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Патент USA US2076379

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April 5, 1937-
vv. R MARsDl-:N
Filed Feb. 8, 1935
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April 6, 1937.
W. R. MARsDi-:N
Filed Feb. 8, 1955
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented Apr. 6, 1937
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VVìlliam R. Marsden, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Application February 8, 1935, Serial No. 5,543
>4 Claims. (Cl. Z55-19)
This invention relates to new and useful im
provements pertaining to methods of subsurface
construction work, and particularly to those types
used for subsurface foundations where the pres
ence of heavy earth and hydrostatic pressures
complicate the sinking of caissons to stable strata.
Various methods are employed in caisson con
struction. One is the open caisson method where
usually a caisson form or cylinder .is gradually
10 sunk to a firm foundation by a combination of
excavating the earth on the inside of the cylinder
or form by machine or man power, and a forcing
down of the cylinder or form by weight or` other
mechanical means. ‘This type of caisson has a
15 limited field of use.
Another is the pneumatic method where sand
hogs working under air pressure, dig the earth
out at the bottom of the working chamber, which
with its overhead attached caisson penetrates
20 the earth while digging proceeds. Heavy weights
are usually located on top of the caisson to coun
teract compressed air uplift in the caisson and to
overcome frictional resistance to penetration by
contact of the caisson and the earth walls’.
StillA another is` the sol-called mud method,
where a hole is made in the earth by a boring
tool, and a mud content of artificially regulated
consistency is left in the hole until ñnal boring
penetration is reached. This mud content in the
30 unprotected hole aids in preventing excessive
caving in of the earth walls of the hole during the
boring process. When final penetration depth is
reached, the permanent caisson form is forced
through the mud, the mud is removed, the caisson
form is cleaned out, and the concrete is deposited.
It is the object of my invention so to construct
caissons and the like, to reduce the cost and
facilitate the practicing of present caisson meth
ods by the use of a specially designed machine.
The invention is illustrated in the accompany
skilled in the art, and in which a movable plat
form bears on top of the caisson cylinder.
In these drawings, like reference numerals in
dicate like parts throughout the several figures. `
I is a bed frame resting on transporting parts 2 -
such as rollers, skids, caterpillar tractors or the
like. This bed frame supports the operating power
equipment (not shown) or, the power equipment
can be supported on a platform 4. The front edge
of the bed frame I supports a vertical tower on
legs 5 and 6 with the necessary structural bracing
and supports. This tower has a movable platform
4 with sliding guides 20 in contact with legs 5 and
6 so as to permit raising and lowering of the
platform to accommodate its elevation to suit
able operating'conditións. The purposes of this
tower are to support the necessary operating
machinery; to act as a guide for boring and cais
son revolving apparatus, and to rest as a weight
on top of the caisson as an aid in forcing the H
caisson into the earth.
Speed >reduction gearing is used between a
source of power such as a motor (not shown),
and a main gear 9 through which passesa verti-`
cal drive keyed shaft of hollow steel 3. The
shaft is made up of two or more parts, so de
signed as to telescope one within the other for the
purpose of providing a variable boring range. On
the inside of this hollow shaft, a steel cable 'I is
attached at the lower end of the shaft with a 30
swivel connection. The cable runs up through
the center of the shafting to sheaves 8 located on
top of the tower and hence to the engine drum
(not shown).
ing drawings in which
On the lower section of this shafting and inter 35
mediate its length, metal arms I0 are attached
which connect with fittings II fastened to the in~
side of a revolving cylinder I2 or I5 for the pur
pose of transmitting circular motion to the cut
ting edge of the cylinder. These arms are of ad
justable length so as to be adaptable to use in
Fig. 1 shows a side elevation partly in cross
section of the caisson constructor, with the cais
son cylinder and its cutting section in position
and with power hammers bearing on top of the
caisson cylinders of Variable diameters.
A boring tool I3 is attached to the lower end
of shafting 3 to loosen the earth inside the
cylinder. The arms of this boring tool are adjust 45
caisson cylinder;
Fig. 2 shows a caisson cylinder as used with
out a separate cutting section;
Fig. 3 shows a sectional plan view on line I-I
able in lengthI so as to bore the earth over a re
quired radius.
