Патент USA US2066806код для вставки
_ _ Jan. 5,1937. ‘ JftsMlTl-l ET AL y ‘ 4 2,065,806 OIL BURNER ' Filed Dec. 2, 19:55 ‘ , ' 2 sheets-sheet 1 5 . ‘1"4@ 2%,.2. l JàH/v SM1 TH A ND BY VIPs/L. f. Dusar/.ER Jan. 5, 1937. > ` -‘ J. SMITH ET AL l - ' OIL ' . 36 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 . Y . 37 2,066,806 BURNER vFiled Dec. 2, 1935 ' '- INVENTORk . JöH/v SM/TH AND _ BY WPG/L E. .DUEMLER ATTORNEYS Patented Jan. 5, 1937 I2,666,306 » UNITED srivrEs- _PATENT v '2,066,806 on. Burman OFFICE _ - " -` John Smith, Southwlck, and Virgil E. Duemlcr, y West Springiield, Mass., assltnorsto Gilbert ¿t Barker Manufacturing Company,- West Spring-' iield, Mass., a corporation o! Massachusetts Application December z, 1935, smal No. saisz 4 claims. `This invention relates to improvements in oil burners.' , ` ’ The invention has for an object the provision in a gun type burner of improved means for d1 5 recting air >to the oil, characterized by the pro duction of a steady, stable and quiet name of high temperature and by improved eiiiciency ci combustion. ‘ I , ‘ (criss-_76) - " of a mist or '-fog. This nozzle is secured to one end of a cylindrical support II and located near the open outlet end of an air> tube I2, having ' at‘such end a deiiector I3 to` direct air inward ly_ toward the oil spray.' nir at relatively low s pressure is supplied to tube I2, near its other end, by afan I 4 driven by a motor I5,--the fan casing being located above tube I2 and formed as an integral part thereof. More particularly,- it is an object `of the in 10 .vention to provide in a burner wherein the air is The fan end of tube I2 is closed by a head I6 fedto the oil in a‘plurality of generally con held in place by cap screws AI1 and capable of centric, annular streams, a novel form of spac - being easily removed to enable servicing of the ing of the outlets, through which said streams nozzle I0 and aœociated parts. A pair of rods issue, whereby an annular area of low pressure I8 iixed inhead I6 by _set screws I9 in a manner 1% is created between said streams into which one oi them may in part expand and form, in ei fect, an intervening stream of lessened velocity, thereby securing an improved and graded dis to enable 4adjustmentoiï the rods in a direction 1% longitudinally of the tube I2, extend forwardly in said tube and are suitably fixed, as by the screw threads shown in Fig._ 2, to an air dividing and tribution of the air along the flame to effect pro- l directing member 20 which is slidable in the tube. 20 sressive combustion. ` This member 20 -supports a pair of insulators 2i, , I, Another object of the invention is to provide in a burner of the class described, means for’caus ing the outer air stream to whirl around the axis carrying the ignition electrode rods 22 which ter minate in electrodes 23 positioned in igniting relation with the spray from ,nozzle Ill. The of theoil nozzle, and an arrangement whereby insulators 2i pass through and are -slidably ad justable in a longitudinal direction in member 20 2g an inner portion oi’ the outer air stream is en ` abled to expand radially inward and envelop the oil stream at a point close to but slightly beyond Athe location where the inner air stream meets the oilstream, and in the zone of gasiilcation of 80 the oil,--said inner portion of the whirling air stream acting to whirl the gasified oil in a zone between the oil nozzle and the normal zone of A bracket 26 in terconnects the two rods I8 and is adjustably ilxed to each by a set screw 21. The nozzle sup port II passes through bracket 26 and is iixed 6,., thereto by a set screw 28. Thus, by removing head I8, the nozzle I0, air _director 20 and spark application of the outer air stream to the oil. _ electrodes may be withdrawn as one unit, with These and other objects will more particularly appear as the detailed description proceeds and will be pointed out in the appended claims. The invention will be disclosed with reference ‘to the accompanying drawings, in which: Fig.v 1 is a side elevational view, partly in sec tion of an oil' burner embodying the invention; Fig. 2 is a fragmentary sectional elevational view, taken similarly to Fig. 1 but showing only the outlet end oi' the burner and drawn to a outdisturbing the relationship `oi? these parts. larger scale; - Figs. 3, 4 and 5 are cross sectional views taken on the lines 3_3, 4--4 and 5--5, respectively, of Fig. 2; and l ` \ v Fig. 6 is a fragmentary sectional elevational view showing a