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Патент USA US2077850

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' April 20, 1937.
Filed Jan. 6, 1933
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‘6 Sheets-Sheet 1 '
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April 20, 1937.
Filed Jan. e, 1935
6 Sheets-Sheet 2 "
April 20, 1937.
Filed Jan. 6, 1933
6 Sheets-Sheet 3
Harrs IQ) Painter‘
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April 20, 1937.
2,077,850 '
Filed Jan. 6, 1935
6 Sheets-Sheet 6
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Patented Apr. 20, 1937
_ 2,077,850‘
Harry K. Painter, Cincinnati, Ohio
Application January 6, 1933, Serial No. 650,449
5 Glaims. (Cl. 261—19)
This invention relates to the art of preparing
drinks, and is particularly directed to apparatus
for carbonating a ‘liquid.
It is the object of this invention to provide an
5 improved apparatus of this character wherein a
liquid level is maintained in a carbonated liquid
supply tank and carbonic gas is constantly ad
mitted thereto, in which apparatus a control
means is incorporated causing agitation of the
10 water and gas whenever water is introduced into
the tank resulting in efficient automatic impreg
nation of the incoming liquid with gas as with
drawals of carbonated liquid occur.
Figure 2 is a vertical sectional view, corre
sponding substantially to the line 2‘—2 of Figures
1 and 3,- ‘
Figure 3 is a horizontal sectional View, corre
20 sponding substantially to the line 3-3 of Fig
ure 2,
Figure 4 is an enlarged fragmentary, front ele
vational view, disclosing 'means for actuating the
valve control means and agitating means,
Figure 5 is an enlarged fragmentary, vertical
sectional view, corresponding substantially to the
line 5-’5 of Figure 4,
Figure 6 is an enlarged fragmentary, vertical
sectional view, corresponding substantially to the
‘ 30 line B—6 of Figure 3, disclosing a safety valve,
Figure 7 is an' enlarged fragmentary, vertical
sectional view, disclosing a control means em
bodied in this invention,
Figure 8 is an enlarged fragmentary, vertical
35 sectional view,»corresponding substantially-to the
line 8-8 of Figure '7,
Figure 9 is an enlarged fragmentary, vertical
sectional view, corresponding substantially to the
line 9—9 of Figure 3, showing the apparatus in
Figure, 10 is an enlarged fragmentary, vertical
sectional view, corresponding substantially to the
line 9—9 of Figure 3, showing the apparatus in
another operative position,
Figure 11 is an enlarged vertical sectional view,
. corresponding substantially to the line H-ll of
Figure 10,
Figure 12 is an enlarged vertical sectional view,
corresponding substantially to the line l2-l2 of
Figure 10,
Figure 13 is an enlarged fragmentary, vertical
sectional view, corresponding substantially to the
line I3—I3 of Figure 3,
spondingsubstantially to the line |5-l5 of Fig
ure 14, while
Figure 16 is a perspective view of a check valve
embodied in the invention.
The embodiment of the invention herein dis
closed comprises a rectangular base frame ill sup
ported at its corners upon legs ii. The frame ill 10
supports a cabinet it having side walls l3 and
it, a rear wall it, a front wall l6, and a cover
rectangular metal ice-box 2i, spaced from the
walls of the cabinet 92, and between the walls of
the ice-box 2i and the walls of the cabinet i2 is
‘disposed insulating material 22 of cork, or the
like, insulating the walls of the cabinet l2 from .
