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Патент USA US2082197

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‘June 1, 1937.‘
w_ A, BATES
2,082,197
GRATING
Filed March 25, 1933
2. Sheets-Sheet l
IN‘VENTOR'
BY 7P M. 21,4
ATTORNEY
June 1, 1937.
'
w, A_ BATES
-
2,082,197‘
GRATING
Filed March 25, 1933
2 Sheets-Sheet 2'
INVEN TOR
)1 TTORNEY .
attain
Patented June 1, 1937
UNITE
STATES
PATENT cries
2.082.197
GRATING
Walter A. Bates, Gary, Ind., assignor to Beulah
H. Bates, Gary, Ind.
Application March 25, 1933, Serial No. 662,707
13 Claims.
This invention relates to metal gratings which
are used for open ?ooring, stair treads, plat
forms and for many other purposes.
The object of the invention is primarily to en
5 able a grating to be made in a plurality of sec
tions adapted to be assembled and secured to
gether to provide a strong and rigid grating
which will hold its shape and rigidity under
heavy loads and the shocks and jars of general
use, which will distribute a load over a consid
(01. 1189-82)
Fig. 3 is an enlarged detail section on the
line 3-—3 of Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is an elevation of a portion of one cross
bar shown in Fig. 1 and as it appears when ?rst
blanked.
Fig. 5 is an elevation of the cross bar shown
in Fig. 3 expanded with the main bars arranged
in relation to the cross bar and shown in sec
tion.
Fig. 6 is a’ detail sectional view on the line 10
6-6 of Fig. 5.
r
erable area of the grating, and which will main
tain a plane top surface under all ordinary con
ditions of use throughout the area of the grat
of Fig. 5 compressed upon the main bars which
ing where sections adjoin as well as where the
are shown_ in section
bars cross.
Another object is to enable the grating sections
to be assembled on the job in a flooring or
other structure and so shaped that any section
may be used either side up and matched at its
edges with other sections to form a continuous
?ooring with the bars of the sections register
ing and nesting.
Another object is to enable the main bars and
cross bars to be interlocked securely and rigidly
so that each bar will maintain its position and
shape and will not become distorted or permit
the grating to distort under the conditions of
service to which gratings of this kind are sub—
jected.
Another object is to unite the main bars and
Fig. 7 is an elevation showing the cross bar
Fig. 8 is a perspective view of another form of
grating section with parts of other sections
shown in broken lines in assembled relation
therewith.
Fig. 9 is an elevation of a portion of one cross
bar shown in the full line grating section of Fig.
8 and as it appears when ?rst blanked.
Fig. 10 is an elevation of the cross bar shown
in Fig. 9 expanded with the main bars arranged
in relation to the cross bar and shown in sec
tion. a
Fig. .11 is an elevation showing the cross bar
of Fig. 10 compressed upon the main bars which
are shown in section.
Fig. 12 is a detail perspective View of an end.
portion of one of the main bars shown in Figs.
cross bars in a novel manner to form a perma
8-11.
nent rigid structure in which every bar is'se
curely held and braced against movement rela
tive to the other bars to provide a strong and
,Figs. 13 and 14 are detail perspective views
showing modi?ed forms of the end portions of
the cross bars shown in Figs. 8-11.
Referring to Figs. 1 and 4 to 'Lthe grating .
comprises a plurality of main bars I and cross
bars 2 spaced apart as desired. The main bars
are provided with notches Ill in their edges and
substantial grating capable of withstanding
.
heavy and rough usage.
Another object is to reduce the Weight of the
grating by reducing the section of some or all
of the bars and without impairing the strength
of the grating.
Another object is to support each section .of
the grating at its four sides with the ends of the
bars matched with the ends of the bars of adja
these notches are preferably formed by punch
ing and displacing the metal and producing the
side projections H at the notches, Fig. 5. The
cent sections similarly supported to provide and
not reduce the strength of the grating because
maintain a smooth flooring or other structure
the main bars ‘are braced by the cross bars as
hereinafter described. The cross bars may also
be formed with concave sides if desired, as
shown in Fig. 1.
composed of a plurality of sections and all rigid
ly locked together.