modification. ‘ 50 and are ñxed in their positions of adjustment by set screws 25 in member 20. _ Referring to these drawings; the burner is of the pressure atomizing type, having a nozzle IIJ v,to which oil is supplied under relatively high pressure and from which the oil is emitted „in a substantially hollow conical spray of finely A 55 divided. particles andA practically in the `form Oil is supplied to the/nozzle by any suitable y, means, usually a pump (not shown) driven by motor I5, and passes 'through piping, indicated in part in Fig. 1 at 29, to the» nozzle support II. The piping 29 enters the air tube through a radial '.slot in the inner face of head IB, as indicated in -` Fig. 1. The support I.I is also an oil conductor. It isbored out, as shown in Fig. 4, to receive a rod 30 which has a longitudinal groove 3| in its `periphery and which ñlls the bore and closes it except for the' groove 3|. This groove intercon- ‘15 nects the piping 29 and nozzle III. The‘nozzle support is or may be constructed as and furthe purposes disclosed in U.V S. Patent No, 2,015,572, granted September 24, 1935, on an invention of L. F. Spear. . The burner is supported, preferably in a man ner to enable vertical adjustment, by a standard 32 connected at its upper end to the air tube I2. The outlet end of this tube passesthrough the u 2 - 2,066,806 furnace wall 33 and opens into the combustion chamber 3l’ thereof. The burner, as thus far described, is of a gen erally old and well known type and it is thought unnecessary to a proper understanding of the present invention to describe it in further detail. It will be understood that the burner illustrated is given merely as one example of many burners of the pressure atomizing type, in which the in 10 vention may be embodied. The invention does not depend on the constructional details described in connection with the burner and is independent of . them. , . l The invention features a special construction of inner air stream which envelops it at a location very close to the tip of nozzle Il. This inner stream initially is of relatively high velocity and 'acts to shape the oil spray and prevent undue radial spreading thereof. The forward course of the inner air stream is shown by the arrows l5 in Fig. 2. Some mixing of air and oil occurs here but the mixture is necessarily'_ rich because the air supply is small. The inner air stream, after it leaves the air nozzle Il, rapidly expands and 10 is soon dissipated so that its effectiveness in holding the flame within bounds is very soon lost. The outer air stream is then made to act on the flame and confine it within bounds in a novel the air-directing member 2l. This member, in the form shown, is roughly cup-shaped, having manner. an annular rear wall 34 disposed transversely of tube I2 and an integral and forwardly projecting to whirl or rotate and envelop the flame. 'I‘he outer and whirling air stream `at the point oi its emission (at the _forward end face of tubular part 35) is spaced radially _a substantial distance from the inner air stream, and there is a substan tial space between these streams. Therefore, the annular ñange or outer tubular part 35, mounted in spaced coaxial relation with tube I2 and form ing an outer annular air pasage 31 of`relatively large area. The indenting of the front face of The outer stream is caused by the vanes 36 this member is'largely for the purpose of saving . outer air stream, in part, expands radially inward _ metal and except for the undesirable bulk, the member could be truly cylindrical. Integral vanes l36 project radially outward from the outer periph ery of ñange 35 at suitably spaced angular‘in tervals and these vanes engage the inner wall of tube I2.A These vanes are inclined to the direc 30 tion of the air flow in tube I2 and substantially of spiralform. They operate, as is well under stood in the art, to whirl the air passing through the'passage 31. The wall 34 is bored out to receive a tube 38 having an internal diameter- greater 35 than the support II, which passes through it in toward tube 38 and flows forwardly along the same (as indicated in Fig. 2 by the arrows 46) y and then inwardly along the outer surface of nozzle 40 to meet ‘the flame at a point close to the outlet of nozzle 40, or at about the point where the inner air stream loses its effectiveness on the flame. 