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Патент USA US2072381

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l @ïarch 2, i937.
Filed June 8, 1954
ì 2 Sheets-Sheet l
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Filed June 8, 1954
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Parenteel Mer. 2, i937
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‘Application June s, 1934>.'_seríe11ve 129,569- _
concime.J (diei-_18) '
My invention relates te devices providing ’joints ,eventually forming cone-shaped -spaces in the '
between contiguous ~edgesy oi' slabs or other con ~-Ã concrete preventing the bars from functioning.
crete sections, andlmore particularly’it relates to
Among the objects of the invention is the pro-V _
i what are commonly Vknov'vn as expansion and
vision of improved devices adapted to provideA ~
‘expansion spaces between the slabs; to transfer 5
In "highway pavements 'and
4concrete loads transversely from one slab to another across "
` constructions, it is common' practice to providel the intervening spaces; to preserve" thé true
devices at predetermined spaced apartintervals. .alignment of the pavement surface; to eliminate
-between which concrete is poured. such devices _jar-or shock fromV or _to vehicles passingioveil
5 contraction longitudinal joints.
- 10 thereby forming expansion vand contraction joints
' to minimize cracking which would otherwise re
the joints; to 'prevent passage ofwater and for- 10
eign material from the pavement into the joint‘f,
\. sult from contractionof `the masonry in__c'old
spaces'and »to the sub-base; and _to seal the _joint
`weather and also eliminating the tendency to, 'spaces against inñltration _of soiland foreign
_ 'buckle which. otherwise results from expansionV matter from the sub-base. _
15 in‘warm weather. No load can be transmitted
.Still another- object of- the _invention is the 15_
: provision of structural devices of the kind Vcie-»_r
` ¿ from one slab toanothe'i; through the spaces be
tween contiguous slabs ¿unless some means'is es
pecially. provided for that' purpose. The pave
scribed, _adapted to provide expansion `and con-~
Y traction joints which are durable, simple andI ,
ment deteriorates more_rapidly_ adjacent the inexpensive, easily installed and satisfactory for' _ ‘
20 joints than _at intermediate points because of 1 their intended purposes..
the heavy concentrated. loads to~which modern.
Many'of the objects _and 'advantages of the o
highways are subjected and alsobecause of the
inadequacy vof present joint structures as means
for carrying loa'ds _from one slab’to another
__ 25 across the joint spaces.
- 2
construction herein shown and described will be
obvious to those skilled in the art from the dis
closures hereìn given.
This deterioration is
*_ _` _.
To 'this end, my `'invention _consists of the novel 25
construction and arrangement and combination
« due primarily t'o` the yielding. of -the* sub-base
_ immediately underlying vthe edges' of the slabs of parts herein shown and described and more
carrying .the 'undistributed Awheel loads. The _. particularly shown in the claims.
yielding of the sub-base 'subjects the slabs- to
Referring now to _the drawingsz'V i'
_ 3b stresses causing them to crack and disintegrate ` .,Fig. I is a diagrammatic View of a highway 30
adjacent the joints andV in the course of time' pavement providing devices embodying the prin
the joints becomelow points in the otherwise _ ciples of thebinvention shown in Figs. `2_ to 5,
'smooth surface of the pavement. Even though «
the slabs ‘remain- intact under heavy loads, the
35 load carryinglslab and its underlying sub-base
yield noticeably -under the ,undisia'ibuted load
Fig. 2 is a sectional view along the_1ine_2-2_
of Fig. 1, drawn to a'. larger scale; _ -
Fig. 3 is a perspective view. of `the device shown
while the adiacent’lslab is not depressed. The - in cross-sectionin
advancing wheels thereby suddenly contact the
Fig. 4; is a cross-sectional view through ade
undepressed adjacent slabs, resulting in a shock vice adaptedeither as a longitudinal or- a con40 to the vehicle and slab and' abrasion-of -the ex
posed -edg'e of the ‘forward slab so contacted.- .
