close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2070596

код для вставки
Feb. 16, 1937.
D, w, HANSEN
2,070,596
"MANUFACTURE OF LAMINATED FILMS
Filed Dec. 11, 1935
"4
1
[As/LY STQ/PPA BLE HLM
-
n/
‘
As Of Caz UL 055 [5 75/? [3/455 _.
>
% 6"
SECOND Hm AS OF P/POLAM/NE
BASE C/asr o/v CELL (/1. 05E [5?"
1,4
G
i5
5/? f7LM,/l/JH£/2E/vr 7745/95 7'0,A/VD
0
LAss
METAL
UNITED To 1r AFTER _\57'/?/PP/NG
E’
‘
‘
h‘
A
v
SURFACE
,
I
/
/
J1
I
/
lg
10
r
'
'
fAs/LY STIQIP/JABLE
F/LM As 0F CELLULOSE
£5 TEE BASE
11/.
%'3
14
~
11 j
‘
'
F/uv
B‘
F/LM A
/
/
10
v
'
‘
~
Ewe 72.2‘04 '
’
2,070,596
Patented Feb. 16, 1937
UNITED‘ STATES PATENT AOFFICE?‘75.1.15“.
2,070,596
MANUFACTURE OF. LAMINATED FILMS
Ill., assignor, by
Donald W. Hansen, Decatur,
to Prolamine Products
,
mesne
assignments,
Incorporated, Dover, vDel., ‘a corporation of . '
Delaware
‘ Application December 11, 1933, Serial No. 70l,865?
'1 Claims. (Cl. 18-57)‘
the following description and explanation of ‘the
The present'invention relates to the manufac
ture of ?lms and has particular reference to the
casting of ?lms on smooth surfaces. -
invention.
‘
-
V
‘
'
7
In the accomp‘anyingdrawing there is shown
diagrammatically a representation of the inven-'
I
Itls a custom in making ?lms to flow‘ a liquid
.5 or viscous mixture onto a smooth surface where
tion and the process.
‘
'
' " »
Fig. 1 represents a casting surface of cellulose
the mass sets, as for example by the evaporation ' ester ?lm itself cast on and remaining unstripped»
of a solvent. Sometimes glass is used, other
from a solid smoothsurfaced body.
times polished metal, and sometimes mercury.
The latter is particularly necessary where the
dried or set ?lm is adherent to solid surfaces such
as‘ glass or metal. The selection of the solid
1
s
second ?lm has been cast thereon, and also shows
the united ?lms being stripped from the solid
surface material is in part predetermined by the
tendency of a particular. ?lm composition to.
adhere in the forming process.
15
'
Fig. 2 represents the cast of Fig. 1 after a "
Films so formed are ' thereafter frequently
coated with a surfacing composition to give to the
body.v
‘
h
'
Fig. 3 represents the form of Fig. '2 with a third
?lm applied before the stripping operation.v '
In carrying out the invention a smooth sur
faced bodyof glass,.povlished metal or stone may
be employed as asolid cast. This may be ?at
ultimate sheet certain properties which are not ' as a plate for making sheets or curved as a cylin
exhibited by the body of the ?lm. As an example
of such coating, reference is made to the practice‘
of applying a waterproo?ng nitrocellulose lacquer
20 to a regenerated cellulose to form what is com
mercially recognized as “waterproof cellophane”.
der for forming continuous sheets, or some suit
able form from which a non-adherent ?lm cast‘ 20
thereon'may be stripped without destroying “the
continuity of the ?lm. In the drawing a ?at
form l0 is'illustrated. Onto the cast“) I form
The present invention relates to the formation ' a ?lm of ‘any suitable material, necessarily char;
of such a multiplex ?lm, and has‘ particular
utility in casting ?lms which have a tendency to
adhere to a casting surface, or in other words
which do not readily strip from a casting surface.
The invention ‘calls for the formation of a ?lm
2
which does strip readily from a casting surface,
acterized by ability to strip readily from the 25
cast l0. A very'thin or thick ?lm may be formed,
and it may be formed by setting of a mass, or by
the evaporation of a solvent from a solution ap
plied to the surface ll of cast lit. The ?lmis ‘
designated i2 and its surface is designated IS. 30
30 thus to provide by such ?lm a new'casting sur- - The coated cast I0 thus forms a new cast forthe
face onto which another ?lm may be cast.
