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Патент USA US2065523

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Dec. 29, 1936.
> w. c. GROENIGER‘
_
2,065,523
METHOD OF UNITING FLUID STREAMS AND DEVICE THEREFOR
Filed July 20, 1934
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INVENTOR
_
Dec. 29, 1936.
w. c. GROENIGER
2,065,523
METHOD OF UNITING FLUID STREAMS AND DEVICE THEREFOR
Filed July 20, 1934
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented Dec. 29, “ 1936
2,065,523
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,065,523
METHOD OF UNITING FLUID STREAMS
AND DEVICE‘ THEREFOR
"
William C..Groeniger, Columbus, Ohio, assignor
‘ to John B. Pierce FoundationgrNew York, N. Y.,
a corporation of New York
Application July 20, 1934', Serial No. 736,220 ~
6Claims. (01. 285-210)
This ‘invention relates broadly to methods of
uniting ?uid streams and to devices for use in
carrying out such methods. It further relates
to conduit connecting devices‘ or ?ttings suitable ,/
5 for joining together two ‘or more ?uid carrying
conduits such, for example, as drainage and sew
‘ erage systems, air conditioning systems; vacuum
cleaning systems etc.
and 1A; bend fitting for uniting two ?uid streams.
The use of ?ttings of this type enables introduc
tion of the branch stream into the main stream at
a considerably smaller angle so that the direction
of flow of the ?uid introduced into the main more
nearly parallels the direction of flow ‘of the ?uid
moving in the main. This, of course, to a certain
extent reduces the impedance o?ered by the in
troduced ?uid, but inasmuch as there must al
‘ Among the im ortant considerations in con
10 nection with the ?ow of ?uids, and particularly
the ?ow of ?uids in closed conduits or pipes, are
ways be a substantial angle between the two con 10
duits, the impedance cannot by the use of any
ordinary ?ttings be substantially entirely elimi
the frictional resistance offered to'the ?owing
?uids by ?ttings, connections and‘joints, and the
interference with ?uid ?ow occasioned by \the
introduction of ‘?uid streams into moving bodies
nated.
'
.
consideration is a of particular \concern in the
In‘ a‘building drainage system the wastes or
sewage must be quickly conducted 'from the re 16
spective ?xtures to the place of disposal with
velocities which will guard against fouling and
case ‘of conduits into which branch streams are
the deposit‘ of solids and will prevent clogging,
of ?uid in closed conduits. The last mentioned
and provision must be made for adequate cir
introduced transversely to the direction ‘of ?uid
20 flow therein.‘
culation of air in all conduits so as to avoid the 20
‘ When a branch stream is introduced into a ?ow
danger of siphoning of liquid trap seals or the
ing body‘of‘?uld in a main the ?uid entering the
main from the branch normally mingles with the
?uid moving in the main while the branch stream
forcing oftrap seals under conditions of ordinary
use.
25 tends to cross the main ?uid stream at an angle
of from forty-?ve to ninety degrees. This has a
serious effect in impeding the ?ow of ?uid both‘
in the main and in the branch and thus reducing
the e?iciency of the system.
‘
example of a system in which the impedance
‘so to An
the ?ow of ?uid occasioned by the introduction
of branch streams into main streams at a sub
stantial angle thereto is of serious consequence
is to be found in a bullding‘drainage system.
35 More speci?cally,‘ there may be a battery of water
closets, urinals and lavatories which may be dis
charged into a common drain. As many as six
to twelve or more of such ?xtures may be thus
connected. Onaccount of the inherent nature
40 of the use to which the system is put efficient re
moval of wastes from water closets, urinals, bath
tubs, lavatories and other plumbing ?xtures is
essential. In addition to the speedy and safe
removal of sewage and wastes drainage systems
45 must also supply and discharge air through vent
pipes.
.