the ice-box 2i, and the cover i ‘l is similarly insu
lated therefrom. An adjustable supporting mem
ber 23 is mounted on the bottom of the cabinet
l2 and supports the cabinet H2 at its bottom mid
An aperture is provided in the bottom of the
cabinet £12 for a conduit 24 leading from a source
of water supply, connected to an elbow 25 thread
ed to a conduit 26 which extends in close prox
imity to the bottom 2?? of the ice-box 2i and to 0
the rear wall 28 of a carbonatcr tank 29 mount
ed on the bottom 2i, for a purpose hereinafter
described._ The conduit. 26 extends for several
lengths, as indicated at 30, between the front wall
3i of the carbonator tank 29 and the front wall
32 of the ice-box 2i, and then extends upwardly
adjacent the end Wall 33 of the carbonator tank
29, terminating in an elbow 34 threaded to a
reduced conduit 35 Which extends downwardly in
40 one operative position,
Figure 15 is a vertical sectional view, corre
ll provided with a handle i8. The cover ii is
hinged, as at it, to the rear wall l5. Disposed
about the upper inner periphery of the cabinet 15
it? is a member 28 from which is suspended a
Figure 1 is a front elevational view of an em
15 bcdiment of the invention,
corresponding substantially to the line l4—-l4 of
Figure 4l,
Figure 14 is an enlarged vertical sectional view,
a coil, as indicated at 36, between the rear Wall
St of the carbonator tank 29 and the rear wall
38 of the ice-box 2i, and thence upwardly and
transversely above the cover 39 of the carbonator
tank 29, terminating in‘a valve casing ?ll. The
conduits as arranged provide a lengthy passage
for the water prior to its use, and the water is
cooled to a low temperature by covering the con
duit coil 36 with cracked ice or the like.
The valve casing 40 (see Figure 4) is supported 50
by a bracket 4| mounted on the cover 39 and
comprises a reduced port 42 (see Figure 14) com
municating at one end with the conduit 35 and
at the opposite end with a valve chamber 43,
which communicates with a chamber 44 through 55
' 2,077,850
‘a reduced port 45, provided by a valve seat 48
engageable with a valve 41 threaded to the inner
end of a reciprocating valve stem 48 extending
through a gland nut 49 threaded in the valve
5 casing 48. 'Disposed about the valve stem 48 is
cold water than if the water were mixed at nor
mal temperature with the gas; furthermore, the
gas is more completely absorbed by the cold
water, thereby retaining the characteristics of
carbonic gas in the water for a longer period of
a packing member 58 secured by a nut 5| to time, than is obtained in the conventional method
the gland nut 49 and valve stem 48. A conduit - of carbonating water.
52 has one end threaded to the valve casing, 48
One end of the shaft ‘I1 is adjustably secured
and communicates with the chamber 44, and within one end of a sleeve-‘I9 (see Figure 14) by
10 the opposite end thereof is threaded into one means of a screw 88, and the sleeve 18 is rotat 10
end of a sleeve 58 having a reduced port 54. The ably mounted within a cup-shaped member 8|, of
other end of the sleeve 58 has,_a reduced portion a fly-wheel construction 82. Secured to the
55 frictionally embraced by a soft rubber valve ?anged extremity of the cup-shaped‘ member 8|,
58 having a slotted collapsible opening 58a, which by means of screws 88, is a member 84, having
15 permits ?uid to pass therethrough from the con
a projecting boss 85 inwardly threaded as at
duit 52, but automatically prevents back-?ow
88, adapted to receive the threaded end 81 of
of ?uid into the conduit 52'and its connected the sleeve ‘I8, and provided with a pin 88 extend
conduit members.
‘ing transversely therefrom into the cup portion
A coupling 51 is screw-threaded to the sleeve of the member 8|. The pin 88 is adapted to en
20 53 and embraces the one way valve 56 in spaced gage a stud 89 secured to the member 84.
Adjacent the threaded portion 88in the boss
relation, forming a chamber 58 thereabout, and
the coupling 51 is'provided with a reduced port 85 is secured an outer ball race 98, and an inner
58 which communicates with a conduit 88 thread
ball race 9I is secured to the end of "the valve
ed into the other end of the coupling 51, and the stem 48 by a nut 92. Interposed between the
25 conduit 88 in turn communicates with the upper races 98 and 9| are balls 98 providing a ball bear
portion of an agitator paddle housing 8i mounted ing arrangement which permit the fly-wheel 82
on the cover 39 of the carbonator tank 29 and to rotate freely about the sleeve ‘I8 and the valve
communicating with the interior of the car
stem 48, and prevent linear movement of the
bonator tank 29, thereby providing conduit means fly-wheel 82 along the valve stem 48. The outer
30 traversing considerable distance with respect to end of the boss 85 is closed by a plate 94 dethe area of the ice-box 2I to convey water from tachably secured to the boss 85 by screws 95.
the source of supply to the carbonator tank 29.