The general object of the invention is the
formation of a strippable ?lm on a casting sur
face, and the casting on said ?lm of a second ?lm,
35 and stripping the two ?lms together from the
second ?lm and a new casting surface l3. _
Onto the new casting surface I3 I form a second
?lm [4 characterized by ability to adhere to the
?lm l2. The new ?lm H may be set from a mass 35
applied, or may be formed by applying a solution
to the‘surface l3- and evaporating solventfrom
A particular object of the invention is the the
solution. In the latter event, the solvent may
casting of a ?lm-forming’ composition, which
be such as to soften or partially dissolve the ma
normally adheres to a casting surface, upon a terial
of ?lm l2, but this is not necessary» if ad-_
which is readily '
herence is otherwise obtained or naturally results I
4 O preformed unstripped cast ?lm
strippable from its casting surface.
‘from the nature of \ the materials.
'
I
A further object of the invention is the forma
‘When the new? or second'?lm I4 is dried the
tion of a casting surface for ?lms in the form of
casting surface.-
, i
a strippable unstripped ?lm.
45
‘
Still another object of the invention- is the
casting of a prolamine base ?lm onto a strippable
unstripped?lm of cellulose ester base.
A further object of the invention is the forma
tion of a duplex ?lm of which one layer is‘ a
50
prolamine base ?lm.
v
I
‘
Still another object of ,the invention is the
formation of a triplex ?lm of which the inner
' layer is a prolamine base ?lm.
7
Various other and ancillary objects and ad
65 vantages of the invention will be apparent from
‘
two ?lms, whichare now united, may be stripped
as one‘?lm from the solid cast Hi. -i The product
is a duplex ?lm with layers of differentama
terials'on the two-sides.‘
‘ ;
I
I
I
If desired a third layer l5 may be appliedito
layér l4 before thestripping operation as shown
in Fig. 3. The third layer may bethe sameor 50
different from the ?rst layer l2. It is :pre-‘
ferred to make it the same as the ?rst ?lmso
that the‘ resulting triplex product may have a '‘
heavy middle layer as a body, and similar thin‘
coating layers for special surface properties. In 55 V‘
2,070,596
v the drawing the three layers are designated ?lm
used for proo?ng compositions to be applied to
p In actually carrying out the invention I have
applied it by using as ?lm B a prolarnine base
hol, which is a ‘quick solvent for zein, or it will
prolamine ?lms already ‘formed and stripped, it
is advisable to omit ethyl alcohol or other-alco
cause the zein ?lm tostretch and curl, Thus,
where'?lm C isto be appliedv to ?lm B, itis
and have a- tendency .to adhere to glass, polished, .1 preferred to'apply the composition for ?lm C
?lm,‘ asof zein, hordein or gliadin. .Such ?lms
,may be formed from aqueous alcoholic solution .
’ 5 metal, etc.
' '
' beforethe stripping operation. . ‘In suchcase the
I~ havefound, howeverpthatthe
"precaution as to the alcohol need not be so
tendency o'fprolamine solutions, to adhere in ?lm
formation, is dependent upon’ many’factors, and
fully, observed.
,
10'
The character of 501- 1 " Prolamine ?lm.—For the prolarnine ?lm I may
is not easily'predictable.
> ' vent,'the concentration, the presencef'of'plastiéi
cize'rs,,'the presence of anti-blushing'agents and
use zein,ehordein_or .gliadin bases. Using zein,
the following composition‘ is suitable. To '75 .
of. other modifying agents, the ‘characterof the parts by weight of 12% zein solution in a solvent
casting surface, the temperature of drying, ,etc.-,_ ‘consisting: of‘ f 70%' of ' ethyl ‘alcohol and
are all. factors affecting this property of ad 30%v of water,“ orv to any equivalent solution/I
herence or 'ofstripplng a formed ?lm.” ’
may add a leveling solvent, preferably loeparts'by ‘
v- I,
I‘ have also found that ?lm-forming prolarnine ‘weight, suchas ethylene glycol monoethyl ethen' .