When a standard T ?tting is utilized for intro
ducing ?uid from a branch stream into a main,
the ?uid in the branch stream. tends to cross the
50 fluid moving in the main substantially at right
angles, and the impedance thus offered to ?uid
flow is serious. In order to reduce such imped
ance to a certain extent it has heretofore been
proposed, and in fact is now commonhto utilize
55 a Y ?tting or what is known as a combination Y
Furthermore‘, the various ?xtures are dis
charged intermittently and at varying rates,
Y
which. presents a problem in the maintenance of 25
air throughout the system and the avoidance of
seal breakage.
The standard ?ttings heretofore in use con
sume an undesirably great amount of space, and
due to'this present dii?culties in connection with 30
installation and in many cases require special
designing of surrounding parts of a building
structure to accommodate them.
I provide methods of uniting ?uid streams and
devices for connecting a plurality of conduits 35
carrying ?owing ?uid which solve in a remark-‘
ably efficient manner the problems above men
tioned. I am enabled to substantially entirely
eliminate the undesirable impedance offered when
?uid streams are joined by ordinary ?ttings as 40
heretofore commonly utilized. I accomplish the
more perfect and even introduction of a branch
stream into a main ?uid stream and at the same
time reduce the number of joints and‘the amount
of extra piping necessary in closed systems, di 45
minish leakage and reduce the weight and cost
of the ?ttings required. Provision is made for
proper venting of the system and the e?icient and
rapid movement of air therein so as to prevent
seal breakage. At the same time I reduce the 50
space required for installation of ?ttings and am
enabled to utilize a smaller space for installation
and to avoid to a great extent the provision of
special surrounding structuresto accommodate
the piping.
>
55
2
2,065,523
I provide for introducing ?uid from a branch
vice or wall portion 6 extending into the interior
into a main so that the ?uid introduced will be
of the ?tting and having oppositely disposed walls
moving substantially in the direction of ?ow of
1 and 8. The wall 7 is curvedly formed so as to
the ?uid in the main. By this provision the en
ergy of ?owing ?uids is employed to provide in
change its direction smoothly through substan
Jector action by-the ?uid stream having the higher
velocity which aspirates the ?uid stream having
the lower velocity, thus bringing about accelera
tion of ?ow and eliminating the undesirable
10 impedance offered when ?uid streams are joined
by ordinary ?ttings as heretofore commonly
tially ninety degrees, one extremity 9 thereof be
ing disposed in substantially tangential relation
ship to the direction of ?ow of ?uid from the
branch stream into the ?tting. The opposite
extremity ID of the wall 1 extends substantially
in the direction of ?ow of ?uid in the main,—that 10
is to say, generally in the direction of the ar
utilized. The same effect is produced in connec
rows A.
tion with counter?ow of air in liquid systems.
Fluid entering the ?tting in the direction of
the arrow B impinges against the wall 7, 'and by
I provide a method of uniting a plurality of
15 ?uid streams into a common stream, comprising
de?ecting one of such ?rst mentioned streams,
before it mingles with another thereof, so as to
direct it substantially in the direction desired for
said common stream, and introducing another of
20 such ?rst mentioned streams into said de?ected
stream.
I provide a conduit connecting device compris
ing means for joining the device to each of a plu
rality of conduits so that material moving from
25 the respective conduits is united within the de
vice, and de?ecting means within the device for
causing material from a plurality of conduits to
move generally in the same direction immediately
previous to uniting. I provide a conduit ?tting
30 comprising a portion adapted to form a part of a
generally continuous conduit and a connection
extending from such portion, there being a de
?ecting device extending into the ?tting at the
angle between said portion and said connection
35 and terminating at or near the axis of said gen
erally continuous conduit.
Other details, objects and advantages of the
invention will become apparent as the following
description of certain present preferred embodi
40 ments thereof proceeds.