In the accompanying drawings I have illuse
trated selected embodiments of the invention
wherein
Fig. 1 is a perspective View of one form of
grating section embodying the invention with
parts of other sections assembled therewith.
Fig. 2 is a plan View of the invention arranged
55 in a flooring.
main bars are also preferably formed with con
cave sides l2 to reduce the weight. This does
Each cross bar is cut and slit so that it can be
expanded to receive the main bars and then
be compressed snugly upon the main bars in
oppositely disposed notches therein to inter
lock the bars solidlyland rigidly. Referring to
Fig. 4, the cross bar 2 is blanked to provide
openings 3 which correspond substantially in 55
2
2,082,197
shape to the cross section of the main bars.
These openings are located within the marginal
side edges 4, 4 of the cross bar which extend
continuously from end to end of the cross bar
at the top and at the bottom of the openings 3.
When the main bars are assembled with the
cross bars these marginal edges of the cross bars
seat in the notches IU of the main bars and the
the adjacent substantially triangular load dis
tributing members and intermediate load dis
tributing members to the top marginal edge of
the cross bar and thence to the adjacent main
bars. Further distribution. of the load will carry
the load through the next substantially triangular
load distributing members and intermediate load
distributing members to the next main bars and
top and bottom edges of the main bars and the I. so on until the load is distributed over a number
‘ .
7
10 cross bars lie in the same planes.
of main bars and cross bars.
10
Each cross bar is slitted to provide intermedi
Referring to Figs. 8 to 14, the grating consists
ate load distributing members 5 and substantially of main bars 8 and cross bars 9. The cross bar
triangular load distributing members 6 at thev 9 is blanked to provide openings l3 and I 4 con
sides of the main bar receiving openings 3. ' The ' nected by a narrow neck l5. In the form shown
15 intermediate load distributing member at the left
the openings 13 are larger than the openings I4
of an opening 3 extends from the top of the and the openings [3 and Ill alternate lengthwise
opening to the bottom of the next adjacent open
of the cross bar adjacent the opposite edges there
ing and the intermediate load distributing mem- , of.
ber at the right of the aforesaid opening extends
20 from the bottom of the opening to the top of the
next adjacent opening. One of the load distribut
ing members 6 at the left of an opening 3 ex
tends from the top of the opening to the bottom of
the next adjacent opening and is integrally con
nected with the lower end of the intermediate load
distributing member and also forms a wall of the
adjacent opening and is integral with the mar
ginal edge at the top of the cross bar between the
openings. The other load distributing member
30 6 at the left of the opening .is integrally connected
with the upper end of the intermediate load dis
tributing member at the top of the opening and
forms a wall of the opening and is integrally con
nected with the lower marginal edge of the cross
35
bar betweenrthe opening and the next adjacent
opening at the left. The parts of the cross bars
are the same as above described whichever edge
of the bar is uppermost.
Each cross bar after being punched and slitted
40 as shown in Fig. 4 is expanded as shown in Fig. 6
in a substantially zigzag form in cross section
with the top and bottom marginal edges in sub
stantial vertical alinement; the top and bottom
load distributing members 6, 6 are inclined to the
45 vertical but are spaced apart in parallel relation
and the intermediate load distributing members
5 are almost in horizontal position. This expan
sion of the cross bars enlarges the openings 3
so that the main bars I may be readily inserted
therein, after which the cross bars are compressed
upon the main bars to restore them to their origi
nal ?at shape as shown in Fig. 4 with the margi
nal edges seated in the notches of the main bars.