When the shaft 11 is rotated to the left, as
A carbonic gas conduit 82 (see Figure 7) has viewed in Figure 14, the sleeve ‘I9 also rotates
one end connected to the source of carbonic gas to the left, but the fly-wheel 82 does not rotate,
35 supply, not shown, and the other end 88 ter
due to its inertia. However, the threaded move
minating in the carbonator tank 29 adjacent the ment of the sleeve ‘I9 in the ?y-wheel 82‘ causes
bottom thereof beneath the agitator paddle hous
linear movement of the ?y-wheel 82 to the left,
ing 8|. A pressure valve (not shown) for regu
which in turn moves the valve stem 48 to the left
lating the pressure from the carbonic gas supply and opens the valve 41, permitting additional
40 is set to deliver a constant ?ow of gas at a water to enter the carbonator tank 29. The
predetermined pressure; and ‘a gas check-valve threading movement of the sleeve ‘I9 to the left
84 is inserted in ‘the gas conduit 82 to prevent is limited by the pin 88 abutting the opposite
back-?ow of gas from the carbonator tank 29 side of- the stud 88, as shown in broken lines in
and permit entrance of the gas into the carbon— Figure 15, at which time the ?y-wheel' 82 is
45 ator tank 29.
positively engaged and rotates to the left with
Integral with the agitator paddle housing 8| is the sleeve ‘I9.’ When the shaft ‘I‘I ceases to ro-_
a ?ange 85 enclosing a boss 88, and the ?ange 85 tate the ?y-wheel 82 continues to rotate, due to
is closed by a cover plate 81, thus providing a its inertia, and threads the ?y-wheel 82 on to
gear box 88 adapted. to be ?lled with oil or ‘the sleeve ‘I8, causing linear movement of the
50 grease. Journaled in the boss 88 is a shaft 88 fly-wheel 82 to the right, which movement is
carrying at one end an agitator paddle 18 se
limited by the pin 88 abutting the stud 88, as
cured thereto by a pin ‘II. The agitator paddle shown in solid lines in Figure 15. This latter
‘I8 is adapted to rotate within the housing 8| threaded advancement to the right, as viewed
and is provided with vanes 12 curved at their in Figure 14, is su?icient to pull the valve stem
55 free ends, as at ‘I8. Fixed to the opposite end of 48 to the right and close the valve 41, preventing
the shaft 89, bya pin ‘I4, is a worm-gear ‘I5 adapt
ed to mesh with a worm-wheel ‘I8 secured to the
midsection of a shaft 11 which extends through
opposite sides of the ?ange 85.
when rotative movement is imparted to the
shaft 89, the agitator paddle 18‘ is rotated, and
the curved vanes ‘I2 agitate the water and car
bonic gas in the carbonator tank 29, causing the
carbonic gas to permeate the water, producing a
65 carbonated water suitable for mixture with ?av—
orlng syrups or for use unadulterated.
Water traversing the water conduit means
herein described is co'oled to a low tem
, perature before entering the carbonator tank
70 29 and prior to coming into contact with the
- carbonic gas.
I find that with my method of
preparing carbonated water by cooling the water
prior to mixing with the carbonic gas and then
agitating the water and gas in a cold state, that
75 a larger amount of gas can be absorbed by the
water from flowing to the carbonator tank 28. ,
A motor 98 is mounted on a platform 81 and
the shaft 88 of the motor 98 is connected to the
end of the shaft 11. When the motor 88 is op
erating, it imparts rotative movement to the 60
shaft 11 which in turn actuates the agitator pad
dle ‘I8 and the valve stem 48, as hereinbefore
An electrical circuit I88, not completely shown,
includes a mercury switch IN, or other suitable
switch means‘, enclosed in a sealed compartment
I82 ?xed to the end wall 28 of the carbonator
tank 28. The switch IN is provided with a lever
arm I88 pivotally mounted, at about its mldsec
tion, on the end wall 28, and the ‘lever arm I88 70
has at one end ?ngers I84, securing a sealed
glass' tube I85 carrying at one end electrodes I88.
In the tube I85 is a quantity of mercury which
makes or breaks the circuit through the elec
trodes I88, depending upon the inclination of the 75
. 2,077,850
tube I05 and the resultant location of the mere
cury, either in or out of contact with the elec
trodes I06. The opposite end of the lever arm
I03 is provided with an elongated slot I01 in
'5 which is inserted one end I08 of a ?oat rod I09
pivotally secured, as at IIO. This arm extends
through a slot I I I in the wall 28 of the carbonator
tank 29 and carries at its other end a ?oat II2
adapted to be moved in a vertical arcuate line by
10 the carbonated water in the carbonator tank 29.