'I'his action is, we believe, a very im portant factor contributing to the exceptional re sults in combustion which aregsecured from this burner. A portion of the whirling outer air stream is made to act onthe flame in a zone in termediate the two zones where the inner and 35 „ coaxial relation, whereby an inner air passage 38 . outer air streams would act in a burner of con of annular form is provided. This passage 39 is relatively small in cross sectional area as com pared to passage l1 and only a small portion of the air supply passes through it. The outlet end of the inner air tube I8 has iixedthereto a deflec tor or nozzle Il to direct the inner annular air stream toward the oil spray. The tube 3l is ad justable longitudinally in theair director and is 45 held in adjusted position by a set screw 4I (Fig. 1). The nozzle- support II is .supported at its forward and nozzle-.bearing Aend and centered in the tube 38 by three ñns 42 which extend radially inward 'from the tube and engage the cylindrical 50 part 43 of the support I I. The shoulder u on support I I is adapted to abut the ends of vanes 42 as shown. 'I'he vanes 42, as herein shown, are straight and parallel to the direction of air flow in tube I2. 40 ventional form. This portion of the outer air streamis made to whirl the gasified oil in the zone where the whirling has heretofore been effected by vanes in the inner air passage. Thus, 40 one set of vanes accomplishes the work of the two sets often used. 'I‘he result is a necking down of the llame into more or less cylindrical form for a short distance, as illustrated at 41,-say a littlebeyond the outlet end of deilector I3. . The zone between the latter and the nozzle is one of ignition and gasification. Here, the oil is gasified, as it must be in order` to burn, and combustion for the most part occurs lbeyond the defiector I3.\ Therefore, the part of the outer air stream which expands as described, acts on the gasifled oil in the gas zone, whirling it around and around to improve the mixture and hold the flame confined in the shape shown. Necessarily, this air has relatively low velocity in a forward 55 55 In operation, the oil supplied under high pres sure to nozzle III is emitted from the latter in the direction because it is travelling in a spiral path form of a spray of very ñnely divided particles and because it has expanded in a radial direc and in substantially the shape of a hollow-_ cone. tion. (The arrows show simply the general for Actually, the spray is almost like a mist or fog. ward direction-of the air vand no attempt has 60 Surrounding that 4portion of the spray which is been made to show the actual spiral path of the visible, is a zone of invisible spray and the spark outer air.) It thus tends to hold the oil longer from the ignition electrodes usually extends only in the zone of gasification and thereby much n into the zone of this halo-like invisiblespray. .better and more thorough gasification and mix-' Ignition occurs initially in this zone rather than ture-occur, as is evidenced by the bluish color oi' 65 in the visible part of the spray. The arc-like the flame in this zone. The oil is slowed up in its 65 forward travel long enough to enable thorough spark from the electrodes is distended by the outer gasification to occur. Naturally a condition of air stream and blown into the invisible oil spray. partial vacuum exists in the space between the The latter ignites in a flash which is almost in stantaneously transmitted to the visible spray to 70 ignitek the latter. The oil issuing from nozzle I0 vent it from drifting away from the nozzle I0, ' ' rapidly expands and would spread out radially to thus resulting in a very quiet and stable flame. a large extent except for the action of the two air streams. -The oil spray, initially in the form of a 76 hollow cone, is subjected first to the action of the outlets of the two air streams and this has a re tarding effect on the flame and also tends to pre The outer portion oi.' the outer air stream follows the usual course (indicated roughly by the ar rows 48) and meets and envelops the fiame-out- 76 3 - 9,666,806 side the' nozzle I3, supplying the air to support combustion of the-gasiiie'd oil. In'the zone out side the nozzle' I3, which is the primary combus tion zone, the flame is whitisha'nd it „terminates in the secondary 4combustion mne (not shown) . with orange colored' tipa-an indicationofthe . proper amount of air supply. electrodes' and their insulators can be passed through the annular wall 34 and thus kept out of v the air' passages. Necessarily, if these elements were inserted in air passage 31, they would in 'I'hefiame has a hollow center 50 in which there is some recycling 'of the products of combustion and here there is terfere with the equal distribution of air flow to the flame. By'the present arrangement, the :liso a certain amount of turbulence indicated at 10 that‘part of the outer stream can expand and form an intervening str_eamof less velocity, en able another desirable result to be obtained. The electrodes and their insulators are kept out of 'the way where they have no deleterious effect on _ It is to be particularly-noted that the arrange the air streams. 