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Патент USA US2070268

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Patented Feb.‘ _9, 1937'
_ 2,070,268
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
’
2,070,268 _
‘ nmnno'rmofmmmn
"Hugh Bryson Glass, Anniston, All” assignor'to
Swann Research, Incorporated, a. corporation
of Alabama
N6 Drawing‘. Application July 10, 1931, Serial
No. 550,047
g
_
g
_ 2 Claims.
This invention relates to new compounds hav
ing improved dielectric and insulating properties.
One object of this'invention is the provision of
' means whereby the physical and electrical prop
_ ,5 erties of chlorinated diaryl compositions may be
changed at will within certain limits.' Another
object is the production of an improved dielec
,
(or. 252-—1)
in the production of my improved composition
are rather di?icult to identify chemically. They
are, as far as is now known, mainly composed of
the hydrocarbons, ortho and para diphenyl ben
zene and hence are related chemically and struc- 5
turally to diphenyl. The. origin of these hydro-l
carbonsgis similar to that of diphenyl, i. e., they
are .produced by the pyrolysis of benzol and are
separated from the pyrolysis product by distilla- ,
tric medium adapted for use'in electrical devices
such as' condensers or capacitors.
It) In the design of electrical condensers or capac
tion.
alternate layers of conduct g and non-conduct
ing material, the latter usu .ly being paper. .Al
20 ternate conducting plates during operation are
charged to‘ a, difference of electrical potential
and are connected to separate terminals. The'
remaining behind in the distillation ?ask may
be employed as such for the practice of'this in
vention, however, it is‘ desirable to further distill 20
these high boiling compounds. In doing so the '_'
temperature may be raised to 390 to 400° C.,',and ;
a
>
10
itors for various purposes such as radio, lalter- ' Due to the appreciably higher boiling point pos
over that of diphenyl itself ,
hating current motor‘ and various other uses, it‘ sessed by these
is particularly advantageous, in order to confine’ . it is customary, when making a separation of
the apparatus in as small a space as possible to the pyrolysis productobtainedfrom benzene, to
use as an impregnant a dielectric having as high distill oil’ a technical‘ diphenyl fraction between 15
,‘ temperatures of 250x150 270°.C., at atmospheric
a dielectric constant as practicable.¢
Condensers or capacitors usually consist of " pressure. The residue or high boiling compounds
pack when suitably supported is subjected to
the high boiling fraction is thus divided into two ,
drying and impregnating treatment with av di ‘parts. and known as “distilled high boiling com;
pounds" and “still bottoms”. The last fraction
N) ill electricland insulating oil. For this purpose cer
tain of the chlorinated diphenyl oils have already or “still bottoms” thus obtained consists of some
very high boiling compounds together'with tar
been proposed._ In particular, chlorinated diphe
'
j .
nyl oils containing from 42 to 54%1'0'1’ chlorine and carbon. .
have been found useful for this purpose, these . ' In the preparation of‘ my improved dielectric
30 products possessing a fairly good/dielectric con . I prefer to mix together varying proportions of
stant an low T'power factor and high electrical diphenyl together with the kdistilledhigh boiling
compounds obtained as above and chlorinate
resistivity.
,
'
j
'
I have now'discovered that the capacity of the mixture by passing in chlorine gas. Rapid
electrical devices such as condensers can be ma-‘ and e?icient chlorination can be effected by the
addition of a small amount of iron or iron chlo35 terially improved by the use of certain chlori
nated‘high boiling diary] compounds either alone
or admixed with chlorinated diphenyl. The high
boiling compounds which vI prefer to employ are
produced as a by~product during the thermal
40 synthesis of diphenyl from benzol. I have also
'-
'
a
The composition obtained by my invention may
also be used alone or together with other ingre-.
50 dients as a cooling medium’ for transformers,
~
30
-
35
ride to the mixture of hydrocarbons'
~
when the'chlorination has reached the desired
degree the product is distilled preferably in vacua .
until it' has .almost completely distilled overs’
Yields on distillation in theuneighborhood of 95%’
may be expected. Considerable bene?t is ob
discovered that the density of the resulting chlo
tained by the addition» of small amounts of lime
rinated product containing the high boiling com
pounds is appreciably lower than that. of the 'to the distilling ?ask, which addition serves to
chlorinated diphenyl itself, the lowerdensity be . prevent traces of‘ iron chloride or hydrochloric
ing advantageous in decreasing the weight of acid from coming over during distillation, thus
yielding a lighter colored product of considerably
material utilized and hence, the weight of the ?n
ished condenser.