The intermittent overloading ofthe sub-base
on -each side of the joint tends to cause the sub-`
base material'to ilow and force its way upwardly
45 into thejoint space andl interfere with the efii
cient functioning ofthe joint lto permit expan
traction joint;
Fig. 5 is a view along the line 4-4 of Fig. '1,
. drawn to a larger scale;
' Fig. 6 is a plan view. partially in section, of an
alternative form of construction providing a lon
extending' joint;
Fig. 'I is a View along the line _l5-I5 of Fig. 6,
_sion of the slabs. The use of devices such _as_ _ showing the construction as embedded in a slab.
Referring now more particularly to the draw
dowel bars to transmit loads _from one slab‘to-
another through the jointspace has proven un
_59 satisfactory because of the >relatively low
Fig. 2 .shows in cross-section a preferred con-A 50
Avalue of concrete and the tendency of such bars» structionadapted to form a space 2| and to proto produce high compressive stresses at the >iîaces vide an _expansion and load transmittingv joint
‘of the concrete, resulting in horizontal planes
55 of cleavage or‘in crushing _the concrete and
'- between concrete slabs 20.I A rigid plate 22 ex
tending the full length of the 'joint _closes the
space 2| at the bottom. The plate 22 maybe 55
reinforced, if desired, >by longitudinal and/or -through the plate 22 into the bars 32 embedded
transverse ribs. Plates 23 and 24, constructed of in the adjacent slab and the over-hanging por
relatively thin" metal, provide side walls abutting tion of the plate, thereby maintaining the sur-f
the adjacent ends of theslabs 20. A plurality oi.' ` faces of the slabs lconstantly in alignment. The
lengths of corrugated plates 55 are provided to slabs in expanding and contracting carry with
hold the plates 23 and 24 in spaced apart vertical them the plates 23 and 24. The prescribed cori
relation _while the concrete is being poured. The kstruction of the seal plate 21v is such> that the
plates 55 are fastened to the plates 23 and 24 by corrugation- 28 yields to permit contraction and
_ screws or bolts 55. The lower end of the plate 24 expansion of the slabs due -to temperature
is turned outwardly and rests upon and projects changes. The plates 23 and-24 maybe made oi'
beyond the plate 22 to provide an. apron forming any sheet metal and should the same disintegrate
a clearance space 25 between the slab and the ~ by corrosion, the plate 22 will continue to _function >
Sub-base Il. The bottom of the plate 23 is also as a seal for .the bottom of the space 2| and the
-tln'ned outwardly, resting upon and projecting
15 beyond the other edge of the plate 22 to >provide
an apron- forming a clearance space 25.
'I'he upper portion of the Ajoint space 2| is
plate 21 will similarly function throughout the
normal life of the pavement.
A modified form of construction is shown in
Fig. 4 wherein plates 38a and 39h aremounted
sealed by a member 41 comprising bituminous on the plate 24 and form side walls for the adja- .
material. 'Ihe member 41 is carried, by a plate ’ cent slabs. This construction is adapted to pro
20> 217 forming an additional seal for the top of the „ videv contraction joints. and also is adapted as a
space 21|. The plate 21 ispreferably constructed longitudinal joint by omitting the oval apertures
of noncorrosive metal, and has its >mid-portion 35 and substituting circular apertures of normal
diameter. The lower portions of the plates 38a
forming a trench 28,_fprojecting‘downwalrd1y be
tween the plates 23 and 24.' lThe plate 21, adja
25 cent the trench 28, extends laterally beyond the
plates 23 and 24 to form members 29 projecting
and 38h are' positioned in contact and the upper"
portion of the joint is sealed by a plate 21 and a 25
bituminous member 41, in the same manner as
into' the adjacent ‘concrete slabs.- The plate 21' described for the construction shown in Fig. 2.
extends downwardly and inwardly from the mem- ' This construction provides for -a hlnge'action of
' bers 29 -into contact with the adjacent plates 23 -the slabs 20 about the plate 24 as the slabs ex
and 24 and has its edge portions bent outwardly. pand or contract along the joint. The bars 32,
and slightly upwardly to form ilanges 30. The embedded in the slabs on each side of the joint,
edges of .the ñanges 30 provide'beads 3Í which are provided as reinforcement for the slabs and
are' ope?ativelyuengaged by clips 26, integrally
to transmit loads .from one section of the` slab
formed with theplates 23 and 2_4 by cutting the to- the other.
