 35 and terminating at or near the axis of said gen erally continuous conduit. Other details, objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent as the following description of certain present preferred embodi 40 ments thereof proceeds. In the accompanying drawings I have shown certain present preferred embodiments of the invention, in which Figure l is a central longitudinal cross-sectional 45 view through a conduit ?tting; Figure 2 is a diagrammatic elevational view illustrating use of ?ttings such as that shown in Figure l in a vertical conduit; Figure 3 is a diagrammatic plan view illustrat 50 ing the use of such ?ttings in a horizontal con duit; Figure 4 is a diagrammatic view of a ?uid trans mission system; Figures 5 and 6 are views of a modi?ed form of 66 ?tting; Figures '7 and 8 are views of another modi?ed form of ?tting; and Figure 9 is a diagrammatic view similar to Figure 3 showing the utilization of ordinary ?t tings in the accomplishment of a general result sought. Referring more particularly to the drawings, reason of the fact that the extremity 9 of such wall is disposed in substantially tangential rela tionship to the direction of ?ow of ?uid thus entering the ?tting, gradually and smoothly de ?ects the incoming ?uid and causes it to change its direction through substantially ninety degrees 20 and to leave the wall 1 at the portion l0 thereof while moving substantially in the direction of the arrows A. The wall 8 is formed as a smooth reverse curve having an internally concave portion II and an internally convex portion l2. The extremity i3 of the portion i I is disposed in substantially tan gential relationship to the direction of ?ow of ?uid in the main as it enters the ?tting. The ?uid is de?ected by the portion ll of the wall 30 through a small angle, and then it is de?ected back toward its normal direction of ?ow by the outside wall IA of the ?tting in conjunction with the wall portion I2. As the ?uid‘moves forward it is de?ected somewhat inwardly by the wall 35 portion I5 so that it joins the ?uid introduced from the branch conduit at a negligible angle and therefore in e?ect while the ?uid from both con duits is moving substantially in the same direc tion. . - - to be moving substantially in the direction of ?ow of ?uid in the main just previous to mingling of the two streams. Thus, when the streams come together in the body portion of the ?tting their tendency is to assist each other in moving for ward rather than to impede each other’s progress, as would be the case if the streams were moving in substantially diverse directions at the time of mingling. The slight de?ection of the main ?uid stream out of and back into its normal direc tion of ?ow enables the de?ection of the ?uid from the branch stream before the two streams mingle. This de?ection is smooth and gradual throughout, and the resistance thereby offered to ?ow of the main stream is negligible. The form of the connections between the fit ting and the conduits which it joins is imma terial, and while bells are shown in the embodi ment of Figure l, the connections may be made 60. by screw threads or in any other desired manner without affecting the operation of the device. Figure 1 shows a conduit ?tting designated gen erally by reference numeral 2 having an inlet 3 65 and an outlet 4 for a main ?uid stream moving generally in the direction of the arrows A and an inlet 5 for a branch ?uid stream moving gen The de?ecting device 6 preferably terminates at or near the axis of the inlet and outlet portions 3 and 4 for the main ?uid stream which form por tions of a substantially continuous conduit. This enables joining of the main and branch ?uid irally in the direction of the arrow B. The branch uonduit extends generally at right angles to the streams at or near the axis of the conduit where by a minimum of disturbance will occur. The 10 inain, and if the ordinary T ?tting were utilized for making the connection the stream from the gether in the axial direction of the main conduit ranch conduit would tend to cross the stream owing in the main substantially at right angles, thereby seriously impeding the ?ow in the sys tem. However, there is provided a. de?ecting de l 40 The ?uid from the branch is de?ected so as respective streams will ?ow substantially to 70 from the extremity of the de?ecting device. In Figure 2 there is diagrammatically illus trated a main conduit or drain IS in which the normal ?ow of ?uid is generally downwardly, as 75 3 2,065,523 indicated by‘the‘ arrows C. At intervals ?ttings I‘! are introduced for the delivery of ?uid into the have any desired area and may be designed in accordance with standard practices My con drain. The ?ttings I'I‘are substantially identical with the ?tting 2 of Figure l and function as above explained. Such ?ttings in the embodi ment of Figure 2 may receive the waste from devices l8, which may be water closets, sinks, struction is such that greatly increased ef?ciency of fluid ?ow is obtained both with ‘respect to the main stream and with respect to venting. The space taken up by ?ttings of the type herein dis~ closed is much less than that consumed by the standard ?ttings previously in use. _ ' tubs, etc. ~ While I have shown and described certain Figure 3 shows the application of ?ttings H], present preferred embodiments ‘of the invention 10 which are substantially‘ identical with the ?ttings and certain methods of practicing the same, it 2 and I1, when laid‘in a substantially-horizon tally extending conduit and for introducing 'is to be distinctly understood that the same is limited thereto but may be otherwise va branch streams‘ generally horizontally into' the not riously embodied and practiced within the scope main. The ?ttings may be used with equal ef of the following claims. ' fectiveness in any position, either vertical, hori I claim: ' ‘ zontal or at an angle to the vertical or horizontal, 1.