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Патент USA US2068223

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Jan. 19, 1937.
Filed Sept. 29, 1933
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
Jan. 19, 1937.
Filed Sept. 29, 1930
3 Sheets-Sheet Z
Jan. 19, 1937. -
Filed Sept. 29, 1930
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
Patented Jan. 19, 1937
Thomas Á. Banning, Jr., Wilmette, Ill., assigner
to Pullman-Standard Car Manufacturing
Company, Chicago, lili., a'corporation of Dela- -
Application vseptamlm 29, 1930, serial No. 485,170
«i claims.
(Cl. 98-6)
The present invention has to do particularly p upper portion of the interior of the car body. In- '
with improvements in the air conditioning and - asmuch as the rate of circulation through the car
ventilation of cars and similar enclosures. More body is relatively low, being only sufficient to
maintain the desired refrigerating action in the
particularly, the invention has to do with im
case of a refrigerator car, the exits or delivery
5 provements in thevrefrigerating or air condition
ing of refrigerator cars, especially those which lopenings in the upper portion of the car may be
are used for shipment of fruits, meats, and other -made of relatively small size and extremely sim
ple construction.' For these and other reasons it
perishable commodities. The features-herein dis
\ closed, and the construction herein illustrated and is unnecessary to provide hatches or similar
in the roof of the car, thereby materially
'10 particularly described have been devised with a openings
simplifying and reducing the cost of construction
View especially to meeting the needs and condi
of thè upper portion of the car-_
tions of refrigerator car construction and opera
It is a further feature of the invention to pro
tion; but it will presently appear that certain of
said features may also be advantageously used in vide an arrangement in which the interior of the 15
connection with air conditioning and Ventilating car is practically unobstructed by any ventilat
other types of cars, such as, for example, sleeping ing apparatus or pipes throughout its entire
ca-rs, passenger coaches, dining cars, parlor cars, length, width, and height, and thereby leaving
practically the entire interior dimensions of the
observation cars, etc.; and certain of said _fea
tures are also Well adapted for use in connection car/available for- the storage and transportation
20 with air conditioning and Ventilating other en- f of “pay freight.” In this connection, the usual 20
use of bulk-heads and similar structures for the
closures, such as rooms, auditoriums, etc. There
hfore, I do not intend tov limit myself particularly support and carriage of such refrigeratingmedia
to the use and application of said features for as ice, dry ice, etc., is eliminated, and the entire
vrefrigerator cars, except as I may do so in the interior of the structure from end to end is avail
. able for the carriage of “pay freight.”
One of the features of the invention relates to
an arrangement by means of which the car may
be supplied with cold air for refrigeration pur
poses, said .cold air being generated directly by
Another feature of the invention relates to the
provision of means _for iìltering the air which is
sent into the car body, so" that dust and other for
eign matter is removed from it. This will avoid
compression, cooling and expansion operations,
objectionable accumulation of such 'material 30
refrìgerating medium lsuch as ammonia gas
(NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2) , sulphur dioxide
In this‘connection, the air filter construction is l
without the necessity'of using any intermediate -Within the refrigerated space of the car body.
(SO2) , and other similar media. In'this connec
35 tion, it is a further object of the invention to pro
such that it isre'adily accessible for purposes of
cleaning or repairing it, the filter constituting a
portion of the refrigerating unit and being lo 35
cated in a very accessible position. The arrange
ment is such that the filter can be readily reached
vide an arrangement whereby the power neces
sary to operate the compressor is‘derived directly
from one ofthe axles of’a truck. In this connec ' and operated upon by a Vacuum cleaner or simi
tion, a further object in-some cases is to provide lar device for removing the accumulated dust
40 an arrangement in which the refrigerating appa-v
' ratus for supplying the cold air may be mounted
and carried directly by a cradle which is mounted
directly on the truck itself, thus makingl it pos
sible to drive said apparatus directly from the
45 axle-without complications due to turning of the
, ' trucks in taking curves, etc.
Another feature in connection with the fore
. going is to provide a refrigerating system in
which the cold fresh air is introduced into the
50 lower portion of the car body at numerous points,
continuously during the operation of the system,
said cold air working upwardly through the car
» l body towards the roof thereof, and there is also
provided means for permitting a corresponding
55 exit or deliverance of the warmer air from the
from Atime to time.