The cover 39 of the carbonator tank, 29 has an
upwardly bulged portion I I3 to accommodate the
?oat H2. The bulged portion H3 is provided
with an inwardly threaded boss I I4 for the re—
15 ception of a safety valve I I5. This valve includes
a valve casing II6, a valve .seat In, a valve H8,
outlets H9, and an adjustable pressure spring
I42 is manipulated, a disk I45 threaded to one end
of a valve rod I46 slidably mounted in the aper
tures I31 and I3I.
The opposite end of the valve rod I46 is slid
ably mounted in a partition wall I41 disposed
short of the end I48 of the tubular member I2I.
The valve rod I46 extends into the carbonator
tank 29 and is adapted to engage a valve 30I pro
vided with a valve disk I49 mounted on a plung
er 300 having a stud I50 slidable within a recess
I5I of a valve cap I52 threaded to the extreme
end I48 of the tubular member I2I. The valve
30I is yieldably mounted by means of a spring
I53 interposed between the valve cap I52 and the
plunger 300. The valve cap I52 is provided with‘
annularly arranged ports I54, and the partition
wall i4’! is provided with ports I55 to establish
I20, permitting the valve II8 to be unseated at
communication between the interior of the car
a predetermined gas pressure within the car
bonator tank 29 and the interior I56 of the tubu
lar member I28. The flow of carbonated water
from the carbonator tank 29 is controlled by the
20 bonator tank 29.
The level of the water in the carbonator tank
29 controls the movement of the ?oat I I2. When
the carbonated water supply is depleted to a pre
determined level, the ?oat rod I09 automatically
25 actuates the switch lever arm I03 which is moved
upwardly, as shown in broken lines in Figure 8,
and the mercury tube I05 is inclined to contact
, position with the electrodes I06 to close the cir
cuit, causing the motor 96 to‘operate and rotate
faucet handle M2, which when rotated down
wardly moves the valve rod “6 inwardly to open
the ports 654 and permit the flow of carbonated
water through the ports I55 and I30’ and thence
from the discharge nozzle I33.
The tubular member i2! has a ?at surface, as
at 860, to support a cylinder “ii, of predeter
mined capacity, having a tapered port l62, adapt
30 the agitator paddle ‘I0 and to open the valve 41 ed to serve as a valve seat alined with an aperture 30
l63 irrfthe ?at surface 560. Secured within the
to permit additional water to enter vthe car
bonator tank 29 and simultaneously agitate the alined apertures 862 and i163 is a valve cage 364,
incoming water with the incoming carbonic gas its lower end partially closed by a spider member
to produce carbonated water at a predetermined, i65 adapted to support a spring 200 which yield
35 pressure. When the elevation of the carbonated ably supports a ball valve M51 in sealing engage~ 35
water in the carbonator tank 29 has increased to ment with the valve seat 962.
Reciprocally mounted within the cylinder 1161i
a predetermined height, the ?oat H2 and rod
I09 automatically move the mercury tube I03 to is a piston 868 having a port I69 extending there
the oppositely inclined position, to break the through, one end of which is partially closed by a
spider member (I10, and the other end of which is 40
40 circuit and cause the motor 96 to cease its op
erations, and the agitator paddle ‘I0 its rotation, provided with a valve seat iii adapted to be en
and to close the valve 41, cutting off additional gaged by a ball valve i712 yieldably supported by
a spring Hi3 interposed between the ball valve
?ow of water into the carbonator tank 29.
A tubular member i2l (see Figures 9 and 10) _ H2 and the spider member H9. The ends of the
piston 568 are provided with packing members
45 has one end I22 threaded into the front wall 86
H4 and H5, and washers H6 and ill. The pack
of the carbonator tank 29 and is secured in
sealing relation therewith by a gasket and nut ing member HM and washer 516 have openings
connection, as indicated at I23, and the other end that are alined with the port “59, and are secured
I24 of the tubular member I2I is provided with to one face of the piston 968 between a shoul
50 an annular flange 525 which abuts the inner dered portion of a piston rod H9 which has one
surface of the front wall 32 of the ice~box 2i, end threaded into the piston M9. we piston rod
i‘lii extends through a stui?ng box H9 carried
and is secured thereto by a nut i271 threaded
onto the end‘ 824 of the tubular member i726. by a head I189 secured to the forward end of the
cylinder i6l. The outer end of the piston rod
, The tubular member has an outwardly tapered
H8 is pivotally connected, as at I8I, to a link i82
pivotally secured to the faucet handle “2, as at
H83. The packing M5 and washer iii are also
an integral partition having a plurality of an- . provided with openings that are alined with the
nularly arranged apertures I30 which surround port 669. These elements are secured to the
opposite face or" the piston it?» by a screw i199 60
60 a central aperture I3I. The apertures E30 com
municate with an enlarged chamber £532 of the threaded thereinto.