In the accompanying drawings I have shown
certain present preferred embodiments of the
invention, in which
Figure l is a central longitudinal cross-sectional
45 view through a conduit ?tting;
Figure 2 is a diagrammatic elevational view
illustrating use of ?ttings such as that shown in
Figure l in a vertical conduit;
Figure 3 is a diagrammatic plan view illustrat
50 ing the use of such ?ttings in a horizontal con
duit;
Figure 4 is a diagrammatic view of a ?uid trans
mission system;
Figures 5 and 6 are views of a modi?ed form of
66 ?tting;
Figures '7 and 8 are views of another modi?ed
form of ?tting; and
Figure 9 is a diagrammatic view similar to
Figure 3 showing the utilization of ordinary ?t
tings in the accomplishment of a general result
sought.
Referring more particularly to the drawings,
reason of the fact that the extremity 9 of such
wall is disposed in substantially tangential rela
tionship to the direction of ?ow of ?uid thus
entering the ?tting, gradually and smoothly de
?ects the incoming ?uid and causes it to change
its direction through substantially ninety degrees 20
and to leave the wall 1 at the portion l0 thereof
while moving substantially in the direction of
the arrows A.
The wall 8 is formed as a smooth reverse curve
having an internally concave portion II and an
internally convex portion l2. The extremity i3
of the portion i I is disposed in substantially tan
gential relationship to the direction of ?ow of
?uid in the main as it enters the ?tting.
The
?uid is de?ected by the portion ll of the wall 30
through a small angle, and then it is de?ected
back toward its normal direction of ?ow by the
outside wall IA of the ?tting in conjunction with
the wall portion I2. As the ?uid‘moves forward
it is de?ected somewhat inwardly by the wall 35
portion I5 so that it joins the ?uid introduced
from the branch conduit at a negligible angle and
therefore in e?ect while the ?uid from both con
duits is moving substantially in the same direc
tion.
.
-
-
to be moving substantially in the direction of ?ow
of ?uid in the main just previous to mingling of
the two streams.
Thus, when the streams come
together in the body portion of the ?tting their
tendency is to assist each other in moving for
ward rather than to impede each other’s progress,
as would be the case if the streams were moving
in substantially diverse directions at the time of
mingling. The slight de?ection of the main ?uid
stream out of and back into its normal direc
tion of ?ow enables the de?ection of the ?uid
from the branch stream before the two streams
mingle. This de?ection is smooth and gradual
throughout, and the resistance thereby offered to
?ow of the main stream is negligible.
The form of the connections between the fit
ting and the conduits which it joins is imma
terial, and while bells are shown in the embodi
ment of Figure l, the connections may be made 60.
by screw threads or in any other desired manner
without affecting the operation of the device.
Figure 1 shows a conduit ?tting designated gen
erally by reference numeral 2 having an inlet 3
65 and an outlet 4 for a main ?uid stream moving
generally in the direction of the arrows A and
an inlet 5 for a branch ?uid stream moving gen
The de?ecting device 6 preferably terminates at or
near the axis of the inlet and outlet portions 3
and 4 for the main ?uid stream which form por
tions of a substantially continuous conduit. This
enables joining of the main and branch ?uid
irally in the direction of the arrow B. The branch
uonduit extends generally at right angles to the
streams at or near the axis of the conduit where
by a minimum of disturbance will occur. The
10 inain, and if the ordinary T ?tting were utilized
for making the connection the stream from the
gether in the axial direction of the main conduit
ranch conduit would tend to cross the stream
owing in the main substantially at right angles,
thereby seriously impeding the ?ow in the sys
tem. However, there is provided a. de?ecting de
l 40
The ?uid from the branch is de?ected so as
respective streams will ?ow substantially to 70
from the extremity of the de?ecting device.