In connection with the refrigerating unit it will
-also be noted that the same includes a heat ex
changer located between the air compressor and
the air motor in which the compressed air is e'X
panded backy to atmospheric pressure. This
heat exchanger serves the function of cooling the
hot compressed airwithout lowering its pressure, l
so that when said compressed air is thereafter
expanded in thel air motor it is greatly reduced in
temperature by the expansion. This heat ex 50
changer is cooled by a circulation of air from the
outside of the refrigerating unit, and such cool
ing air in turn becomes substantially heated by
exchange of heat.
Another feature of the in
vention relates to the provision of an arrange 55
ment whereby the air connections leading into
the car body may, if desired, be connected to this
heat exchanger in such a way as to supply the
interior of the car body with warm or hot air
from the heat exchanger instead .of cold or re
frigerated air from the refrigerating unit.
‘ operation will be performed, for example, in ex
tremely cold weather, at which time it is not only
unnecessary to refrigerate the interior of the car,
but it actually becomes necessary at times to
warm the interior of the car sumciently to remove
the-chill inf order to prevent freezing of the con
tents of the car. Such result may be performed
by the use of the- present apparatus optionally
15 with a very slight change in the connections for
the air system.
In connection with the foregoing, it is also an
object to provide means for filtering the air which
is drawn over the heat exchanger so that when
20 the `same is delivered to the interior of the car it
will be clean and filtered as in the case of re
frigerated air.
A further feature of the invention relates to an
arrangement whereby the interior of the car may
be precooled before the car is sent out on the
road, thereby placing the interior of the car in
the best possible condition to commence the jour
ney, and at the same time relieving the refriger
ating equipment on the car from the burden of
30 having to lower the temperature of the interior
of the car and the contents thereof to the desired
temperature; such being the case the refrigerat
ing equipment fon the car will only be required to
maintain the temperature within the car at the
35 lowered point thus established.
illustrated the features of the present invention
as being applied to a refrigerating car. This
carhas the sides 20 and 2l, roof 22, bottom 23
and ends 24 and 25. These parts are heat insu
lated in the usual manner, so that the car body
constitutes in effect a heat insulated enclosure
or chamber. The sides are provided with the
usual doors, a portion of one of the same being
shown at 26. These doors are also heat insu
lated, and provided with the usual latches or ñx 10
tures whereby they are fastened in closed condi
tion, and when so closed they complete the heat
insulated enclosure of the body.
Inasmuch as the cold air for refrigerating the
interior'of this heat insulated car body is derived 15
from the lexterior of such body, the entire space
within the body is available for receiving and ~
retaning _the merchandise or commodities being
shipped under refrigeration. Consequently there
is no loss of space due to the presence of bunkers
for ice or the like, nor is there any space required
within the car body for accommodation of Are
frigerating apparatus. Furthermore, inasmuch as
the refrigerating action is performed by introduc
ing cold air into the body from a refrigerating
unit located outside of the car body, said air
l?lowslupwards and through the car body thereby
performing its refrigerating and Ventilating ac- l
tion, and it'is unnecessary to provide any hatches
or openings in the roof ofthe car such as are 30
used for introduction and adjustment of ice, in
previous forms of refrigerator cars.
Extending- longitudinally along the car are the
cold air ducts or pipes 21 and y28. These are
preferably located beneath the side walls of the
Another feature of the invention relates to the
conditioning of the air priorl to introduction
car or close thereto; and these ducts are alsoV
preferably heat insulated so as to prevent un
into the car body, said conditioning operation in
necessary loss of cooling eilìciency of the cold air
cluding the removal of moisture therefrom in
travelling in them. Reaching up from these
some cases, and means -are also provided for reg
ducts are the vertical standpipes 29. "I‘hese are 40
ulating or controlling this operation.
located close to the side walls, and preferably
Another feature relates to means for ensuring either Within the side walls, or close to the inner
an introduction of cooled and conditioned air into faces of said walls as illustrated in Fig. 2 in
the _car body in such manneras to avoid “sensible particular. These standpipes extend up the full
45 circulation” or “drafts” and also in a very efficient hight of the interior of the car body, or a por 45
and satisfactory manner._
tion of said hight as illustrated, and they are l
Other objects and uses of the invention will ap-> provided with openings 30 through which the
pear from a detailed description of the same,
cold air is delivered into the interior of theA car
which consists in the features of construction and body. These openings are conveniently made in
50 combinations of parts hereinafter described and vthe form of thin slots such as shown, and pref 50
erably said slots slant upwards as shown so that
In the drawings;
the cold air as delivered will naturally tendV to
Fig. 1 shows a side elevation of the end portion settle down into the lower part of the car space.