When a plurality of main bars and cross bars
‘ have been assembled as described and a load- is
applied above any main bar (referring to Fig. 7)
the force is transmitted throughlthe main bar to
the lower marginal edge of the cross bar which
tends to bend downwardly thereby'tensioning the
lower substantially triangular load distributing
The cross bar is slitted to provide the inter
mediate load distributing members It, the upper
substantially triangular diagonal load distribut 20
ing members I? and the lower substantially tri
angular diagonal load distributing members I8.
The openings and slits are located within the
marginal edges of the cross bar and the cross bars
are expanded to receive the main bars, Fig. 10,
and‘ are compressed on the main bars, Fig. 11, as
heretofore described. The intermediate load dis
tributing members snugly abut the main bars and
provide braces therefor which compensate for
30
the reduction in cross section to lighten them.
In the form of the invention shown in Figs. 8
to 11 the end portions of the main bars and cross
bars are provided with corner recesses in the sides
thereof so that ends of cross bars of other sections
may be nested therewith. At one end of a bar a 35
recess 19 is provided on one side and at the lower
corner, and a recess 20 on the other side and at
the upper corner, but at the other end of the
same bar the position of the recesses is reversed.
The ends of the bars of one section may be nested 40
with the ends of the bars of another section to
form, in effect, continuous bars. If the spacing
of the bars will permit, main bars may be nested
with main bars or with cross bars, and with
either side of each section up. This enables a
flooring to be made of a plurality of sections with
the end portions of the bars nested to provide
continuous bars, in effect, and a compact inter
locked structure.
The end portions of the bars may be recessed '
as shown at if and 22, Figs. 13 and 14, and slitted
at 23, and the corners 24 formed by the slits may
be twisted or bent sidewise in opposite directions
without de?ecting the top and bottom edges of
the end portions of the bars from their original "
plane. When the end portions are formed ac
cording to Figs. 13 and 14 they may be assembled
with other bars in the manner shown in Fig. 8
and the edges of one bar will form a continua~
members of the cross bar at each side of the main
tion of the edges of the bar with which it is inter
bar.
locked without deviation.
Since these lower substantially triangular
members are connected at their upper ends with
the upper ends of the intermediate load dis
The edges of alternate cross bars in a section
are in reversed position, that is to say one cross
tributing members the pull of the substantially
triangular members applied to the ‘intermediate
load distributing members will put the intermedi
bar will have its upper edge shown in Fig. 9 up,
ate members under compression; and-since the
lower ends of the intermediate members are con
70 nected with the lower ends of the upper substan
tially triangular load distributing’ members the
compression of the intermediate members will
tend to tension the upper substantially triangular
members.
This transmission of a load applied to '
75 any main bar and cross bar will extend through
(50
.
and the adjacent cross bar on each side will have
the bottom edge shown in Fig. 9 up in the assem
bled section.
Referring to Figs. 8 and 11, when a load is ap
plied at A the force is transmitted through the
main bar 8 to the lower marginal edge of the
cross bar 8 which tends to bend downwardly,
thereby tensioning the diagonal load distributing
members i 8 on either side of the main bar. These
diagonal load distributing members 18 are con Q. cl
3
2,082,197
nected to the outer ends of the intermediate load
distributing members l6 and tend to pull the
intermediate members in compression against the
main bar 8. Compressing the intermediate load
distributing members upon the main bar tends to
tension the upper diagonal members I‘! which
connect with the upper marginal edge of the cross
bar .at the adjacent main bars. Thus the load
applied at A is carried primarily by the main bar
directly under it and is distributed through the
tension and compression members of the cross
bar to the adjacent main bars, and so on to the
main bars on both sides.
.
When a load is applied at B, Figs. 8 and .11,
1 5 the force is not transmitted through the main
bar 8 to the lower marginal edge of the cross bar.
as heretofore described, but it tends to compress
the upper diagonal load distributing members
I‘! against the adjacent main bars; and this tends
to tension the intermediate load distributing
members It‘ and compress the lower diagonal
load distributing members I8 and distribute the
load to the bottom edge of the cross bar and then
through the truss action heretofore described to
main bars on both sides.