Fig."5 is a view of another form of construc
latter along' closely 'spaced lparallel lines and
bending the interveningn material outwardly as vtion adapted as a longitudinal. joint. A single
shown. Pressure exerted Vv’upon the member 41 plate 31 has its lower portion turned outwardly
will force the projections 29 outwardly into con- - and resting upon one edge of .the plate 24 and its
tact withY the slabs, and any foreign material that upper edge terminating near the top of the slab.
40 might possibly work down between` the member B_ars 32 are embedded in the slab 20 on each side 40
p 41 and into the trench28 will- further tend to, of ,the joint and are ñ'xedly fastened to the ‘plate
; maintain the members 29 in closelyspaced posi- , 24, thereby preventing expansion 'of the bottom '
relative to the slabs. The- ilanges 30 are portion of the slab and permitting a hinge actionl
embeddedrin the concrete a ’substantial amount , about lthe plate 24 as the slab contracts and ex
and combine with the members 29 to provide a ' pands. A'plat'e 63 having its middle.A portion
forming a close foldfis mounted on the upper
double seal making -it impossible for any mois
ture or. foreign material toA enter the space be
tween the plates 23 and 24 or the. slabsand the
_ plates `from the top of the pavement.'A
A plurality of bars 32 embedded- in the slab's
2l provide reinforcement for the slabs ,and also
provide means_for transmitting loads y(from one
slab to another- through' the plate 22. The lower
ends of the bars 32v are threaded and -project'V
through oval apertures 35 formed in the plate 22
edge of the. plate 31 with its edges -_ forming
iianges projecting substantially into the concrete
on: each side. As the slab contracts, it will crack-
along its upper surface in‘ a _line _coinciding with
the plane of the plate 31. The folded portion of
‘the plate 63 yields as the upper portions of the
, slab separate and provides a seal preventing sur
face moisture from passing below the plate. The
cracks thus formed in the surface of the slab 55
may be filled with bituminous material. By pro
device, the bars~32 are fastened tothe plate 22v -viding the.ova1 apertures si indicated in‘dotted ’
between upper collars sa. threaded to _the position' lines, the construction of Fig. 6_will function as '
shown and nuts 3_4 and washers 3B on the >under .a contraction joint. ¿Thepconstruction `of Figs.
von opposite sides of the joint. In assembling the
side of the plate. >As the slabsrZIl expand or . 4 and `5 perform the same functions, except that
contract the bars 32 are correspondingly> moved- of Fig. 4l does not require subsequent filling with
` in the'apertnres 35 leaving the plate 22 _station- j bituminous material and also provides more per- '
ary. The bars 32-are inclined upwardly and out- ' fect
wardly away from the joint in the'general direc- - ' It
hinge action.
will be noted that the loadf-receiving'and
tion of the resultant of the stresses inthe slab. 'load-transmitting- rigid 'plate 22 is a relatively 65
The bars are" shown as providing loops with .heavy and therefore a permanent, structural ele-_
ment having a- width suilicient Íto underlie the
tally a 'short distance ben'ath the upper surface adjacent ends ofthe two slabs toan extent ade
The loopsmaybe' omittedandv ` quate to .receive the load ¿imposed vertically upon
end 'without possibility of 70
70 anchors 32 used slnslyylith a nut 34 and washers vthe overlying
33 and 33. The
either looped or single causing rupture' of the slab. The exact lateral
may’havea head upset on their lower ends in » dimension 'of this'plate, at right angles to the ,
stead ofbeing,threaded and-using nuts. Ob-Y joint, will, of course, be dependent upon the loads
' their intermediate portion: _extending horizon
either-‘of the slabswill be which are to be imposed upon the slab, and, as
„carried downwardly and. a portion
. will be'readily understood by any .competent en
I 2,072,881 -
gineer, may be -determined by proper computa
provideadditional anchorage. -~"Upon contraction
Y o tions according to' methods well understood.