25
better electrical resistivity.
40'
.
’
45
'
g
In the application of my invention to metallic
foil condensers I may build the pack of alternate _
sheets of metallic foil and! paper. The pack is
then carefully dried preferably in a vacuum and
sulating oils are commonly used, and which have , while still hot "and in~the vacuum impregnator
my improved dielectric insulating liquid is admit- elements charged during operationJ to a
ted. Penetration of the dielectric liquid into the ‘
ence of electrical potential.
,
switches and-other electrical devices where in
differ;
I The high boiling compounds which I employ
interior of the packmay be aided somewhat by 55
2,070,268
admixed with 80% of diphenyl and the mixture
the application of pressure on the liquid impreg
nant after sufficient time has been given to .expell
most of the air by the vacuum treatment. By
chlorinated to a viscosity of 47.5 seconds, the
dielectric constant of the distilled product will
have increased 0.26 unit over that of diphenyl,
choosing a‘composition of suitable viscosity and
correctly determining'the time of impregnation
'an increase of over 6%. Compare compositions
by trial a satisfactory uniform penetration may
4 and ‘7.’ If 50% of distilled, high boiling com
pounds be admixed with 50% of diphenyl and
be had.
'
the mixture chlorinated to a viscosity of 48.8 sec
onds, the dielectric constant will be over 12%
The composition and properties of my new
composition are illustrated‘in the following Table
greater than that possessed by chlorinated di
10 I. _ By way of comparison the properties of two
‘samples of chlorinated diphenyl arepincluded in
this table.
__
-
phenyl of similar viscosity. >
1
10
‘
It will be appreciated that variation in the sev.
eral properties of these compositions is of impor
_.
Table I
tance for in some applications it will be found
Hydrocarbon
compositions
Dis-
.
tilled
Di-
20
that viscosity of the material is of importance, 15
in others that density is important, and in others
Properties of dielectric
high
Viscosity
\
'
Speci?c
_
.
, that the dielectric constant is important.
While I have described my invention in several .
.
Dielectric
forms, it will be obvious to those skilled in the
art that it is not so limited, but is susceptible of 20
various other changes and modi?cations without
departing from -the'spi'rit thereof, and I desire,
therefore, that only such limitations shall be
placed thereupon as are imposed by the prior art
or as are specificalr?set forth in the appended
claims.
(111133‘ sec. Say- gravity @3332?
phenyl boiling wntem
'
com-
pounds
Percent Percent Percent
bolt at
210° F.‘
at
a (10m "
65°l65° C.
'1
eye es)
-
0
' 100
23. 9
63
1.251
0
80
100
2c
40. 3
41. 2
290
35. 7
1. 405
1. 352
4. 35
4. 98
4. 87
80
' 20
52. 2
47. 5
L 490
4. 56
50
50
42. 0
48. 8
L 383
4. 84
50
50
36.4
40.8
1.324
4.89
Properties of chlorinated diphenyl
30
7_____ _-
100
o
64.0
46.0
1. 52a
8_-__.-_
100
0’
42. 0
34.0'
1.380
What I claim is:
.
. "11.301
~
1. A dielectric medium comprising a chlori-v
nated mixture of diphenyl and complex hydro
carbons having a higher boiling point than di 30
phenyl and produced in the pyrolysis of benzol,
said mixture having a' chlorine content up to
4. 80 ' 52.2% and the proportion of complex hydrocar
bons therein to diphenyl varying from 20% to
35
The possibilities of the invention will be appar
ent from the above table.
'
400%.
2. A dielectric medium comprising chlorinated
35
Among other things it will be apparent that if complex hydrocarbons mixed-with chlorinated
"a dielectric of low speci?c gravity is desired it is ‘ diphenyl, said complex hydrocarbons having a
boiling point above that of diphenyl and having
preferable to use the‘ distilled high boiling com
been produced'by the pyrolysis of benzol, said 40
40 pounds without admixture of diphenyl.
By comparing compositions 1 and 7 in the above chlorinated mixture of hydrocarbons and diphena
table it will be seen that in this manner a decrease yl containing up to 50% of chlorinated diphenyl,
of 17.8% in speci?c gravity is obtained without a' and the chlorinated mixture having a. Saybolt
viscosity between 40 and 290 seconds at 210° F.
sacri?ce in the dielectric properties.
HUGH BRYSON GLASS.
45
If 20% of distilled high boiling compounds is
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