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Патент USA US2079106

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Mib' 4,1937.
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2,079,106
MECHANISM'
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Filed sept. 1e,- 1936
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THOMAS W. c'ooPE/z
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ATTORNEY.
May 4, 1937~
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REVERSE vLOCK
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MECHANISM
V Filed sept. 16, 195e
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I 2,079,106
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INVENTOR5
Gwen-5 P. c/eAc:
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2,079,106
Patented ` May 4, 1937 v A
' , _UNITED STATES
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PATENTy 'ol-‘FICE
` 2,019,106
REVERSE Loon MECHANISM
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Charles P. Cirae and Thomas W. Cooper, San
.
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Francisco, and William W. MacDonald, Moun
tain View,A Calif., assigjnors, by direct and mesne'
assignments, to Cirac Automatic Reverse Con
trol Company', SanFrancîsco, Calif.
Application September 16, 1936, Serial No. 101,064
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a claims.
This invention relates in general to motor ve
locking a vehicle -against rearward motion ex,
cept when the vehicle is in reverse gear or has
et been shifted fromreyèrse to neutral or to some
‘ forward gear without actual movement of the
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" Although devices of this‘general nature are
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disclosed in the «Cirac Patents Nos. 1,237,169,
1,362,183, 1,388,404, 1,450,409, 1,525,719, 1,748,410,
1,180,907, and 1,875,417, it has been found that
the devices disclosed therein are not foolproof
from the standpoint of operation and are too
~ complicated from a manufacturing standpoint.
-In general, the object of this invention is the
provision of means for automatically locking one
or more-of the drive wheels of a vehicle against
- reverse rotation unless the vehicle has ñrst been
placed in reverse gear or has been shifted from
20 reverse to neutral or to 'a forward gear, vand for
automatically disengaging such locking means
_ upon a very slight movementof the ydriving mech
anism in a directiongwhich has a tendency to
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propel the vehicle forward.
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More speciñcally, the object of the invention is
the provision of a ratchet wheel to be secured
either directly to the drive wheel of a vehicle or
indirectly thereto, as for example, by attachment
_to the drive shaft, a ratchet adapted to be piv
30 voted to any fixed portion of the vehicle, and in
one position to engage the ratchet wheel, and
means for holding the ratchet out of -engagement
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(c1. isz-_4)
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Figure 4 is a detail section taken on the line
: hicles and in particular- to 'automatic means for
vehicle in a forward direction.
.
with‘the ratchet wheel when the vehicle is in re
verse -gear or has been shifted from reverse to
neutral or to any forward gear.
The invention possesses other advantageous
4_4 of Figure 1.
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Figure 5 is a partial vertical section of the
locking mechanism showing the relative _position
of its various parts _when the vehicle to which it is
attached has been placed in reverse gear.
Figure 6 is a view similar to that shown` in t
Figure 5 but showing the relative position of the
variousl parts-of the mechanism Vwhen a shift
has been made from reverse igear to neutral or 10
‘ to any forward gear.
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Figure 7 is a vertical section of the mechanism
showing the relative position of 'its parts when
the vehicle to which it> is attached is moving
-forward in a forward gear.
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15
`Although the- reverse locking mechanism em-„
bodying» the objects of our invention may be
secured either to the drive shaft of a vehicle or
to any member driven thereby, such as one of the
drive wheels of a trailer or other vehicle, for the 20
purposes of illustration we have elected to attach '
our reverse locking mechanism directly to the
drive- shaft of a motor vehicle as shown in the
various figures of the drawings.
As thus embodied, our invention contemplates 25
the use of a base member or casing Il adapted
to be bolted to the transmission casing I2 of a
motor vehicle as shown in dotted .line in Figure 2. ,
The casing II is formed with a central opening I
I3 through which the drive shaft I4 may pass. 30
In order tol seal theshaft I4 to the casing Il,
resort may be had to a conventional stuñing' box
I5. Cast integral within the casing Il is a pair
of diametrically opposed inwardly extending lugs ’ „ '
35
I6, within which are pivoted pins I1.