In Figure 2 there is diagrammatically illus
trated a main conduit or drain IS in which the
normal ?ow of ?uid is generally downwardly, as 75
3
2,065,523
indicated by‘the‘ arrows C. At intervals ?ttings
I‘! are introduced for the delivery of ?uid into the
have any desired area and may be designed in
accordance with standard practices My con
drain. The ?ttings I'I‘are substantially identical
with the ?tting 2 of Figure l and function as
above explained. Such ?ttings in the embodi
ment of Figure 2 may receive the waste from
devices l8, which may be water closets, sinks,
struction is such that greatly increased ef?ciency
of fluid ?ow is obtained both with ‘respect to the
main stream and with respect to venting. The
space taken up by ?ttings of the type herein dis~
closed is much less than that consumed by the
standard ?ttings previously in use.
_
'
tubs, etc.
~
While I have shown and described certain
Figure 3 shows the application of ?ttings H], present
preferred embodiments ‘of the invention
10 which are substantially‘ identical with the ?ttings and certain methods of practicing the same, it
2 and I1, when laid‘in a substantially-horizon
tally extending conduit and for introducing 'is to be distinctly understood that the same is
limited thereto but may be otherwise va
branch streams‘ generally horizontally into' the not
riously embodied and practiced within the scope
main. The ?ttings may be used with equal ef
of the following claims.
'
fectiveness in any position, either vertical, hori
I claim:
'
‘
zontal or at an angle to the vertical or horizontal,
1.‘ A conduit ?tting comprising a body portion,
or both.
~
InFigure 4 are shown the drainage connections
for a vertically arranged series of ‘sinks, indi
cated diagrammatically at 20, such as might be
used in apartment houses, of?ce buildings or ho
tels. Fittings 2| (shown in detail and to enlarged
scale in Figures 5 and 6) are utilized in both
vent and drain stacks, and ?ttings 22 (shown in
detail and to enlarged scale in Figures '7 and 8)
are utilized, the ?ttings 2| and 22 embodying the
same principle as the ?ttings shown in Figures
1, 2, and 3.
_
a plurality of ?uid passage means opening into
said body portion at one end thereof, each of said
?uid passage means being constructed of a con 20
tinuous wall providing a passage of substantially
uniform cross-sectional area, said continuous
'
The only substantial. di?erencejibetween the
3O ?ttings 2 of Figure l and the ?ttings 2| of Figures
4, 5, and 6 is that the latter are designed for
use in connecting conduits extending at some
what less than a right angle to each other. <Re
gardless of the angle between the conduits,“ the
35 de?ecting means, indicated at 23 in Figures 4
and 5, are‘ effective in the same manner as above
described with respect to the de?ecting means 6
of Figure 1. Also, as shown in Figure 4, the ?t
tings are adapted for use in systems in which
40 the ?uid ?ow therethrough is in either direction
with respect to the position of the de?ecting
means.
‘
The ?ttings 22 are similar in principle and
construction to the ?ttings 2 and 2| except that
r‘ the branch conduit is introduced from a direc- ,
tion such that it will intersect the plane of the
main conduit. In Figure 4 the waste from each
sink enters the side opening 24 of the correspond
,
- ing ?tting 22 and is de?ected through substan
tially a right angle by de?ecting means 25 (Fig—
ure 8). Thus the drain from each sink and the
?uid moving through the main mingle with each
other when moving substantially in the same
direction without substantial impedance due to
55 cross currents. The details of construction of
the ?ttings 22 are clearly shown in Figures '7
50
and 8.
In Figure 9 is shown diagrammatically a main
26 into which are introduced three branches 21.
The system of Figure 9 is made up entirely of
60
ordinary ?ttings and six joints are required for
each connection, whereas when my ?tting is used
only one joint is necessary. Furthermore, the
space required by the system shown in Figure 9
65 is almost twice that required by a system using
my ?ttings.
The straight line through the ?tting, as, for
example, that indicated by the arrows A in Fig
ure 1, is not always the main. The ?uid ?owing
70 in the main may enter from the direction of the
arrow B in Figure 1, the main making a right
angle turn in the ?tting, and the branch stream
may be introduced in line with the new direction
of the main.