of a refrigerating car, together with a truck pro
As the cold air accumulates within the car space
55 vided with the refrigerating unit, and also shows it fills the latter and the warmer air is con 55
the connectiony whereby the ducts of the car may stantly displaced upwardly, until ñnally the en
be connected either to the refrigerating unit or to tire interior of the car body is ñlled with air of
a precooling plant;
Fig. 2 shows a cross-section through the c-ar
60 body looking towards the truck which carries the
refrigerating unit, being taken substantially on
the line 2-2 of Fig. 1 looking in the direction in
dicated by the arrows, certain of the ducts of
the car body being shown in dotted lines;65
Fig. 3 shows diagrammatically a precooling
plant arrangement including a track Whereon
several cars are illustrated, together with a pre
cooling refrigerating plant and the pipe connec
tions for placing the several cars in connection
Fig. 4 shows diagrammatically a c-ar arrange
the desired> temperature.
Thus the cold air is delivered laterally from the
pipes and also downwardly into the body of the 60
car; and due tothe fact that the pipes 29 are
spaced along both sides of the car, or in two
vrows at the sides of the center line of the car,
and for the major portion of its length, it fol
_lows that a Very uniform introduction of the
cold, conditioned air is produced. Furthermore
the uppermost openings 30 are located above the
center of the interior of the car body, so the cold
conditioned air from them enters the upper por
l tion of the space within the car.
The so entering
ment provided with the features of the present
invention, the trucks and principal air ducts be
ing shown in dotted lines.
cold conditioned` air circulates into the body of
the car and finally swings around into an upward
movement and then circulates out from the upper
Referring first to Figs. 1, 2 and 4, I have therein
portion of the car through the vent openings 32,
and from these openings it moves to the outside
ofthe car to another disposal point.
There are one or more vents provided in the
upper portion of the car body through which the
warmer air is displaced and delivered out of the
car body. These vents may be of convenient
form, and may‘be very simple since they serve
merely to allow a constant outward delivery .of
the warmer used air from the car body, such
10 outward delivery being exactly in harmony with
the introduction of the fresh cold air from the
'refrigerating unit. The form of vents shown
comprise cross ‘pipes 3l, preferably two in num
ber, said pipes extending across the car body
near the roof thereof, and said pipes being pro
vided with numerous slits or openings 32 through
which the warmer air enters the pipes 3l. The
ends of these pipes 3l reach to the- exterior of
the car body, preferably terminating just outside
of the walls 20 and 2l, and beingprovided with
fixtures 33 on their outer ends. These fixtures 33
are preferably flattened out so that they pro
vide the necessary cross-sectional area of open
ing through which the air is delivered to the
25 outside of the car, and at the same time they
do not project materially beyond the face of the
car wall and- are accommodated beneath the
eaves of the car roof 36. The result is that the>
warmer airis delivered out of the car close to the
,30 roof thereof.
In practice, the stand pipes 29 may be placed
at whatever spacing is decided on, but usually
they will be placed relatively close together, say
at spacings of eighteen inches to two feet
throughout the length of the car. They can be
made relatively small in size, say one or one and
a half inches in diameter, since their number will
provide the required amount of total cross-sec
tional area for conduction of the cold air in such
volume as needed.
‘ The central portions of the side pipes 2l and
28 are connected together by a cross pipe 35,
outwardly from the truck frame. The purpose of
this is to keep the driving belt under tension, as
will presently be apparent.
On the cradle is mounted an air compressor
designated in its entirety by the numeral 52. The
compressor illustrated is of the two cylinder type,
and it has the usual spring seated inlet and de
livery valves, the details lof which need not be
enlarged on since this compressor as an element
does not constitute a portion of my invention, but 10
only in the various combinations hereinafter set
There is also an air motor 53 mounted
on the cradle, preferably at the „end opposite to
that of the compressor.
