Патент USA US2076379код для вставки
April 5, 1937- vv. R MARsDl-:N 2,076,379 CAISSON Filed Feb. 8, 1935 6’ ’ ’ ` l ' ’ o ‘ ° ì (s . I _ \-‘ , 2 sheets-Sheet 1 Fit] . 1 . 5 n l l y» a ÍNVENTOR _W/¿z Mw l?. »Mms any BY Á TTORNEY April 6, 1937. W. R. MARsDi-:N CAISSON 2,076,379 Filed Feb. 8, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 BY x A TTORNEY Patented Apr. 6, 1937 , _www UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,076,379 CAISSON VVìlliam R. Marsden, Brooklyn, N. Y. Application February 8, 1935, Serial No. 5,543 >4 Claims. (Cl. Z55-19) This invention relates to new and useful im .. provements pertaining to methods of subsurface construction work, and particularly to those types used for subsurface foundations where the pres ence of heavy earth and hydrostatic pressures complicate the sinking of caissons to stable strata. Various methods are employed in caisson con struction. One is the open caisson method where usually a caisson form or cylinder .is gradually 10 sunk to a firm foundation by a combination of excavating the earth on the inside of the cylinder or form by machine or man power, and a forcing down of the cylinder or form by weight or` other mechanical means. ‘This type of caisson has a 15 limited field of use. Another is the pneumatic method where sand hogs working under air pressure, dig the earth out at the bottom of the working chamber, which with its overhead attached caisson penetrates 20 the earth while digging proceeds. Heavy weights are usually located on top of the caisson to coun teract compressed air uplift in the caisson and to overcome frictional resistance to penetration by contact of the caisson and the earth walls’. StillA another is` the sol-called mud method, where a hole is made in the earth by a boring tool, and a mud content of artificially regulated consistency is left in the hole until ñnal boring penetration is reached. This mud content in the 30 unprotected hole aids in preventing excessive caving in of the earth walls of the hole during the boring process. When final penetration depth is reached, the permanent caisson form is forced through the mud, the mud is removed, the caisson form is cleaned out, and the concrete is deposited. It is the object of my invention so to construct caissons and the like, to reduce the cost and facilitate the practicing of present caisson meth ods by the use of a specially designed machine. 40 The invention is illustrated in the accompany skilled in the art, and in which a movable plat form bears on top of the caisson cylinder. In these drawings, like reference numerals in dicate like parts throughout the several figures. ` I is a bed frame resting on transporting parts 2 - such as rollers, skids, caterpillar tractors or the like. This bed frame supports the operating power equipment (not shown) or, the power equipment can be supported on a platform 4. The front edge of the bed frame I supports a vertical tower on legs 5 and 6 with the necessary structural bracing and supports. This tower has a movable platform 4 with sliding guides 20 in contact with legs 5 and 6 so as to permit raising and lowering of the platform to accommodate its elevation to suit able operating'conditións. The purposes of this tower are to support the necessary operating machinery; to act as a guide for boring and cais son revolving apparatus, and to rest as a weight on top of the caisson as an aid in forcing the H caisson into the earth. Speed >reduction gearing is used between a source of power such as a motor (not shown), and a main gear 9 through which passesa verti-` cal drive keyed shaft of hollow steel 3. The shaft is made up of two or more parts, so de signed as to telescope one within the other for the purpose of providing a variable boring range. On the inside of this hollow shaft, a steel cable 'I is attached at the lower end of the shaft with a 30 swivel connection. The cable runs up through the center of the shafting to sheaves 8 located on top of the tower and hence to the engine drum (not shown). ing drawings in which On the lower section of this shafting and inter 35 mediate its length, metal arms I0 are attached which connect with fittings II fastened to the in~ side of a revolving cylinder I2 or I5 for the pur pose of transmitting circular motion to the cut ting edge of the cylinder. These arms are of ad justable length so as to be adaptable to use in Fig. 1 shows a side elevation partly in cross section of the caisson constructor, with the cais son cylinder and its cutting section in position and with power hammers bearing on top of the caisson cylinders of Variable diameters. A boring tool I3 is attached to the lower end of shafting 3 to loosen the earth inside the cylinder. The arms of this boring tool are adjust 45 caisson cylinder; ' Fig. 2 shows a caisson cylinder as used with out a separate cutting section; Fig. 3 shows a sectional plan view on line I-I able in lengthI so as to bore the earth over a re quired radius. In accordance with my invention >the caisson cylinder is revolved as a unit consisting of I5, of Fig. 4; Fig. 2, or a main cylinder I4 and an auxiliary Fig. 4 shows a view of the structure illustrated in Fig. l taken from the front, with sectional view of the caisson cylinders; and revolving and cutting cylinder I2 (Fig. 1). 'I‘he cutting cylinder I2 can be of any desired length, Fig. 5 shows as much of an arrangement like Ol Ol the one shown in Fig. 1 as is necessary for one and of a diameter to allow to the next upper section of the caisson cylinder I4 vertical play inside it. On the bottom edge o1’ cylinder I4 Ul 2 2,076,379 and intermediate its length, metal rings I8 are provided. At the top edge of cutting cylinder I2 and intermediate its length metal rings I1 are provided. These rings act as a seal between the two caisson cylinder sections; they prevent separation of the two sections of the cylinder one from the other, and they act as a pulling down or a driving down connection for one or the other of these sections. I use a combination of methods to cause the caisson cylinders to penetrate the earth; the cyl inder I5 may be rotated; the main cylinder I4 may be pulled down by the rotating cutting sec tion I2; and compressed air hammers I6 acting 15 on top of the cylinder may be used. In the special cutting steel may be used, or the cutting edge may be used in combination with a shot coring method, where chilled steel shot is intro duced to the revolving cutting edge of the cylin der to sever obstructions, so that the interfering portion can be removed. The cutting edge grooves a seat for the bottom edge of the caisson cylinder in the final strata. When final penetration is reached, the caisson cylinder is excavated, cleaned out and filled with concrete. I believe my invention to be susceptible of em bodiment and capable of practice by other means than those specifically illustrated and described, and therefore do not intend to be understood as modification shown in Fig. 5, vthe caisson is limiting it thereto, save as defined in the ap caused to penetrate the earth by the weight of pended claims. the platform 4 resting on top of cylinder I4. What I claim is: In general, the operations in constructing a» l. In a machine for subsurface construction work, a cylindrical caisson having a lower cutting 20 20 caisson by my method are as follows: The caisson constructor being placed at caisson location, the revolving section and a contiguous upper section, a limited sliding connection between said sec caisson cylinder with or without a separate cut ting section as conditions necessitate, is placed tions, a telescoping hollow shaft for revolving in position in front of the caisson constructor. the lower section, adjustable metal arms mounted The boring and revolving apparatus I0 and I3 on s_aid shaft engaging the cutting section, and a boring tool mounted on the lower end of said is lowered by shaft 3 to the earth inside the cyl inder and the arms I0 hooked up to fittings II hollow shaft. 2. In a machine for subsurface construction on the cylinder. Power is transmitted through work, a cylinder having an upper and a lower the gear 9 t0 the drive shaft 3, hence to the cyl section, a coupling between said sections where 30 30 inder revolving arms I0 and the cylinder, and to the boring tool I 3. The revolving cutting edge by one will cause vertical displacement of the of the-cylinder penetrates the earth and at the other, a telescoping shaft projecting through said same time the boring tool I3, in conjunction with cylinder sections and rotating the lower section,` water introduced when necessary, loosens the and a vertically movable platform for applying Vertical force to the upper section. earth inside the cylinder. 3. In a machine for subsurface construction Penetration may proceed throughout the length of the caisson if practical, or the penetration work, a cylindrical caisson, a telescoping hollow process may be stopped at any point in the shaft for revolving said caisson, and adjustable metal arms mounted on said shaft and engaging caisson length, the boring and revolving appa said caisson. ‘ 40 ratus quickly raised by use of the telescoping 40 4. In a machine in accordance with claim 3, shafts, and the loosened earth removed by any and a boring tool mounted on the lower end of of the excavating methods in common use. In the penetration of earth, boulders, hardpan or other obstructions may be encountered. said telescoping hollow shaft. A 45 cylinder cutting edge I9 with a cutting shape of WILLIAM R. MARSDEN.