‘ A conduit ?tting comprising a body portion, or both. ~ InFigure 4 are shown the drainage connections for a vertically arranged series of ‘sinks, indi cated diagrammatically at 20, such as might be used in apartment houses, of?ce buildings or ho tels. Fittings 2| (shown in detail and to enlarged scale in Figures 5 and 6) are utilized in both vent and drain stacks, and ?ttings 22 (shown in detail and to enlarged scale in Figures '7 and 8) are utilized, the ?ttings 2| and 22 embodying the same principle as the ?ttings shown in Figures 1, 2, and 3. _ a plurality of ?uid passage means opening into said body portion at one end thereof, each of said ?uid passage means being constructed of a con 20 tinuous wall providing a passage of substantially uniform cross-sectional area, said continuous ' The only substantial. di?erencejibetween the 3O ?ttings 2 of Figure l and the ?ttings 2| of Figures 4, 5, and 6 is that the latter are designed for use in connecting conduits extending at some what less than a right angle to each other. <Re gardless of the angle between the conduits,“ the 35 de?ecting means, indicated at 23 in Figures 4 and 5, are‘ effective in the same manner as above described with respect to the de?ecting means 6 of Figure 1. Also, as shown in Figure 4, the ?t tings are adapted for use in systems in which 40 the ?uid ?ow therethrough is in either direction with respect to the position of the de?ecting means. ‘ The ?ttings 22 are similar in principle and construction to the ?ttings 2 and 2| except that r‘ the branch conduit is introduced from a direc- , tion such that it will intersect the plane of the main conduit. In Figure 4 the waste from each sink enters the side opening 24 of the correspond , - ing ?tting 22 and is de?ected through substan tially a right angle by de?ecting means 25 (Fig— ure 8). Thus the drain from each sink and the ?uid moving through the main mingle with each other when moving substantially in the same direction without substantial impedance due to 55 cross currents. The details of construction of the ?ttings 22 are clearly shown in Figures '7 50 and 8. In Figure 9 is shown diagrammatically a main 26 into which are introduced three branches 21. The system of Figure 9 is made up entirely of 60 ordinary ?ttings and six joints are required for each connection, whereas when my ?tting is used only one joint is necessary. Furthermore, the space required by the system shown in Figure 9 65 is almost twice that required by a system using my ?ttings. The straight line through the ?tting, as, for example, that indicated by the arrows A in Fig ure 1, is not always the main. The ?uid ?owing 70 in the main may enter from the direction of the arrow B in Figure 1, the main making a right angle turn in the ?tting, and the branch stream may be introduced in line with the new direction of the main. The respective in?ow and out?ow ports may 75, walls including wall portions serving as de?ecting means for causing the ?ow of ?uid through said ?uid passage means ‘alongside one another in generally parallel relationship at the zone of communication of the same with said body por tion, the cross-sectional area of said body portion at said zone being substantially equal to the sum of the cross-sectional areas of said passages, the body portion being provided with an opening at the opposite end thereof, said de?ecting wall portions having their outer surfaces exposed at the exterior of the ?tting. 2. A conduit ?tting comprising a body portion, 35 a plurality of ?uid passage means opening into said body portion, portions of the walls of said ?uid passage means serving as de?ecting means ‘for causing the ?ow of ?uid through said ?uid passage means alongside one another in general 40 ly parallel relationship at the zone of communi cation of the same with said body portion, the cross-sectional area of said body portion at said zone being at least approximately as great as the sum of the cross-sectional areas of said ?uid 45 passage means, the body portion being tapered inwardly from opposite sides in the common plane of said ?uid passage means from said zone in a direction away from said ?uid passage means whereby it is reduced in cross-sectional 50 area, and other ?uid passage means opening into the reduced part of said body portion. 3. A conduit ?tting comprising a body portion, a plurality‘ of ?uid passages opening into said body portion at one end thereof and merging into 55 a single passage therewithin, the cross-sectional area of said single passage at the zone of merg ing of said ?rst mentioned passages being at least approximately as great as the sum of the cross-sectional areas of said ?rst mentioned pas 60 sages, a ?uid passage opening into said body por tion at the end thereof opposite said ?rst men tioned end, and means in the ?tting common to said ?rst mentioned ?uid passages for bringing the same into substantial parallelism at said 65 zone, said means forming part of the wall of the ?tting and having its outer surface exposed at the exterior of the ?tting. ' 4. A conduit ?tting comprising a body por tion, a plurality of ?uid passages opening into 70 said body portion at one end thereof and merging into a single passage therewithin, the cross-sec tional area of said single passage at the zone of merging of said ?rst mentioned passages being ‘ at least approximately as great as ‘the sum of 4 2,065,523 the cross-sectional areas of said ?rst mentioned passages, a ?uid passage opening into said body portion at the end thereof opposite said ?rst mentioned end, and means in the ?tting for bringing said ?rst mentioned ?uid passages into substantial parallelism at said zone, said means comprising integral spaced wall portions con nected at their inner extremities and having the outer surfaces thereof exposed at the exterior of the ?tting. 5. A conduit ?tting comprising a body portion, a plurality of ?uid passages opening into said body portion, said ?uid passages at the zone of communication between the same and said body portion being disposed alongside one another in generally parallel relationship, the cross-sec tional area of said body portion at said zone being at least approximately as great as the sum of the cross-sectional areas of said ?uid passages, the body portion being tapered inwardly from opposite sides in the common plane of said ?uid passages from said zone in a direction away from said ?uid passages whereby it is reduced in cross sectional area, and another ?uid passage open ing into the reduced part of said body portion. a 6. A conduit ?tting comprising oppositely dis posed substantially coaxial ?uid openings, a ?uid passage communicating with said ?tting inter mediate said ?uld openings, and another ?uid passage communicating with one of said ?uid openings and merging with said ?rst mentioned 10 ?uid passage within the ?tting, said second men tioned ?uid passage being displaced laterally away from said ?rst mentioned ?uid passage ad~ jacent the zone of merging therebetween a dis tance less than the diameter of said secondmen 15 tioned ?uid passage, said ?uid passages being substantially parallel at said zone, each of said ?uid passages being of substantially uniform cross-sectional area throughout. WILLIAM C. GROENIGER.