Secured to the outer 0ends of the pins I1 are
ratchets I8 >having pawls 20 adapted to engage
features, some of whichwith the foregoing `will be ' the teeth of a ratchet wheel I9 keyed to the shaft .
set forth at length in the following ‘description
I4. Springs 2| seated in sockets 22 formed in
the casing II serve to urge the free ends of the 40
' `been selected for illustration in the drawings `ratchets I8 in engagement with the teeth of the
accompanying and forming a part of the present - ratchet wheel I9. Secured to the outer ends of4
speciñcation is outlined in full. In said draw
the ratchets I8 are rollers 23 adapted to be en
ings,- one form of the invention is shown, but it is gaged by the cam surfaces 24 of a manual control
45 to be understood that it is not limited to .such plate 25 journaled on the inwardlyv extending 45
Iform, since the invention 'as set forth in the sleeve 26 of the casing II. -Formed integral with
claims may be embodied in a plurality of forms. the plate 25 is an arm 21 extending upwardlyA
40 where that form of the invention whichA has
Referring to the drawings:
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Figure 1 is a vertical section taken through a
50 locking mechanism embodying the objects of our
invention.
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` through a slot- 28 formed in the upper wall 29 of
the 'casing I I.
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The arm 21 is urged in a clockwise direction by 50
means of a spring 3l secured at one end to a pin
Figure 2 is a section taken on the line 2-2 . 32 extending outwardly from the arm 21 and at
of Figure 1.
l Figure 3 is‘a horizontal section taken on the
55 line 3-3 of Figure "1.
its other end to a pin 33 secured to the casing II
and extending. into the slot 28. Extendingl
through an opening 34 formed in the upper por
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2,079,106
tion of the casing II is a rod 35, the free end of
which is provided with a. beveled cam surface 36
adapted to engage a complementary surface 31
tain an oil tight seal between the casing 5| and-
formed on the arm 21. From this construction
it will be seen that an inward movement of the
rod 35 willmresult in a counterclockwise move
ment of the -manual control plate, the extent of
is as follows:
this movement being ofcourse governed by the
nature of the cam surfaces 36and 31 and the
10 longitudinal movement of the rod 35. Although
not shown, the rod 35 is connected either directly
or indirectly to the gear shift lever of the vehicle
in such a manner that the manual control plate
25 will move in a counterclockwise direction when
15 the vehicle is put into reverse gear.
4The counter clockwise movement of the plate
25 may also be produced by means of an L
shaped lever 38 pivotally secured intermediate
its ends to the casing II in such a manner that
20 one of its legs will engage the arm 21. Secured
to the free end of the other leg of the lever 38
is a cable 39 which preferably extends to and is
operable from the instrument board of the ve
hicle. The counterclockwise movement of the
25 manual control plate 25 produced either by move
ment of the rod 35 or the cable 39 will cause
the cam surfaces 24 of the control plate 25 to en
gage the rollers 23 and thereby move the pawls
30
20 outwardly out of engagement with the teeth
of the ratchet wheel I9. It will be seen that with
the pawls disengaged from the ratchet wheel I9,
the shaft I4 is free to rotate in a clockwise direc
tion.
40
45
50
55
.
Rotatably disposed on the hub of the ratchet
wheel I9 is a pair of identical generally circular
cam plates 4|. These cam plates are held in
frictional engagement with the faces of the ratch
et wheel by means of springs 42 supported on
pins 43 secured to one of the cam plates 4I,
as best shown in Figure 4. As shown in this
figure, the pin 43 is secured to an outwardly ex
tending car 44 of the right hand cam plate 4|
and passes through an opening formed in the
outwardly extending ear 4_4 of the left hand cam
plate 4I. One end of the spring 42 engages the
head 45 of the pin 43, while its other end en
gages the outer face of the ear 44 of the left
hand cam plate. The friction between the cam`
plates 4| and the ratchet wheel I9 is of course
determined among other things by the pressure
between the -engaging faces of the cam plates
and the ratchet wheel. This pressure is so ad
justed by means of the springs 42 that there is
just suiìicient friction between these members to
cause the plates 4| to rotate with the ratchet
wheel unless held against such motion by means
of some external force. The contacting surfaces
of the plates 4| and the ratchet wheel I9 should
60 be oil lubricated.
It will be noted from an in
spection of Figure 1 that the ears 44 limit the
movement of the plates 4I in a counterclockwise
direction by engagement with the pivotal ends
Íof the ratchets I8 and in a clockwise direction
65 by engagement ‘with shoulders 46 formed in_ the
casing II. The cam plates 4I are provided with
diametrically opposed peripheral cam surfaces
consisting of notches 41 formed with recesses or
70
steps 48 and with curved shoulders 49.
The open left hand side of the casing II as
viewed in Figure 1 may be closed by a cap 5|
which may also serve as housing for a speedome
ter take-off 52. >The speedometer take-off '52 is
driven by a' gearwheel 53 carried by a collar 54
75 keyed to the shaft I4. A gasket 55 is used to ob
the sleeve 54.