This air motor is of the
two cylinder oscillating cylinder type-_that is
the type in which the cylinders oscillate in prox
imity to stationary blocks through which the air
is introduced to the cylinders, and from which
the air discharged by the cylinders is taken. The
motor cylinders are designated 5d and 55 respec 20
The motor and compressor shafts are -connectedtogether by a shaft l0 so that they are compelled
to rotate in unison. This shaft l0 is illustrated
as being an extension of the motor shaft, but 25
manifestly it may be connected to the motor and
compressor shafts by suitable couplings or other
wise and to truck axle ‘il by driving belt l2.
There is a fan 'i9 placed on the shaft 'i3
which runs through the body of a heat exchanger 30
13, and this fan works within a shroud 8l! between
the header ‘i8 and the space around the tubes, so
that the elîiciency of the fan is improved, and a
better draft of the air ñowing across the tubes
is produced.
The air for the compressor is received into the
same through an'lnlet or supply pipe 3 of large
size; and the compressed air from the compressor
is delivered through the pressure pipe 82 of small
er size, since the volume of the air has been re
preferably located under the middle of the car. l perature due to the compressing action. In fact,
This pipe 35 in turn receives cold air from a pipe in the case of a system operating with a com
36 which extends to a point near one end of the pression of say, 60 lbs. per square inch pressure'
car body, and the entire supply of cold air is delivered by the compressor, the temperature of
delivered through the same. The end of this the delivered air will probably approximate 300
pipe 36 is provided with a flexible extension 3l degrees F. or higher. This hot air is then deliv
which is in turn provided with an end nipple 38 ered to the heat exchanger where its temper
ature is lowered in an amount depending largely
which may be connected into the proper connec
on the temperature of the cooling air available.
tion for receiving the cold air. The ñexible ex
tension 3l may be of any suitable material, _but 'I‘hus for example, in the case of outside air of a
preferably one which is a good insulator of heat, temperature of 80 degrees FQ the compressed air
since thereby the loss of refrigerating 'efñciency in the tubes may be lowered-to say 120 degrees F.,
during passage of the air through the same is and be delivered from the heat exchanger at that
lowered temperature, but with its pressure still
The truck at one end of the car is designated maintained at the full amount of 60 lbs. per
in its entirety by the numeral Q0. It is'provided square inch. The volume of the air will of course
with the side bar extensions ¿il and 4t2 which be reduced, depending on the amount of such
carry the brackets «i3 and 6d respectively. The cooling action.
The motor serves to takeout the work from the
rods ¿i5 and d6 reach downwardly from these
brackets, and said rods extend across the truck compressed air of reduced temperature, and
from one side to the other, the upper ends of the thereby lower the pressure of the air back to at
rods being pivotally connected to the respective
65 brackets so that the rods can swing towards and
from the body of the truck. A plate 4l is carried
by these rods ¿l5 and 46 and constitutes a plat
form or support for the refrigerating unit. The
cradle asa unit is drawn forwardly from the truck
frame. by means of a spring 48 .on a rod 49, which
rod carries an adjustment nut 50 against which
the spring presses. The other end of the spring'
presses'y against a bracket 5l in the form of an
extension from the frame of the truck. The re
75 sult is that the spring tends to draw the cradle
duced by the act of compressing it. yThe air is
also delivered through the pipe 82 at high tem
mospheric pressure, with corresponding lowering
of the sensiblevheat of the exhausted air.
In 65
fact, the temperature'of the air delivered from the
air motor will be very low, and in the caseas
sumed above it may be as much as zero F. or quite
a number ofy degrees below zero. Consequently,
the air exhausting from the air motor will be `at
atmospheric pressure or slightly above, sumcient
to ensure movement of the air through the ducts,
and at a very llow temperature. These conditions
are ideal for introduction into the bodyof the
car for refrigerating purposes. The volume> of
air which will be delivered will depend on the rate
of compressor and engine rotation.
The cooled air from the heat exchanger passes
to the air motor through the pipe 83 of small size,
and the expanded and cold air from the air motor
is delivered from the same through the delivery
pipe 84 of large size. This pipe 84 has on its end a '
the valve |29 delivers the full volume of air into
the car body, but when the temperature falls be
low such amount the valve |29 delivers a por
fitting 85 to receive the end fitting 38 of the pipe
that it may be turned out to reach beyond the
31, so that the two pipes 84 and 31 can be con
10 nected together merely by slipping these fittings>
together. They can likewise be disconnected
very easily, but will remain in the connected con
dition with sufficient force to ensure proper op
eration until intentionally disconnected. 'In this
15 connection it will be noted that the air pressure
existing in these pipes is so low that they will not
readily blow apart.