The cylinder list is closed at its rear end by a ,
faucet I29 which communicates with 9. depending
discharge nozzle I33. The forward end portion head l85 having an outwardly and upwardly
of the faucet I29 is provided with a chamber [134 extending projection 596 provided with an angu
65 closed at its outer end by a detachable cap 035 lar bore 881? communicating with the cylinder
threaded into the faucet I29. The chamber M4 MI. The lower end of the bore I 8i, is provided
is closed at its inner end by a partition wall use with a valve seat E89 for ‘t ball valve i90 yield
55 inner surface adapted to frictionally embrace a
corresponding tapered inner end I28 of a faucet
M9. The tapered end I28 is partially closed by
‘ having an aperture I31, for a purpose hereinafter
described. Extending through the chamber 834
70 is'afpin I38 journaled in diametrically disposed
lugs I39. The pin I38 is rigidly affixed, by means
of a screw I40, to the‘ bifurcated arms I4I of a
faucet handle I42, and secured to the pin l38,
within the chamber I34, by a screw I43, is a cam
75 I44, adapted to engage, when the faucethandle
ably held in position by a spring i9I removably
secured by a spider‘ member I92 af?xed at the
inner end of the bore I91. The outer end of the 70
bore- i8‘! is outwardly and upwardly tapered to
frictionally accommodate a correspondingly ta
pered ?exible member l93 secured to a nipple 594
abutting against the bottom-of a syrup container
I95 and secured thereto by "acollar I96. The 75
syrup container I95 is supported in the bore I01,
and is easily removed from the cabinet I 2 by lift
ing it upwardly from the bore I81. Additional
syrup may be added to the container I95 by re
5 moving a detachable plug I91.
In operation, assuming that the apparatus is
in the position as shown in Figure 9, and the
cylinder I5I has not been supplied with ?avoring
syrup from the syrup container I 95, the faucet
l0 handle I42 is rotated forwardly, which movement
unseats the valve I90 and causes the elements
associated therewith to assume the position as
shown in Figure 10, creating a partial vacuum
in the cylinder IGI, causing syrup to flow from
200, terminating in a pipe 205 having one end
threaded to the end of the faucet 204 and the
other end terminating within the carbonator
tank 29 in direct communication with the car
bonated water therein. The inner end of the
faucet 204 is secured to the inner [surface of the
front wall of the ice-box 2I by a gasket and nut
arrangement as indicated at 2I0. The inner
end of the pipe 208 is secured to the carbonator
tank 29 by a gasket and nut arrangement as 10
shown at 2i I.
When the faucet handle 205 is moved for
wardly, the carbonated water is dispensed with
considerable force through the reduced outlet
205, the force of the ejection being su?icient to
15 the container I95 into the rear part of the cylin
der I5I. The faucet handle I42 is then rotated disintegrate ice-cream, and to completely mix
to its original and normal position, as indicated ?avored syrups with the carbonated water. A
in Figure 9, which movement seats the valve I90 tray 2i 2 is secured to the frame I0, to support
and prevents further discharge of syrup from glasses, or the like, during the dispensing opera
20 the container I95, and unseats the valve I12, per
mitting the charge of syrup in the rear of the
It will be understood by those skilled in the
cylinder I5I to flow through the port I59 and the art that the embodiment herein disclosed ac
piston I50 to the front end of the cylinder I6I, complishes at least the principal object of the
vwhere the syrup is held by the valve I61. The ‘invention, that it has uses and advantages other
25 faucet handle I42 is again rotated downwardly ‘~. than those herein particularly referred to, and
and the piston I58 moved forwardly, which move
that various changes and'modi?cations may be
ment seats the valve I12 to prevent further flow made without departing from the spirit of the
of syrup therepast, but unseats the valve I61, invention, and accordingly the embodiment dis
forcing the'charge of syrup in the front end of closed herein is illustrative onlyand the inven
30 the cylinder I50 into the mixing chamber I55. tion is not limited thereto.