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The operation of the device as above described
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As shown in Figure 1, the arm 21 of the man
ual control plate 25 is in a vertical position and
in this position the motor vehicle with which our
device is associated is either in any forward gear
or in neutral. The cam surfaces 24 of the man
ual control plate 25 are therefore out of en
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gagement with the rollers 23, thereby permitting
the pawls 29 of the ratchets I8 to enter the
notches 41 and engage the teeth of the ratchet
wheel I9. Assuming that a counterclockwise
rotation of the drive shaft I4 produces a forward 15
movement of the vehicle and that a clockwise ro
tation of the shaft produces a rearward move
ment of the vehicle, it will be seen that with the
manual control plate 25 and the cam plates 4I
in the relative positions as shown in Figure l, 20
any rearward movement of the vehicle will be
prevented by the engagement of the pawls 20
with the teeth of the ratchet wheel 19.
Upon a clockwise movement of the manual con
trol plate 25, which as above described may be 25
accomplished either by putting the car in re
verse gear or by pulling the cable 39 (Figure 3),
the cam surfaces 24 of the plate 25 will engage
the rollers 23, thereby lifting the pawls 20 from
the notches 41. In this position the pawls 20
are out of engagement with the teeth of the
ratchet wheel I9, and therefore the shaft can
rotate in a clockwise direction and the vehicle
move rearwardly. Due to the frictional engage
ment of the cam plates 4I with the ratchet wheel 35
I9, a clockwise rotation of the shaft I4 will cause
a clockwise rotation of the cam plates 4I until
the ears 44 of the cam plates strike the shoulders
46 of the casing II. This movement of the cam
plates 4I 'will bring the recesses or steps 48 of 40
the notches 41 in registration with the pawls 20
of the ratchets I8, as shown in Figure 5. As long
as the cam plates 4I are held in the position
shown in Figure 5, the steps 48 will serve to
hold the pawls 2D out of engagement with the 45
teeth of the ratchet wheel I9, regardless of the
position of the manual control plate 25. The ve
hicle may therefore be shifted into neutral or any
forward gear as shown in Figure 6 without caus
ing the pawls 29 to engage the teeth of the ratchet 50
wheel, provided, however, that no actual forward
movement of the vehicle takes place. By making
the tread of the steps 48 very shallow, as for ex
ample such that a movement of one degree or
less of the drive shaft I4 in a counterclockwise
direction will serve to disengage the pawls 20
from the steps .48, it is possible Ito bring our re
verse locking mechanism into operation after the
car has been placed in reverse gear by merely
shifting into a forward gear and rotating the
shaft I4 one degree by slightly engaging the clutch '
in order to take up the slight play that always
exists between the drive shaft and the differen
tial, without actually moving the car forward.
As a matter of fact, the operation of the device
may be made so sensitive that if the vehicle is
moved rearwardly in reverse and then placed
in neutral or any forward gear so that the lock
is in the position shown in Figure 6, the mere
application of either the foot or hand brake will ì
cause sufiicient relative motion between the body
of the vehicle and its drive wheels to release the
pawls 20 and pennit them to engage the teeth
of the ratchet wheel.
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When the car is moving forward in a forward 75
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2,079,106
gear and the drive 4shaft therefore rotating in a >with respect to the vehicle and provided with a -
counterclockwise direction, the cam plates 4| will, -cam surface adapted to disengage said pawl from
tdue .to their frictional engagement with the » the` ratchet wheel when the control plate is in one
of >its extreme positions; means for urging said
control plate to its opposite extreme position; and
ratchet> wheel I9, occupy the position shown in
` Figure 7, with the ears 44 in engagement with the
pivotal ends of the ratchets I8. In this position - means operable in response to a movement of the
will engage the pawls 20 of the ratchets I8, there
reverse gear shift mechanism of the vehicle for
moving said control plate to its ñrst mentioned ex
by holding them out of engagement with the teeth '
trem'e position.
the curved shoulders .49 of the cam plates 4I
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of the ratchet wheel.