It will be understood that the air motor natu
rally has a certain direction of rotation under its
own power when supplied with compressed air,
and that when allowed to rotate in that direc
tion it expands the air and delivers useful work
to the shaft 63. This work will be delivered
back to the compressor, and will correspondingly
25 reduce the amount of work and power which must
be supplied to the unit by the belt. i The direc
tion of rotation of the compressor may be the same
as that of the air motor, since the compressor will
perform its compressing function in either direc
30 tion `of rotation.
I have provided means for ñltering the air drawn
into the compressor so that the air delivered from
the air motor will be clean and free of dust and
other foreign matter.
Such compressor filter is
35 shown at ||8, being located directly in front of
the compressor. I have also provided an- air
filter for removing dust and other foreign matter
from the cooling air which is drawn into the heat
exchanger by the fan '|9, such filter being desig
40 nated ||9, and being located directly infront of
the heat exchanger.
It will be'noted that the cooling air which flows
over the tubes of the heat exchanger will be heated
thereby, so that the air delivered .through the
45 header 18 will be hot. In some cases it may be
desired to supply heated air to the interior of the
car body, as for example, in extremely _ cold
weather, in order to prevent freezing of the con
tents of thek car. I have therefore provided a
50 delivery connection |25 leading from the header
'I8 so that the heated air from the heat exchanger
will iiow out through this connection. The cold
air from the air motor will then be delivered to
the outside atmosphere and the heated air from `
tion or all of the cold air to the outside atmos
phere instead of into the car body, therefore de
creasing the cooling action to the proper amount.
The pipe section 31 may be so proportioned
side of the car body and be connected to a pre
cooling plant. In Fig. 3 I have shownseveral 10
cars numbered |33, |34 and |35 located on the
track |38 within or alongside of the housing |31.
There is diagrammatically shown the refrigerat
ing plant |38 which delivers cold air to the main
|39, and said main is provided with connections
|40, i4| and |42 corresponding to the various
cars which are to be simultaneously pre-cooled.
Each of these connections includes a valve |43
which delivers the cold air through a fiexible
connection or pipe extension |44. These exten 20
sions |44 are provided with fixtures |45 to re
ceive the nipples or sleeves 38 of the pipes 31
of the respective cars. The arrangement is there
fore such that the refrigerating ducts of, the sev
erm cars can be connected to the common cold 25
air supply system, and by opening the valves. |43
the cars can be supplied with ~cold air for the
pre-cooling operation.
During this precooling
the cars should be shut up or closed so that
there will be no wastage of the cooling eiîect, and 30
so that the incoming vcold air in each car will
vdisplace the Warmer air therefrom through the
pipes 3| and the vent fixtures 33 near the roof
of the car.
As soon as the pre-cooling operation has been 35
completed the nipples 38 of the different pipes
31 of the cars may be withdrawn from the pipes
|44, the valves |43 having been closed, and then
the nipples 38 may be connected into the cold
air delivery fixtures 85 of the respective cars; 40
and the train may be sent out on the road and '
the refrigeratlng action will proceed in each car
to‘ maintain-the temperature thereof. at the de
sired low point. It is especially noted that dur
ing this pre-_cooling operation there is no wastage 45
of the cooling action by cooling unnecessary por
tions of the cars, since the only portion of. each
car subjected to the cooling action is the interior
thereof, including the contents which should be
cooled. Furthermore, this pre-cooling action 50
proceeds in the same way, as far as th-e interior
of the car is concerned, as the subsequent normal
cooling action when o_n the road.
The arrangement herein disclosed though pri
marily intended for refrigerating car construc 55
terior of the car body.
It may be desirable to provide Vfor automatic tion and refrigeration, may also be used to ad
regulation of the temperature Within the car vantage for cooling and Ventilating other kinds
body. In this connection it will be noted that and types of cars designed for the carrying. of
passengers. In the present embodiment, the re
60 the rate of cold air delivery into theI car body - frigerating action within the car is provided by 60
will be dependent on the rate of car travel, in
case the full volume of thecold air from the introducing into the 4body of the car a supply
air motor is constantly delivered into the car of fresh air from the outside which is cooled by
body. I hav-e provided a valve |29 in the duct direct expansion and renders unnecessary the use
or passage 36, said valve including a side delivery of intermediate refrigerating means utilizing 65
connection'l30 through which the air or a por- volatile liquidrmedia introduced into the car un
tion of the air flowing from the refrigerating unit der pressure, whereby the need for high pres
may be delivered tothe4 outside atmosphere. This sure pipes Within the car is dispensed with.