.
Since the cross bars are in reverse position al
ternately it will be readily understood that a
load moving across the grating in any direction
will be' alternately distributed according to ' A
and B. If the load should pass crosswise of cross
bars and between two main bars or crosswise of
main bars between two cross bars it will be dis
tributed through a combination of A and B. Un
der all conditions the force of the load will not be
' concentrated in a spot beneath the load but will
be distributed over a considerable area beneath
the load.
'
The invention provides in both forms of grat
ing for distributing a load through main bars
40 and cross bars over a considerable area spreading
in all directions from beneath the load and this
prevents sagging or distortion and failure of
any of the bars and provides an efficient grating
which will not work loose in use but which will
retain its rigidity and give long service. As be
fore stated, the grating sections are reversible
and have‘ the same appearance, strength and
safety when installed either side up.
The notches ID in the main bars in both forms
of the invention are preferably as deep as the
marginal edges of the cross bars so that when
the cross bars are seated in the notches the edges
of the main bars and cross bars will lie in the
same planes. The size of the side projections
Cl II will depend largely upon the thickness of the
cross bars and the depth of the notches and when
the cross bars are compressed upon the main bars
they will embed in the projections as shown at
‘I in Figs. 7 and 11. This embedment of the
cross bars in the projections of the main bars
supplements the engagement of the cross bars
with the notches in the main bars to interlock
the bars rigidly together.
The grating sections are made in stock sizes ‘
and shapes or in special sizes and shapes for par
ticular uses, and they are generally rectangular
shapes; and my invention includes means for
supporting the sections at the four sides thereof
and for holding them in place and in relative
position against dislodgement in use.
The grating is supported upon a structure in
cluding beams 25 preferably made of channel ironv
as shown. _ Cross beams 26 of T form are laid on
the supporting beams 25 at spaced intervals to
receive the grating sections therebetween. The
web 21 of each cross beam projects upwardly bee
tween adjacent sections and is of the same height
as the bars of the sections so that its upper edge
will lie in the same plane-with the upper edges
of ‘the bars of the sections. The ends of the web
of each cross beam rest upon the supporting
beams 25 and the ends of the head 28 of the cross
beam are cut loose from the web and are bent
downward to form ?anges 29. Since. the cross
beam thus rests upon the supporting beams and 10
abuts the inner sides of the supporting beams
the cross beam will be supported on the support
ing beams and will be held against endwise move
ment thereon.
'
‘
' The grating sections and the cross beams are '
clamped together by suitable clamps for holding
them in place with the cross beams forming sup
ports for the sides of the grating sections which
rest thereon, and the supporting beams forming"
the supports for the other sides of the sections. 20
These clamps comprise jaw bars which are riv
eted or otherwise secured to the cross beams at
spaced intervals. The jaw bars comprise a bar
or plate 30 having its ends 3| bent upward to
form jaws and the jaw bar is of su?icient length
so that the jaws will project upward on the inner
side of the outer bars of adjacent sections and
close to said bars, Figs. 2 and 3. Clamp bolts 32
extend laterally through the web of each cross
beam headed in one direction and clamp bolts 30
32’ extend laterally through the web headed in
the otherdirection. Each clamp bolt carries a
nut 33 which bears ‘against the web of the cross
beam and the bolt itself engages an outer bar of
a vgrating section.
'I‘heiclamp bolts are arranged ‘
as shown in Fig. 2 with the bolts 32 of one cross
beam arranged in clamping action in opposition
to the bolts 32’ of the next adjacent cross beam.
The bolts bear against ‘the outer bars on opposite
sides of the same grating section and clamp these
bars against the jaws 3| of the jaw bars to lock
and hold the grating sections rigidly in place upon
the cross beams and in ?xed relation to each other
and the whole ?ooring in a rigid solid structure
upon the supporting beams.