base solutions which do and which do not‘ strip’ As aplasticizer'I may add 2 parts by weight of
easily‘have thepower of adhering to othercast dibutyl‘tartrate._ 'As an anti-blushing agent, I
?lms, particularly to cellulose ester‘ base ?lms. ‘ may add on the basisof zein 2% .to 3%,of ma- ,
,Thisis more particularlytruewhen the cellulose terial such‘ as monoethanolamine salt or monopro'e
esterebase ?lm contains material, preferably the panolamine salt, such as an acetate or lactate
cellulose ester base itself, which-islsoftened by salt. In addition there is added aprotein‘ ?xative 25
"or which‘ is soluble in solvent material v‘used. in " suchas 2.5.parts by weight of 37%Vformaldehyde ]
the ?lm-forming prolaminesolutioni. ‘
,_
‘ solution, or-a small quantity of glyoxal._f'I'his'~
_
composition may be spread to dry onto’ the ?lm
In'practice, therefore, Iiuse a cellulose ester
base ‘film as a casting surface for ‘a prolamine .
base ?lm“ I prefer a cellulose ester‘?lm‘ which
gives valuable surface properties to the resulting
product.
‘
“
'
'
'7
‘
., \The following formulasare suitable for ?lm A5
’
‘
I
Formula
No.-1fr
‘Y
"
A._to form ?lm B.. >
E
.f'
‘
‘ j
In the above description it is to be understood
that many variations of the zein solution are per-v 30
mitted, and some of these arefgiven in, full in my
copending application Serial No.v 701,863,‘ ?led
December 11, 1933; All _ the disclosures for
prolamine base compositions.thereinfgiven are
Parts by weight “hereby incorporated by reference in“ this appli
'
35 Alcohol soluble cellulose nitrate_i_____v _______
_. 1
cation.-
'Ethyleneglycol monoethyl ether.‘ ____ _'_____‘_ 1,0
Ethyl alcohol ______ _; _____ __'__,____ __~ ____ __v_. 90 ‘
,r'forma'laNoJ
‘
‘ ' Parts by weight
I’
.7
;
.
'
V
p
agent such as formaldehyde aids in producing a
strippable ?lm, yet its use is not to. assure strip
pabi1ity.. When ?xing agentfis not usedit is
'vusually impossible to strip a ?lm from the casting '
surface. Therefore, when a prolarnine base ?lm
Ethyl lactate ‘____' ________ __j_
B isto be cast onto a strippable ?lm. A, adherence
. Acetone . .Le _________ _'_ ____ _;- ____________ __ 90
of .B to A may be increased by reducing‘ the quan
4‘5'These solutions may'bel; applied onto glass, tity
of ?xing agent even to the point of omission;
polished metal and the like, and ‘will dry in about It'istherefore readily apparent that "film A need 45
5 minutes at 125° F. The examples show quick not contain substance soluble in or. softened'by
dryingsolvents such as alcohol and acetone, and solvent used in. the forming composition fora
4.0vCellulose
-,
a
acetate ______ __'__; ___________ _>____
I' .V
.
In the example above given the-use of, ?xing
~11
' ‘also slowly volatile high-boiling solvents.¢'Upon
prolarnine
?lm
B.‘
‘
=
'
.
.
a
-
'
,
.'
lossof the highly volatile solvent‘about, ‘10.%¥of ,
Theys'olutions used for prolarnine contain‘con
the-original solution remains as adry solid. It '. siderable water. ' Since prolamines are not soluble
(is set and non-tacky but is not a strong-tenuous in water or in alcohol, but only in aqueous alcohol, - ‘
?lm. inasmuch as it has only about 10% ester'in
' its, vmake-up. The'rest is .plasticizing solvent
55 whichcan be lost by seasoning or" further ex
it is necessary to guard the solvent for prolarnine
from dilution to such extent that it becomes a
n0n-solvent.- Thus, the'strippable film is first‘ 55
posure. Presence of some of this higher boiling dried to assure that residual solvent contenti
solvent assures strippability 'of the ?lm, vbut therein does not alter theeprolamine solvent and
not until it is‘ reinforced by the ‘?lm to be cast precipitate prolarnine at theinterface. Another
‘upon it.l- .It-does not matter what composition ‘advantage of dryness for the strippable-?lm lies
the ?lm has, because, the essential requirement ‘ in the fact that the dry ?lmis more slowly af 60
isiits strippability. The solution is preferably
applied to' form‘ a?lm about “0,00905t9 0.0001
4' ' . ‘inch in thickness. ‘Ifit is too;thin,;.it_mayldissolve'
fected or penetrated by solvent of thevprolarnine, ‘
compared to a still-wet strippable ?lm.
I'claim':
‘
.