While I have herein shown and described only
valve |29 is connected to a thermostat |3| lo
cated within the car body at the desired point, certain embodiments of my present invention,
55 the heat exchanger will be delivered to the in
. such connection being made by means of, the tube
still I do not intend to limit myself thereto ex
|32 in the usual manner, soy that the lopening ' cept as I may do so in the claims.
and closing of the valve |29 will >be controlled
by the temperature within the carbody. When
75 the temperature is above a predetermined amount
I claim:
1. A car having a longitudinally extending
conditioned air duct, a. series of vertically ex 75
' 5
tending ducts located along the length of Ithe
from said longitudinal ducts, substantially` as de
car and each vertical duct having ‘one end in
communication with said longitudinally- extend
ing duct to receive conditioned air therefrom and
having a delivery port adjacent to its other end,
32 _Means for supplying the interior of a car
body with cooled and conditioned air compris
ing a plurality of vertically extending fixtures
said port being located at least one half the
. height of the car interior above the floor of the
car interior, there being an end partition at the
located in two longitudinal rows, one row at each
end of each of said vertical ducts to prevent
10 direct endwise discharge'of air from said vertical
ducts into the interior of the car body, and said
side of the medial plane of the carfb'ody and
each of said ñxtures having an end closure and
having a laterally and downwardly facing air
delivery oriñce to deliver conditioned air laterally 10
and downwardly into the body of the car, to-.
delivery port reaching sidewise and downwardly
gether with a longitudinally extending condi
of the conditioned air into the body portion of
with the iixtures at that side of the car and
means for delivering conditioned air to said lon- ’
with respect to the vertical axis of the duct, to` tioned air supply duct at each side `of the medial
thereby ensure lateral and downward delivery plane of the car body in supply communication
the car interior at a number of points along the
,interior of the car body and at points at least
Yone half _the height of the car interior above the ‘
ñoor thereof, substantially as described.
2. Means for supplying the interior of a car
body with cooled and conditionedair comprising a
plurality of vertically extending iixtures located
in two longitudinal rows, one row at' each sidev
of the medial plane of the car body and each oí
25 said fixtures having an end closure lying sub
stantially in a horizontal plane and having a
laterally and downwardly facing air delivery or
iñce to deliver conditioned air laterally and down
wardly into the body of the car, said end closures
30 and said air delivery oriñces being located above
~ the central plane of the »interior of the car
vbody in the upper half of the interior of ‘the
car body, together with a longitudinally extend
ing conditioned air supply duct at each side of
the medial plane of the car body in supply com
munication with the ñxtures at that side of the
car and means for ’delivering conditioned air to
said longitudinally extending ducts, wherebyl
cooled and conditioned air is delivered laterally
40 towards the central portion of the interior of the
car body from a position at each side of the medial
v plane of the car and above the central horizontal
gitudinally extending ducts, whereby cooled and
conditioned air is delivered laterally towards the .v
central portion of the interior of the car body *~
from a positon at each side of the medial plane
of the car, and temperature controlled valve `
means in circuit with said longitudinal ducts for
regulating the supply of cold air from said 1on
gitudinal ducts, substantially as described.
4. A refrigerating car comprising in combi 25
nation a heat insulated'body which is substan
tially .air tight when closed, trucks therefor, means on said trucks for delivering either hot
or cold air to the car interior and maintaining
a circulation of conditioned air through the car, 30
said means comprising ducts supported by the
car body and having openings sloped downwardly
and directed .towards the lower interior portion
of the car body at a large number of points dis
tributed throughout thel interior portion of the 35
car body thereby to insure a substantially uni
form introduction of air towards the lower in- u
terior portion of said car body, vent _openings
extending from the upper interior portion of the
Acar body permitting discharge of spent air there 40
through, and means temperature controlled for
introducing a supply of either hot or cold air into
said ducts during car movement or cold air only
plane of the car interior, and temperature con
trolled valve means in circuit with said longitu
during car movement and when car, is stationary.
dinal ducts for regulating the supply of cold air _
20 '~
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