Each rearward movement of the faucet handle
I claim:
‘ .
I42 thereafter forces a new charge of syrup from
1. A device of the character described, com
the container I95, into the forward portion of prising: a container communicable with a liquid
the cylinder I5I, so that only one downward supply and a gas supply; means for mixing said
35 movement is necessary to force the new charge liquid and gas to impregnate said liquid with
of syrup into the mixing chamber I56. During said gas; valve means for controlling the ?ow
the forward movement of the faucet handle I42, of said liquid; and a valve actuating element
the carbonator valve IN is unseated by the cam driven by said mixing means and having an
I44 and valve rod I46, to permit the'carbonated inertia member connected with said valve means,
40 water to pass through the small apertures I55 movable with said actuating element when the
under pressure exerted by the carbonic gas con
latter is moving and shiftable relative to said
tained in the carbonated water and the gas above actuating element when the latter comes to rest‘
the water in the tank 29, into the mixing cham
to operate said valve means.
ber I55, whereby the charge of syrup is intimate
2. A device of the character described, com
45 ly mixed under pressure of the gas with the car
bonated water and forced through the apertures
I20, and thence forced through the discharge
nomle I22 in’ the form of a beverage already
prepared for consumption.
ing said gas and liquid, impregnating said liquid
with said gas; and valve means for controlling the
The dispensing apparatus thus described re-' ?ow of said liquid to said container; actuating
means for operating said valve and agitating
quires but a forward and rearward movement of
the faucet handle I42 to dispense a carbonated
?avored beverage. The charges of syrup from
the cylinder I6I can be altered by inserting cyl
55 inders of various capacities..
' It is apparent that one or more dispensing and
mixing units can be used in connection with the
same cabinet, and carbonating tank. I have
shown in this embodiment of my invention three
"60 dispensing and mixing units 200, 20I and 202
in addition to the dispensing and mixing unit
hereinbefore described, and the units 200, 2III,
and 202 are constructed identically and operate
identically with the unit heretofore described.
prising: a container communicable with a liquid 45
supply and a gas supply; means disposed in said
container for agitating said liquid and gas, mix
I have also made provision for dispensing un
adulterated carbonated water directly from the
carbonator tank 20. The mechanism employed
in that connection comprises a dispensing unit
202 having a faucet 204 disposed between the
70 units 200 and 20I and threaded to the front
wall of the cabinet I2, and is providedwith a
suitable valve 220 operated in the usual manner
by a'faucet handle 205. The faucet 204 has a
reduced outlet 206 in a depending nozzle 201
75 which communicates with an enlarged channel
means; said ‘valve means and said agitating
means being interconnected with said actuating
means, whereby said valve is opened when said
agitator means is operated.
3. A device of the character described, com
prising: a container communicable with a liquid
supply and a gas supply; means for mixing said
liquid and gas, impregnating said liquid
with said gas; valve means for controlling the
?ow of said liquid; and means for actuating the
valve and driving the mixing means, including
a single direction rotary element and a translat
able element carrying the valve actuated by the
'rotary element for effecting both opening and 65
closing movements of said valve means.
4. A device of ‘the character described, com
prising: a container communicable with a liquid
supply and a gas supply; means for mixing said
liquid and gas, impregnating said liquid with said 70
gas: valve means reciprocably operable to con
trol the ?ow of said liquid; and means for ac
tuating the valve and driving the mixing means
including a rotary element engaging said recipro
cal valve means, said rotary element movable in 75
one direction to effect reciprocatory movement
vice for said power means operated by the rise
of said valve means.
5. An apparatus of the class described, com=
raising, a container communicable with a ~sulp
ply of water under pressure and a carbonic gas
supply under pressure, an agitator for mixing
the water and. gas in said container, 9. power
and fall of water in said container, a valve means
for the water supply, and an operating means
between the power means and said valve means
means for driving said agitator, a control, de
for opening the valve upon the starting of the
power means and closing the valve upon the
stopping of the powermeans.
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