. of the‘slab a crack will form along the line im
_ Referring to Fig. 2, and supposing a- vertical mediately above the plate 62» whichv can be filled t
load to beimposed upon the en_d of a left-hand ,with bituminous material~to provide a water
slab, ïsucha 'load will be'transmitted by the
proof seal. The base portion ofthe construction
left-hand slab verticallyupon the >left-hand yedge ' comprising the angles 65, fastened by the rivets
- of plate 22, thereby imposing a tension upon the
reinforcing element 32 and a compression upon
me under surface of the right-hand slab to the
right .ofthe connection between plate 22 and,y
68, remains intact for allconditions of expansion
or contraction of the joint and eliminates any
possibility ß of; sub-base material entering the
.right-hand reinforcement 32. The lateral ex- ~
Thus, it -will be seen that I_ have provided a
_tent of the right-hand edge of plate 22 should, , novel. construction adapted to form `iloints inv
. therefore, be such that the compression value of - slabs or other concrete sections, and to trans’
the superjacent' slab, with a. proper factor of mit 'loads across the joints from one slab to
safety,îis'not exceeded. 'I'he -size and extent of .
_the reinforcing element 32 is similarly deter
‘ 4Having thus Adescribed my invention', it is lobvi-`
mined by well-known methods. It will also be
readily understood thatthe dimensions of plate
22 and the reinforcing elements 32 must be de
`ous that various immaterial 'modifications may
be made in the same without departing from‘ the
spirit of my invention; hence I_ do not wish
termined in‘v‘lewof the character ofV the sub-_ vto be understood as limiting myself to the exact
` grade, heavier resistance valuesin these elements
form, construction, arrangement andcombina-v
tion o_f parts herein shown and described or use's
being- required where _the subgrade is relatively
It will also beV noted that plate 22 serves to in
25 crease the bearing- of each slab end upon'L1 the t
` subgrade to the extent of the projection of said
.plate beyond that slab end.
It will also be‘not'ed that, in order that the
'.'plate 22 may properly function; in an expansion
What I claim- as new and desire to secure by
, ’
i 25
1. A_joint for concrete slabs comprising a rel- ~
atively-permanent load-carrying structure t0\
substantially underlie adjacent edges of two slabs..
load-transmitting embedibleïmembers.projecting i
joint, it is essential that as to at least one .ofi >upwardly from said load-carrying structure on
' the slab ends there must be a capability of move- . opposite sides of its medial line and each capable
ment of 'plate 22_ relativeto that slab at right
angles to the line of the> joint, and consequently
of transmitting slab _loads 'from the load-carry->
ing structure to the slab in which it is embedded', v
the yconcrete of one of the slabs must not-con
35 tact> the subjacent vertical edge of plate 22,_as ` relatively weak ,non-load-transmitting slabeend
deñning-sheet material supported by said load 35À
indicated at 25 in Fig."_2.
carrying structure' between said embedible mem
1t will. also be noted that because of the slotted'
connection between plate 22 and atleast one
2. A joint for concrete' slabsy comprisingf‘a rel
__ series of the reinforcing elements 32, the amount ’ atively-permanent structure to substantiallyun- ‘
40 of relative movement between plate 22 and the 'd_erlie adjacent edges. vofy two slabs and capable
` superjacent slab is limited.' This l`=is especially ‘of transmitting \ substantial vertically-applied°
'advantageous where a pavement is at a substan
loads, load-transmitting embedible members pro
F tial anglev because it serves to prevent a long
- series of slabs from cumulatively slipping down
hill. »
;lëcting- upwardly and divèrgingly from said load
carrying structure on‘ opposite‘sidesof its medial
line vand capable off transmitting to their re-- . 45
The above analysis of load transfer applied to spective slabsl loads _from thefadjacent slab down
Í the contraction joint illustrated in Figs. Gland ,7. ' wardly applied v»upon said relatively-permanentV
*` Vertical load'on the horizontaly arm of the left structure, slab-end-deñning sheet material supe`
_ hand angle 65 will be taken in `part by the at fported
by said load-carrying structure between
tached right hand angle; and the lëft'hand end said divergent members, and a transversely ex-._
of element 6l will be put under tension.