The respective in?ow and out?ow ports may
75,
walls including wall portions serving as de?ecting
means for causing the ?ow of ?uid through said
?uid passage means ‘alongside one another in
generally parallel relationship at the zone of
communication of the same with said body por
tion, the cross-sectional area of said body portion
at said zone being substantially equal to the sum
of the cross-sectional areas of said passages, the
body portion being provided with an opening at
the opposite end thereof, said de?ecting wall
portions having their outer surfaces exposed at
the exterior of the ?tting.
2. A conduit ?tting comprising a body portion, 35
a plurality of ?uid passage means opening into
said body portion, portions of the walls of said
?uid passage means serving as de?ecting means
‘for causing the ?ow of ?uid through said ?uid
passage means alongside one another in general
40
ly parallel relationship at the zone of communi
cation of the same with said body portion, the
cross-sectional area of said body portion at said
zone being at least approximately as great as the
sum of the cross-sectional areas of said ?uid 45
passage means, the body portion being tapered
inwardly from opposite sides in the common
plane of said ?uid passage means from said zone
in a direction away from said ?uid passage
means whereby it is reduced in cross-sectional 50
area, and other ?uid passage means opening into
the reduced part of said body portion.
3. A conduit ?tting comprising a body portion,
a plurality‘ of ?uid passages opening into said
body portion at one end thereof and merging into 55
a single passage therewithin, the cross-sectional
area of said single passage at the zone of merg
ing of said ?rst mentioned passages being at
least approximately as great as the sum of the
cross-sectional areas of said ?rst mentioned pas 60
sages, a ?uid passage opening into said body por
tion at the end thereof opposite said ?rst men
tioned end, and means in the ?tting common to
said ?rst mentioned ?uid passages for bringing
the same into substantial parallelism at said 65
zone, said means forming part of the wall of the
?tting and having its outer surface exposed at
the exterior of the ?tting.
'
4. A conduit ?tting comprising a body por
tion, a plurality of ?uid passages opening into 70
said body portion at one end thereof and merging
into a single passage therewithin, the cross-sec
tional area of said single passage at the zone of
merging of said ?rst mentioned passages being ‘
at least approximately as great as ‘the sum of
4
2,065,523
the cross-sectional areas of said ?rst mentioned
passages, a ?uid passage opening into said body
portion at the end thereof opposite said ?rst
mentioned end, and means in the ?tting for
bringing said ?rst mentioned ?uid passages into
substantial parallelism at said zone, said means
comprising integral spaced wall portions con
nected at their inner extremities and having the
outer surfaces thereof exposed at the exterior of
the ?tting.
5. A conduit ?tting comprising a body portion,
a plurality of ?uid passages opening into said
body portion, said ?uid passages at the zone of
communication between the same and said body
portion being disposed alongside one another in
generally parallel relationship, the cross-sec
tional area of said body portion at said zone being
at least approximately as great as the sum of
the cross-sectional areas of said ?uid passages,
the body portion being tapered inwardly from
opposite sides in the common plane of said ?uid
passages from said zone in a direction away from
said ?uid passages whereby it is reduced in cross
sectional area, and another ?uid passage open
ing into the reduced part of said body portion.
a 6. A conduit ?tting comprising oppositely dis
posed substantially coaxial ?uid openings, a ?uid
passage communicating with said ?tting inter
mediate said ?uld openings, and another ?uid
passage communicating with one of said ?uid
openings and merging with said ?rst mentioned 10
?uid passage within the ?tting, said second men
tioned ?uid passage being displaced laterally
away from said ?rst mentioned ?uid passage ad~
jacent the zone of merging therebetween a dis
tance less than the diameter of said secondmen 15
tioned ?uid passage, said ?uid passages being
substantially parallel at said zone, each of said
?uid passages being of substantially uniform
cross-sectional area throughout.
WILLIAM C. GROENIGER.
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