In accordance with my invention >the caisson
cylinder is revolved as a unit consisting of I5,
of Fig. 4;
Fig. 2, or a main cylinder I4 and an auxiliary
Fig. 4 shows a view of the structure illustrated
in Fig. l taken from the front, with sectional view
of the caisson cylinders; and
revolving and cutting cylinder I2 (Fig. 1). 'I‘he
cutting cylinder I2 can be of any desired length,
Fig. 5 shows as much of an arrangement like
Ol Ol the one shown in Fig. 1 as is necessary for one
and of a diameter to allow to the next upper
section of the caisson cylinder I4 vertical play
inside it. On the bottom edge o1’ cylinder I4 Ul
and intermediate its length, metal rings I8 are
provided. At the top edge of cutting cylinder
I2 and intermediate its length metal rings I1
are provided.
These rings act as a seal between
the two caisson cylinder sections; they prevent
separation of the two sections of the cylinder
one from the other, and they act as a pulling
down or a driving down connection for one or
the other of these sections.
I use a combination of methods to cause the
caisson cylinders to penetrate the earth; the cyl
inder I5 may be rotated; the main cylinder I4
may be pulled down by the rotating cutting sec
tion I2; and compressed air hammers I6 acting
15 on top of the cylinder may be used.
In the
special cutting steel may be used, or the cutting
edge may be used in combination with a shot
coring method, where chilled steel shot is intro
duced to the revolving cutting edge of the cylin
der to sever obstructions, so that the interfering
portion can be removed. The cutting edge
grooves a seat for the bottom edge of the caisson
cylinder in the final strata.
When final penetration is reached, the caisson
cylinder is excavated, cleaned out and filled with
I believe my invention to be susceptible of em
bodiment and capable of practice by other means
than those specifically illustrated and described,
and therefore do not intend to be understood as
modification shown in Fig. 5, vthe caisson is limiting it thereto, save as defined in the ap
caused to penetrate the earth by the weight of pended claims.
the platform 4 resting on top of cylinder I4.
What I claim is:
In general, the operations in constructing a»
l. In a machine for subsurface construction
work, a cylindrical caisson having a lower cutting 20
20 caisson by my method are as follows: The caisson
constructor being placed at caisson location, the revolving section and a contiguous upper section,
a limited sliding connection between said sec
caisson cylinder with or without a separate cut
ting section as conditions necessitate, is placed tions, a telescoping hollow shaft for revolving
in position in front of the caisson constructor. the lower section, adjustable metal arms mounted
The boring and revolving apparatus I0 and I3 on s_aid shaft engaging the cutting section, and
a boring tool mounted on the lower end of said
is lowered by shaft 3 to the earth inside the cyl
inder and the arms I0 hooked up to fittings II hollow shaft.
2. In a machine for subsurface construction
on the cylinder. Power is transmitted through
work, a cylinder having an upper and a lower
the gear 9 t0 the drive shaft 3, hence to the cyl
section, a coupling between said sections where 30
30 inder revolving arms I0 and the cylinder, and
to the boring tool I 3. The revolving cutting edge by one will cause vertical displacement of the
of the-cylinder penetrates the earth and at the other, a telescoping shaft projecting through said
same time the boring tool I3, in conjunction with cylinder sections and rotating the lower section,`
water introduced when necessary, loosens the and a vertically movable platform for applying
Vertical force to the upper section.
earth inside the cylinder.
3. In a machine for subsurface construction
Penetration may proceed throughout the length
of the caisson if practical, or the penetration work, a cylindrical caisson, a telescoping hollow
process may be stopped at any point in the shaft for revolving said caisson, and adjustable
metal arms mounted on said shaft and engaging
caisson length, the boring and revolving appa
said caisson.
40 ratus quickly raised by use of the telescoping
4. In a machine in accordance with claim 3,
shafts, and the loosened earth removed by any
and a boring tool mounted on the lower end of
of the excavating methods in common use.
In the penetration of earth, boulders, hardpan
or other obstructions may be encountered.
said telescoping hollow shaft.
45 cylinder cutting edge I9 with a cutting shape of
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