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3. In a motor vehicle, a reverse locking mecha
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From the above description it Will be‘seen that „ nism comprising: a ratchet Wheel secured to the
our device is very simple in both construction and drive shaft of the vehicle; a pawl pivoted to some
operation. Essentially the device consists of a ñxed part of the vehicle; a spring adapted to urge `
said pawl in engagement with said ratchet wheel;
ratchet wheel driven directly or indirectly by the
a cam'plate in contact with said ratchet wheel 15
and adapted to be moved between two extreme
drive shaft of a vehicle or by one of its drive
wheels; a pawl pivoted tol some fixed part of the
vehicle and adapted to engage the ratchet wheel;
cams operating in response to the movement of
the ratchet wheel for disengaging the pawl in a
20 predeterminedmanner, and a manual `control
cam for also disengaging the pawl in a predeter
positons by frictional engagement therewith; a
cam surface on said cam plate of such shape that ‘
when the plate is in one extreme position it will
serve to hold the pawl clear of said ratchet wheel, 20
but upon a slight movement of the cam plate to
ward its opposite extreme position the pawl will be
'mined manner. t With the single exception of
permitted 'to drop into engagement with said y "
bringing the locking mechanism into play after
ratchet wheel and upon further movement of the
the vehicle has been placed in reverse gear" or
25 placed in neutral or any forward gear after being
in reverse gear, a vehicle equipped with vour de
vice may be operated in the same manner as any
other car, and if for any reason it is desired to
render the mechanisminoperative all that is re
30 quired is a manipulation of the cable 39 from the
cam plate to its opposite extreme position the 25
pawl will be disengaged and» held away from said
ratchet wheel; and means-independent of said l
cam plate for moving and holding said pawl out of
engagement with said ratchet Wheel.
4. In a motor vehicle, a reverse locking mecha
nism comprising: a ratchet wheellsecured to the
-drive shaft of the vehicle; a` pawl pivoted to some
We claim:
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fixed part of the vehicle; a spring adapted to urge
,1. _In a motor vehicle, a reverse locking mecha
said pawl in engagement with said ratchet wheel; v
nism comprising: a ratchet wheel adapted to ro
35
tate in response to the rotation of the drive shaft Aa cam plate in contact with said ratchet wheel
of said vehicle; a pawl ?ivoted to some fixed part and adapted'to be moved between two extreme
of the vehicle- and adapted to engage said ratchet positions by frictional engagement therewith; a
wheel; means for urging said pawl in engagement cam surface on said cam plate of such shape that
>instrument panel.
‘ with the ratchet wheel; a cam plate arranged to
when the plate is in one extreme position it will `
oscillate about a fixed point through a predeter
mined arc in response to the rotation of said
ratchet wheel; a cam surface on said cam‘plat'e
of _such shape'that when the plate is in one ex
treme position it will serve to hold the p'awl clear
of said ratchet wheel, but upon a slight movement
of the cam plate in the direction of its opposite
serve to hold the pawl clear of said ratchet wheel, 40
but upon a >slight movement of the cam plate t'o
ward its opposite extreme position the pawl will
drop into engagement with said ratchet wheel and
upon further movement of the _cam plate toward
to oscillate between predetermined limits about
be permitted to drop into engagement with said
ratchet wheel and upon _further movement ofthe
cam plate to its opposite extreme position the 45
pawl will be disengaged and held away from said
extreme position ther pawl will be permitted to ' ratchet wheel; a manual control plate arranged
said shaft and provided with a cam surface adapt
said opposite extreme position the pawl willv‘be' ed to~ disengage said pawl from the ratchet -wheel
disengaged -and held away from said ratchet when the control plate is in one of its extreme
its opposite extreme position; and means op`er
ment with said ratchet wheel.
able in .response to a movement of the reverse gear
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nism comprising: a ratchet wheel adapted to ro
shift mechanism of the vehicle for moving said 55~
control plate to its ilrst mentioned-extreme posi
tate in response to the rotation of the drive shaft
tion.