'I'he inner Vairstream may be whirled, as by the vanes 49 shown in Fig. 6. The ordinary ad vantage of whirling this stream has been secured 15 by the arrangement described,whereby the .whirl- ' ment described results in a very effective and graded air distribution. Instead of concentrat 15 ing the air supply at two fixed zones, some of :the air of the outer air stream is fedto the flame at various points between these -zones, thus dis 20 .ing effect of -the outer streamis transmitted toa tributlng the air along the iiame to .secure pro location close to the nozzle where it can V'.do'much` gressive combustion. of the work which would ordinarily'be expected v ‘ - ' 'I'he air directing means also 'is eii’ective over a of .the whirling inner stream. `The inner vvanes 4Q are, therefore, only necessary where a whirli ing -eifect of increased intensity is desired. In most cases, we find it preferable to omit vanes 49 wide range. Its construction '._is such that the results described are obtained with such means independently of-the amount of oil burned and thevelocity of the air, overa considerable range. 25 `because their use results inl expanding the name ` into saucer-like form, which in most cases is l, not desired. Where conditions are such -as to The arrangement also results in better com lbustion due to a more thorough gasification a'nd a 'more thorough and uniform mixing of the air and oil. A flame of higher temperature is make a flame of this shapedesirable, lthe vanes _ 49 can be usedto advantage. ~ secured-a highly radiant one and one of short ' bushy» character. -The ñame- is exceedingly ` stable and quiet. Ignition is sure and carbon lation with the oil nozzle and results in a better y mixing of the air and oil 'with resulting greatly improved combustion, and inthe production of Vization is reduced to a degree where it ls prac ~tically negligible. »Eiilciency 'of combustion is 35 " very much improved as proved by actual tests. , a iiame which is short and bushy in form, con ’I'he >relative longitudinal positions of the noz-yr sistently steadyv and stable, quiet. and of excellent zle Ill, cone 40, air director- 20 and defiector I3 ~ quality. _» 'as - What we claim is: may be varied within limits and, by so doing, variations can be eiiected in the shape of `the 1. In yan oil burner, a tube through which air-is flame. The illustrated relationship between these supplied Aand having a contracted outlet end, a nozzle for emitting a substantially conical spray of oil, ‘said nozzle located in said tube near the -40 parts is what we .consider to be the best and most effective. 'The assembly of nozzle IB, ycone 40 and air 4director 2li may be, moved «longitudi v nally relatively to'deiiector I3', _asby loosening screws I9 (Fig. l) and pushing'rods Il more deeply into their sockets in head I-B or pulling them out fartherin such sockets. If such as--' sembly is moved toward deilector I3, the flame is widened very decidedly and if moved backwardly. lthe flame is narrowed slightly. The .cone "40 and 50. nozzle Il_l may be Àmoved relatively to the air di~ rector 20 and defiector I3. To do this, screws 28 "55 'I'he ,invention provides an improved form of air dividing and directing- means in cooperative re outlet end thereof, an inner tubular member'sur rounding said nozzle in spaced relation forming an annular passage through which air iiows and from which it is directed to the sprayed oil in a. ~' zone near the nozzle, an outer member spaced in-y wardly from said tube to form an outer annular passage through which air ñows to said contract .ed outlét and is directed to _the sprayed oil beyond and 4i are loosened, ltube 40 is pushed back or said zone, a partition connecting said members and blocking iiow of air except through said pas sages, and .means for whirling the outer air pulled“ out to the desired degree _in member l20. and support Il, is moved until the shoulder-44 abutsthe ends `oi.' vanes 41, when the nozzle I6 and cone 40 will be in the same yrelationship as` ciently to create a substantial annular space be tween them into which the inner part oi' the outer air stream may expand and form an inter formerly. 