‘ in’the solvents of the applied,p'rolaminecompo-v a 1. The method of forming .aprolaminebase
- 65*’ sition. .It‘i‘sto be understood thatthethickness . ?lm with a. surface coat thereon which comprises 65
ofr-the ?lm above speci?ed is given .only by way forming a dry solid strippable ?lm of cellulose
of'example, and is not ‘to 'belconsidered. as any ester base’ on a solidv casting body‘ with a surface,
: ‘essential limitation. ‘Formula ‘No.7 1, is preferred ifromvwhich the said ?lm may be readily stripped,
‘ forFthe-prolarnine compositions hereinafter given
I .70
casting av prolarnine base ?lm'onto said ?rst
formed ?lm in ‘adhesive union thereto,'and strip 70
covery system may be employed; _ Proo?ng agents‘ - ping the, united ?lms asa single body from the
because both’have‘the samesolvents andgone re
may, beadded to the formulas, ‘as by following
solid casting body.
.
'
.
'
2. The ‘method of forming a prolamlne base
a’ the general disclosures of the Charch and Prlndle .
' U; S. Patents Nos. 1,826,697’ to"1,826,699. Where ?lm with a surface coat thereon which comprises
75 ‘formulas like those" of Charch and Prindle are... forming‘ a dry solid strippable ?lm of cellulose
3
9,070,598
ester base on a solid casting body with a surface
from which the said ?lm may be readily stripped,
casting a prolamine base ?lm onto said ?rst
taining prolamine solvent, evaporating the solvent
from the third ?lm, and stripping the united ?lm
as one body from the solid casting body.
5. The method of forming a zein base ?lm with
formed ?lm in adhesive union thereto, forming ’
a third, ?lm of cellulose ester base on said a surface coat thereon which comprises forming
prolamine base ?lm in adhesive union thereto, a dry solid strippable ?lm of alcohol-soluble
and stripping the united ?lms as a single body nitrocellulose base on a solid casting body with
a surface from which the said ?lm may be readily
from the solid casting body.
3. The method of forming a prolamine base ' stripped, coating an alcoholic solution of zein
base ?lm-forming composition onto said nitro
10 ?lm with a surface coat thereon which com
prises forming on a surface ‘of a solid casting cellulose ?lm, drying out the volatile solvent of
body a dry solid strippable ?lm of cellulose ester said zein composition, and stripping the resulting
base which is softened by or soluble in an alcohol
solvent, the casting surface of said body being
15 such as to permit stripping said ?lm without de
stroying the continuity thereof, casting onto said
?lm a ?lm-forming solution of prolamine base
and alcohol solvent which is a softener or solvent
for said cellulose ester base, drying out the solvent
20 whereby to form a prolamine base ?lm in ad
united ?lms together as one body from the solid o
casting body.
6. The method of forming a zein- base ?lm with 15
a surface coat thereon which comprises forming
a dry solid strippable ?lm of alcohol-soluble nitroé
cellulose base on a solid casting body with a sur
face from which the said ?lm may be readily stripped, coating an alcoholic solution of zein 20
base ?hn-forming composition onto said nitro
cellulose ?lm, drying out the volatile solvent of
said zein composition, casting on the zein ?lm a
the solid casting body.
'
4. The method of forming a prolamine base (third ?lm of base composition different from the
?lm with a surface coat thereon which comprises zein base ?lm, and stripping .the resulting united 25'
forming on a surface of a solid casting body a‘ ?lms together as one body from the solid casting
dry solid strippable ?lm of cellulose ester base
hesive union with the cellulose ester base ?lm,
and stripping the united ?lm as one'body from
which is softened by or soluble in an alcohol
solvent, the casting surface of said body being
30 such as to permit stripping said ?lm without de
stroying the continuity thereof, casting onto said
film a ?lm-forming solution of prolamine base
and alcohol solvent which is a softener or solvent
for said cellulose ester base, drying out the solvent
35 whereby to form a prolamine base ?lm in ad
hesive union with the cellulose ester base ?lm,
forming a third ?lm by casting on the prolamine
base ?lm a cellulose ester base composition con
7. The method of forming a zein base ?lm with
a surface coat thereon which comprises forming
a dry solid strippable ?lm_ of cellulose acetate 30
base on a solid casting body with a surface from
which the said ?lm may be readily stripped, coat
mg a solution of zein base ‘?lm-forming composi- -
tion onto said cellulose acetate ?lm, drying out
the volatile solvent of said zein composition, and 35
stripping the resulting united ?lms together as
one body from the solid casting body.
a
'
DONALD W. HANSEN.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
532 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа