Патент USA US2077554код для вставки
April 20, 1937. w_ L_ FLElSHER 2,077,554 AIR CONDITIONING APPARATUS Filed April 50, 1932 64 FIG. I 6O 5 65 I, K 62 73 ' 73 63 o L » ' M I WALTER INVENTOR ' Y LQFLEISHER a way ATTORNEY - ‘ Patented Apr. 20, 1937 2,077,554 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE} _ 2,077,554 AIR CONDITIONING APPARATUS Walter L. Fleisher, New York, N. Y. Application April 30, 1932, Serial No. 608,392 2 Claims. (Cl. 261-11) This invention relates to systems and methods amount of heat which must be absorbed by the re for ventilating and air-conditioning and par ticularly to systems for maintaining proper air conditions for human comfort and health._ 5 An object of the invention is to’improve the economy of operation of air-conditioning systems. A further object of the invention is to provide an air-conditioning system which will meet the rigid requirements of systems for household use. 10 In the case of ventilating and air-conditioning for comfort, the problem is not only one of main taining the proper conditions of temperature, humidity and purity of the air within the in frigerating system but also that heat is utilized for the useful purpose of superheating the leav closure being ventilated, but also of maintaining tem when such is used, but also can be operated to take advantage of the inherent economy of cooling by evaporation, and since it reduces the 15 the condition of the circulated air such that it will readily mix with the air in the inclosure without producing disagreeable air currents.- In this respect there are introduced di?lculties not encountered in industrial installations where the 20 circulated air can be intensively conditioned, the chief requirement being that the total mixture in the inclosure should be at the desired condi tion. On the other hand in systems for comfort work the temperature and humidity of the circu 25 lated air must be maintained within a rather de?nite, narrow margin of difference from the | conditions of the air in the room. As a result, there must be employed a large volume of air not intensively conditioned, in order that the mixture 30 in the inclosure be at the desired condition. _ In comfort systems the problem, particularly ‘in the summertime, is one of d'ehumidifying and cooling. In dehumidifying apparatus the air is cooled to a point below the dew point tempera 35 ture of the air to be conditioned so as to precipi tate a part of the water vapor, the leaving air being substantially saturated. In this way the dew point temperature (1. e., the water vapor content of the air) can be accurately regulated ing air so that it is in a proper condition for circulation. _ v - _ In accordance with another feature of this in vention, the air is conditioned in a combined interchanger and washer so arranged that the heats of the air to be conditioned and the air leaving the washer proper are interchanged with out affecting the .water vapor content of the leaving air. This apparatus not only produces . a reduction in the load on the refrigerating sys refrigeration requirements, permits such opera tion under conditions when this would ordi narily be impossible. .Applicant’s arrangement not only superheats 20 the air' leaving the washer chamber but also re duces the wet bulb temperature of the air entering the washer chambers so that the amount-of heat which must be absorbed therein is greatly re duced, thus greatly reducing the load on the refrigerating system. The result is that in the early part of the cooling season, city water which has not yet risen in temperature may be utilized without resorting to arti?cial refrigeration. Further, the system may be used to take ad vantage of the natural economy of cooling by evaporation. ‘In such a method of operation the water is recirculated without refrigeration and the air leaving the washer approaches saturation at the wet bulb temperature of the air entering the washer proper. In the usual type of condi tioner this method of operation can only be em— ployed when the outside wet bulb temperature is at or below the dew point temperature re quired in the house. However, with my system, 40 the total heat of the air and consequently the wet bulb temperature is reduced before'the air dew point temperature required to give the_ enters the washer boxes. Thus, heat is absorbed from the incoming air practically absolute limits of 30 to 70% relative‘ by the air leaving the washer proper, the rate of 45 humidity necessary for comfort conditions dif fers widely in temperature from the air in the heat interchange and consequently the amount of room and will not readily mix therewith. As a heat absorbed being a function of ‘the tempera result the air leaving the dehumidi?er must be ture difference. This temperature difference is a function of the temperature of the air leaving superheated before it can be circulated. 50 In accordance with a feature of my invention, the washer proper which is determined by the advantage is‘ taken of these facts and there is wet bulb temperature of the air entering the.‘ washer proper. Since this wet bulb temperature produced a heat transfer (or interchange) be tween the air entering the dehumidi?er and the is in turn controlled by the heat absorption from leaving air. In this way not only is the air cooled the incoming air, there is produced a cumulative 55 so as to reduce to a very marked extent the effect which is in effect continuous up to an 40 to the point required for the circulated air. At the same time a cooling effect is produced. How ever, the air, being substantially saturated at the 2 2,077,554 ' equilibrium point. The amount of heat inter change produced is of course controlled by the dimensions and length of the interchanger pas Sages and the kind of metal used. 5 Consequently, advantage may be taken of the economy of cooling by evaporation even when the wet bulb temperature of the outside air is considerably above the desired dew point tempera