2. In a motor vehicle, a reverse locking mecha
60
positions; means for urging said control plate to
wheel; and means independent of said cam plate
for moving >and holding said pawl out> of engage
of said vehicle; a pawl pivoted tol some ñxed part
of the vehicle and adapted to engage said ratchet
wheel; means for urging said pawl in engagement
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5. A reverse locking mechanism comprising: a
casing; a ratchet wheel accommodated within
said casing `and adapted to rotate in response to 60
the rotation of the drive shaft of a motor vehicle;
a pawl pivoted to Isaid casing for engagement
with the ratchet'wheel; a cam plate arranged to
oscillate about a?lxed point through a predeter
mined arc in response to the rotation of said with said ratchet wheeli'means for urging said
ratchet wheel;' a cam surface on said cam plate of` l- pawl in engagement with said ratchet wheel; a 65
such shape that when the plateuis in one extreme cam plate arranged to oscillate about a center
position it will serve to hold the pawl clear of said fixed with respect to said casing through a prede
ratchet wheel,v but upon a slight movement of the termined arc; means for holding said _cam plate
cam-plate in the direction of its opposite extreme in frictional engagement with said ratchet wheel;
position the pawl will be permitted to drop into
engagement with said ratchet wheel and -upon
further movement ofthe cam plate toward said
opposite extreme position the pawl -will be disen
gaged and'held away from said ratchet Wheel; a
a peripheral cam surface on said cam plate of
such shape that when the plate is in one extreme
position it will serve to hold the pawl clear of
said ratchet wheel, but upon a slight movement
of the cam plate in the direction of its opposite
manual control plate arranged to oscillate be-v extreme position the pawl will be permitted to
tween- predetermined limits about a center ñxed drop into engagement with said ratchet wheel and
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2,079,106
upon further movement of the cam plate toward
said opposite extreme position the pawl will be
of 'said ratchet wheel, but upon a slight move
ment of the cam plate in the direction of its
disengaged and held away from said ratchet
wheel; and means independent of said cam plate
opposite extreme position the pawl will be per
mitted to drop into engagement with said ratchet
for moving and holding said pawl out of engage
'wheel and upon further movement of the cam
ment with. said ratchet Wheel. p
6. A reverse locking mechanism comprising:
a casing; a ratchet wheel accommodated with
in said casing and adapted to rotate in response
to the rotation of the drive shaft of a motor ve
hicle; cam plates disposed on either side of said
ratchet wheel and arranged to oscillate about a
. fixed center with respect to said casing through
a predetermined arc; means for holding said
cam plates in frictional engagement with said
ratchet wheel; a pawl pivoted to said casing for
engagement with said ratchet wheel; and means
for urging said pawl in engagement with said
ratchet wheel; peripheral cam surfaces on said
cam plates of such shape that when the plates are
in one extreme position they will serve to hold
the pawl clear of said ratchet wheel, but upon a
slight movement of the cam plates in the direc
tion of their opposite extreme position, the pawl
25
will be permitted to drop into engagement with
said ratchet wheel and upon further movement
of the cam plates towards said opposite extreme
position, the pawl will be disengaged and held
away from said ratchet wheel; and means inde
pendent of said cam plates for moving and hold
ing said pawl out of engagement with said ratchet
wheel.
7. In a vehicle, a reverse locking mechanism
comprising: a ratchet wheel adapted to rotate in
response to the rotation of any rotating member
of said vehicle; a pawl pivoted to some fixed part
of the vehicle and adapted to engage said ratchet
wheel; means for urging said pawl in engagement
with the ratchet wheel; a cam plate arranged to
oscillate about a fixed point through a predeter
mined arc in response to the rotation of said
ratchet wheel; a cam surface on said cam plate
of such shape that when the plate is -in one ex
treme position 'it will serve to hold the pawl clear
plate toward said opposite extreme position the
pawl will be disengaged'and held away from
said ratchet wheel; and means independentvof
said camplate for moving and holding said pawl
out of engagement with said ratchet wheel.l
10
8. In a Vehicle, a reverse locking mechanism i
comprising: a ratchet .wheel adapted to rotate in
response to the rotation of any rotating member
of said vehicle; a pawl pivoted to some ñxed part
of the vehicle and adapted to engage said ratchet
wheel; means for urging said pawl in engage
ment with the ratchet wheel; a cam plate ar
ranged to oscillate about a ñxed point through a
predetermined arc in vresponse to the rotation of
said ratchet wheel; a` _cam surface on said cam 20
plate of such >shape that when the plate is in one
extreme position it will serve to hold the pawl
clear of said ratchet wheel, -but upon a slight
movement of the cam plate in the direction of
its opposite extreme position the pawl will be
permitted to drop into engagement with said
ratchet wheel and upon further movement of
the cam‘ plate toward said opposite extreme po
sition the pawl will be disengaged and held away
from said ratchet wheel; a manual control plate 30
arranged to oscillate between predetermined lim»
its about a center fixed with respect to the ve
hicle and provided with a cam surface adapted
to disengage said pawl from the ratchet wheel
when the control plate is in one of its extreme :
positions; means for urging said control plate to
its opposite extreme position; and means oper
able in response to a movement of the reverse
gear shift mechanism of the vehicle for moving
said control plate to its first mentioned extreme 40
position.
.
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CHARLES P. CIRAC.
THOMAS W. COOPER.
WILLIAM W. MACDONALD.
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