:45
I have shown the invention in selected embodi~
ments which I consider desirable for commercial
use but I do not thereby ‘intend to restrict the
invention I speci?cally thereto and reserve the
right to make any changes in the form, construc
50
tion and arrangement of parts as may be neces-'
sary or desirable for different installations or
for other purposes and within‘ the scope of the
following
claims.
'~
‘
‘
I claim:
1. A grating comprising a plurality of main
bars and cross bars, said cross bars having open
ings between their marginal edges to receive the
main bars, said main bars having notches in their
marginal edges to receive. the marginal portions 60
of the cross bars, said cross bars being slitted be
tween the openings therein to provide interme
diate members extending substantially longitu
dinally of the cross bars and connected at the
opposite ends thereof to other members de?ned 65
by the slits and disposed adjacent the opposite
marginal edges of the cross bars, movement of
the longitudinal edges of said cross bars through
out their length away from each other so posi
tioning the intermediate members that they ex
tend substantially transversely of said cross bars
whereby the said other members‘are moved from
their normal position and openings in said cross
bars are enlarged and the main bars may be
passed therethrough, compression of the longi
2,082,119?
4
ing'said intermediate members I back into posi
bars between each adjacent set of main bars and
other load distributing members intermediate the
load distributing members adjacent the marginal
edges, the intermediate load distributing mem
tions wherein they extend substantially longitu
dinally of said cross bars and disposing the-‘mar
nected to the load distributing members adjacent
tudinal edges of the'cross bars throughout'their
length toward each other after the main bars
are passed through the enlarged openings mov
bers having the ends thereof respectively con- A
ginal portions of said cross bars inv the notches
in the edges'of'the main bars.
'
-
2. A grating comprising ,a, plurality of main
10 bars and cross barssecured'together, said cross
bars being slitted to divide the parts thereof ,be
tween the, main bars into a plurality of load dis
tributing members; the slits being: positioned to
provide a load distributing member adjacent each
of the longitudinal marginal'portions of the cross
bars between each adjacent set of main bars and
other load distributing members intermediate the
load distributing members adjacent the marginal
edges, the intermediate load distributing members
having the ends thereof respectively connected to
thegload distributing members adjacent the mar
ginal :edges, the loaddistributing members coop
erating one with another to distribute a load im
pressed on one of said main bars to-the adjacent
25
main
bars.‘
,
z
.
'
i'
a
'
'
3.,A grating comprising a plurality of’ main
bars and cross bars secured together, saidv cross
bars being slitted to divide the parts thereof be
tween the main bars into a plurality of load-dis
tributing members, the slits being positioned to
provide a load distributing member adjacent each
of the longitudinal marginal portions‘ of the cross
bars‘between each adjacent set of main bars and
other load distributing members intermediate the
load distributing members adjacent the marginal
edges,‘ the intermediate load distributingmem
bers having the ends thereof respectively 'con-'
nected to the free ‘ends of the load distributing
members adjacent the marginal edges whereby
40 said load distributing members are connected with
one another in zigzag formation, the load dis
tributing members cooperating one with another
to distribute a load impressed. on one of said main
bars to the adjacent main bars. " ,
45
'
V
4. A grating comprising‘ a plurality of main
bars ‘and cross bars secured'together, said cross
bars being slitted to' divide the parts thereof be
tween the main ‘bars into a plurality‘of load‘dis-v
tributing members, the slits being positioned‘ to
50 provide a load distributing member adjacent each
of the longitudinal marginal portions of the cross
bars between each adjacent set of main bars and
other load distributing members intermediate the
load distributing members adjacent the marginal
55 edges, the intermediate load distributing mem
bers having the ends thereof respectively con
nected to the load distributing members adjacent
the marginal edges, the load distributing mem
bers cooperating one with another .to distribute a
60 loadimpressed on one of said main bars to the
adjacent main bars, said . main .bars having
notches-in the longitudinal edges thereof to re
ceive the marginal portions of the cross bars
whereby the top longitudinal edges of all of said
65 bars’ lie wholly within a single plane and the bot
tom longitudinal edges of all of said bars lie wholly
within another plane to, provide smooth surfaces
on the grating.