ture. In other words, the conditioner‘ of my in 10 vention operates without the use of refrigeration to give air having a dew point temperature below i the wet bulb temperature of the incoming air. In the larger portion of the temperate zone the atmospheric conditions are such that this method 15 of operation can be utilized throughout a large part of the cooling season. The only operating expense being for the comparatively nominal power consumption of the motors for driving the fans and water circulating pump. In fact for 20 night use it is only very rarely that the wet bulb temperature is far above the dew point tempera ture desired for pleasant cooling. These and other objects and features of the invention will be more apparent from the follow 25 ing description to be read in connection with the accompanying drawing in which: Fig. 1 is a cross sectional view of an embodi— ment of the invention; and ‘ Fig. 2 is a sectional view taken on the line 5—5 ‘ 30 of Fig. 1. Figs. 1 and 2 show an embodiment of the com bination washer-interchanger type air condi tioner of my invention which is particularly suit ed to installations in which space requirements 35 are a controlling factor. This-conditioner is of very compact form and is readily adaptable for use in air conditioning systems for railway cars, for example. 'For such installations, it could be constructed of such size as to be mounted on the 40 roof, in the vestibule, or other convenient place. Referring to Figs. 1 and 2, the conditioner comprises a series of nested cylindrical units 60, 6|, 62 and 63 made of sheet metal such as copper and suitably spaced apart so that the spaces be 45 tween the adjacent cylindrical walls form the interchanger air passages. The left hand end of the unit 66 is ?ared out at 64 to form an air inlet in which an air ?lter 65 is mounted. The right hand end of the unit 60 is closed off by a at circular plate .66. The left hand end of the unit 6| is connected by means of a suitable'pump (not shown). A pipe 11 provides means for draining oil the water from the washer chamber 63 to be recirculated by the pump. The arrows-indicate the direction of the air circulation. Thus, the air entering through the ?lter 65 passes through the air passage formed between the walls of the units 60 and BI , through the passage between the plates 66 and 69 into the passage between the walls of the units 62 and 63 10 and through that passage to the entrance to the washer chamber 63. Here it is subjected to the action of the sprayed water and passes out through the eliminator 14 and ducts 13 to the air passage formed between the walls of the units 6| and 62 and through that passage to the duct 68 leading to the fan intake. In operation the air in the passages leading to the washer chamber is cooled through the inter change of heat with the air in the adjacent pas sages leading from the washer chamber,'while the latter air is superheated by the same action. Further, the inlet passages, carrying the warm er air, are formed on the outer'surface of the conditioner thus serving as insulation for the washer proper and other passages carrying cooler air. This embodiment of my invention is shown in the drawing in a simpler form but it should be understood that it may be variously modi?ed without departing from the spirit of my inven tion as illustrated thereby. Thus, if greater in terchange is required it may be provided by the addition of other concentric cylindrical units to form longer air passages. Further, the effective length of the air passages may be increased by providing helical plates in the air passages formed between the cylindrical walls of the units. Since many modi?cations may be made in the invention without departing from its scope, ap plicant intends that the above description and accompanying drawing be considered as illus from to form an outlet air passage from said washer chamber, and a third wall surrounding said second wall and spaced therefrom to form in which the sprayed water collects. Five cylin drical ducts ‘l3 radially mounted from the cylin 65 drical surface of the unit 63 connect that unit with the air passage‘ between the walls of the units 6| and 62. Eliminators 14 remove'the en trained water from the air leaving the washer chamber unit 63. 70 Water is sprayed into the washer chamber unit 63 through the pipe 15 and the spray nozzles 16 35 40 air passage to said washer chamber, a second 50 wall surrounding said ?rst wall and spaced there duct 68 which leads to the inlet of the circulating fan (not shown). An annular plate 69 closes off 55 the right hand end of the passage formed be tween the walls of the units 6| and 62. A cir 60 by means of a circular plate ‘H and forms the washer proper. A plate 12 closes off the lower left hand portion of the unit 63 to form a sump 30 trative only, applicant limiting himself only as indicated in the appended claims. What I claim is: 1. A combined interchanger-washer for air conditioning comprising a washer chamber, a ?rst wall surrounding the wall of said washer chamber and spaced therefrom to form an inlet through a frusto-conical section 61 to an outlet cular plate 16 closes oft the left hand end of the unit 62. The unit 63 is closed off at its right hand end 20 an inlet passage connected at one end to the ?rst 65 mentioned inlet passage. 2. Air conditioning apparatus comprising a cylindrical washer chamber having an inlet open ing and an outlet opening, a cylindrical wall con centric with the wall of said washer chamber 60 and forming therewith an inlet passage to said washer chamber, a second concentric cylindrical wall forming with the ?rst concentric wall an outlet passage from said chamber, a third con centric wall forming with said second wall a sec ond inlet passage connected at one end to the ?rst inlet passage, and radial ducts passing through the ?rst mentioned inlet passage and interconnecting said washer chamber and said outlet passage. 70 WALTER L. FLEISHER.