'I'he eii'ect of such movement, if back ward, i's to narrow the ilame and, if foäward. to broaden the flame. The nozzle I0 ‘maybe ad stream, said passages being radially spaced sum vening annular air stream _of less velocity than the outer part of the outer air stream.v 2. In an oil burner, a tube through which air 00 justed longitudinally without moving .the parts I3. 2li and 40, by'loosening the screw 2l and moving the nozzle support Il. The nozzle should not be moved rearwardly from the illustrated position. It might be moved forwardlyrprovided is supplied and having a contracted. outlet end, a f nozzle for emitting a. substantially conical spray of oil, said nozzle located in said tube near the . outlet end thereof, an inner tubular member sur- . rounding said nozzle in spaced relation forming an annular passage through which air iiows and _. 65 that the locating plan described.' involving ab'ut ment of shoulder 44 with the ends of vanesv 4I were dispensed with.- The effect would be to from which it is directed to the sprayed Aoil in a. zone near'the nozzle, an'outer member spaced in broaden out the flame. `Other adjustments may - wardly from said tube to form an outer annular be made, if desired.- For example, the element 2l 70 may be moved toward or away from' the deflector ’ I3 leaving the cone 40 andnozzle Il positioned as shown, but the‘ones above enumerated are the passage throughwhich air iiows to said contract~ ed outlet and is directed to the sprayed oil beyond 70 said zone, a partition connecting said members' and blocking flow of airl ` ` cept through said nur , ` sages, and means for" whirling the outer air It should be particularly notedl that the means - stream, the outlet end oi' the outer air passage most desirable ones and those usually used. . 75 used to space the inner and outer air streams so being substantially separated in a radial'direc- g5 4 2,066,866 tion and spaced rearwardly in the tube from the outlet end of the inner passage. whereby the 4. In an oil burner, a tube through which air is supplied and having a contracted outlet end. whirling outer air stream as it leaves the outlet of the outer air passage may in part expand ra a nozzle for emitting a substantially conical spray of oil, said nozzle located in said tube near the outlet end thereof, an inner tubular member dially inward and mix with the sprayed oil in a zone adjacent the outlet of the inner air passage. surrounding said nozzle in spaced relation form 3. In an oil burner, a tube through which air ing an annular passage through which air flows' is supplied and having a. contracted outlet end, a and from which it is directed to the sprayed oill nozzle for emitting a substantially conical spray» Y in a zone near the nozzle, an outer member spaced of oil, said nozzle located in said tube near the inwardly from said tube to form an outer annu 10 lar passage through which air flows to said con -outlet end thereof, an inner tubular member sur rounding said nozzle in spaced relation forming an annular passage through which air flows and from which it is directed to the sprayed oil in a zone near the nozzle, an outer member spaced in wardly from said tube to form an outer annular passage through which air ilows to said contract ed outlet and is directed to the sprayed oil be yond said zone, and a partition connecting said members and blocking ilow of air except through said passages, said passagesbeingradially spaced sufficiently to create a substantial annular space ‘ between them into which the inner part of the outer air stream may expand and form an in tervening annular air stream of less velocity than the outer part of the outer air stream. tracted outlet. and is directed to the sprayed oil beyond said zone, and a partition connecting said members and blocking' ñow of air except through said passages, the outlet end of the outer air pas 15 sage being substantially separated in a radial direction and spaced rearwardly in the tube from the outlet end of the inner passage, whereby the outer air stream as it leaves the outlet of the outer air passage may in part expand radially 20 inward and mix with the sprayed oil in a zone adjacent the outlet of the inner air passage. JOHN SMITH. VIRGIL E. DUEIMUJER.