>lpansible and collapsible |sealing-plate overlying'4
Figs; 6_ and 7 illustrate amodiiied form of con--V said slab-end defining-means_with edge portions
struction, adapted _to provide a longitudinal -‘ _thereof
embedible in adjacent slab ends.
joint, comprising a plate t2 surmounted by a 'cap
3. A joint for concrete slabs of_ the character
plate 6_3. A plurality of >angles 65 are positioned
’ on opposite sides of the plate 62 with their con
-Y tiguous ends overlapping and fastened together
speciiled _in claim 1 wherein theconnection 4be»
tween the load-transmitting embedible members“ '
load-carrying structure to one side of the
yby rivets or bolts 66." 'Ihe horizontal legs'of the. '-¿and
of the load~earrying structure is.
angles G5 project away from the plate 62, and such as line
to permit relative horizontal movement.
4. A joint for~concrete slabs ofthe character 60
`the rivets .or bolts 6_6 oi' a size to edectively pre
specified in claim’Z wherein the connection beÍ
rvent'_spreaf.ìi1îlg 0f the angles as the slab -,con
tween the load-transmitting embedible members ~
tracts. A rod 6l; projecting through the_verti~ and load-carrying structure to one side of the
> cal legs of ' the 'angles-65, at each joint provides
65 a means for transmitting loads from one -side of
the construction to the othe .' The middle por
tion of the rod 3B is V-sha d and prevents the
bottom of the slabs from separatingwhen the
concrete contracts, but permits „the upper portion>
70 of the slab to separate so. that Ythe slab sections
medial line ofthe load-carrying structure is such
as to permit relative horizontal movement. "
‘ 5. A joint for concrete slabsv of the character
speciiled in claim l wherein one edge of the load'
carrying structure is overlaid by a relatively weak- ’ ~
element projecting beyond said edge an amount
suilicient,>_to guard against deposit of' concrete
are'hinged about the lower portion of the con- „ immediately adjacent .said edge.
'I‘he inclination-.òf the V-shaped por- -
6.. A- joint for concrete slabs
tion >of the rods 61 substantially-coincides with - "specined- in claim 2 wherein one
edge of the load
ïthe resultant of the stresses in the slab sections
andl their extremities are preferably _straight to
carrying structure is overlaid by a relatively weak.
, element projecting beyond said edge an amount
2,072,881 '
sui'ßcient to lguard azaiiist deposit of concrete
immediately adjacent said edge.
7. A joint for doliente slabs comprising felo
seid two
to> loed-t?ansmittinz
accommodate vertiœlly-extendinx
elementl'heing rela
A tively weak winload-transmitting sheet materiel
tivelyv permanent load-.carryin'l «structure to l'iib- - lor sieb ènd definition.
«8. A' structure' ot ' the chargqter ,lpeci?ed in
stantially underlie adjacent edges of two slabs.
two upwardly and oppoxitely divergent load»
` transmitting and reinforcing elements carried ‘by '
said load-carrying structure .dnd vertically im
movable relative thereto, one of ssidJOM-tnns»
mitting members being-shittable relative to the
. load-cerrying struoture parallel’to the rslab plane.
Gleim 'I wherein slabfend-dennim sheet materiel
is extended beyond one vertical edle of the load
curyinz/stmeiur'e to guard said edge from i_m- .
medtgteiy e?zbedc/ling concrete.
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