.
t
t
7,5. A grating comprising a plurality of main
70 bars and cross, bars secured together, said cross
bars being slitted to divide the parts thereof be
tween'the'main bars into a plurality of load dis
tributing members, the slits being positioned to
provide a load distributing member adjacent each
75 of the longitudinal marginalportions of the cross
the, marginal edges, a load impressed on one of
said main bars tensioning the load distributing
members adjacent one of the longitudinal mar
ginal portions of the cross bars and placing the
intermediate load distributing members cooper
ating with these tensioned load distributing mem
bers under compression and tensioning the load
distributing member adjacent the other longitu
dinal marginal portions of the cross bars.
6. A grating comprising a plurality of main
bars and cross bars secured together, said cross
bars being slitted to divide the parts thereof be
tween the main bars into a plurality of load dis
tributing members, the slits being positioned to
provide a load distributing member adjacent each
of the longitudinal portions of the cross bars,
each of which load distributing members extends
from one main bar to the adjacent main bar,
said slits also being positioned to provide other
load distributing members intermediate the load
distributing members, said other load distributing
members having the ends thereof respectively
connected'to the load distributing members adja
cent the marginal edges, the load distributing
30
members cooperating one with another to dis-4
tribute a load impressed on one of said main bars
to the adjacent main bar's.
"
'
'
[7. A grating comprising a- plurality of main
bars and cross bars secured together, said cross
bars being slitted to divide the parts thereof ‘be
tween the main bars into a plurality of loadidis
tributing members, the slits being positioned to
provide an outer rload distributing member ad
jacent each longitudinal marginal portion of the 40
cross bar, each of said outer. load distributing
members extending from one'main bar to the ad
jacent main bar, said slits also being positioned
to providean intermediate load distributing mem
ber between the outer load distributing members, 45
the intermediate ‘load distributing‘members hav-'
ing the ends thereof respectively connected to the
inwardly disposed’ ends of the ‘outer load distrib
uting’ members whereby. the load - distributing
members intermediate a pair of main bars‘ are
connected one to another in zigzag formation,
the ‘interconnected load distributing members co‘
operating one with another to distribute a load
impressed on ‘one of said main bars to the adja
cent'main bars.
8. A grating comprising a plurality of main
bars and cross bars secured together, each cross
bar being slitted between each pair of main bars
to provide intermediate and substantially trian-'
gular load distributing members, the intermedi 60
ate member extending between the substantially
triangular members from the top of one main bar
to the bottom of the other main bar of the pair.
9. A grating comprising a plurality of main
bars and cross bars secured together, each'cr'oss
bar being slitted between each pair of main bars
to provide intermediate and‘ substantially trian
gularload-distributing members, the intermediate member extending between the substantially
triangular members from the middle of one main 70
bar to the middle of the other main bar of the
pair.
‘
'
'
~'
10; A grating comprising a plurality of main
bars and cross bars secured together, each‘ cross
bar being-slitted between each pair of main bars 75
5
2,082,197
to provide intermediate and substantially trian
12. A grating comprising main bars and cross
gular load distributing members, the intermedi
ate member extending between the substantially
bars secured together, ends of some of said bars
triangular members from the top‘ of one main bar
to» the bottom of the other main bar of the pair,
the upper substantially triangular member ex
tending between the upper edges of the main bars
and alongside one main bar, and the lower sub
being recessed on opposite sides and slitted longi
tudinally between said recesses and the slitted 5
stantially triangular member extending between
10 the lower edges of the main bars and alongside
the other main bar.
11. A grating comprising a plurality of main
bars and cross bars secured together, each cross
bar being slitted between each pair of main bars
to provide intermediate and substantially trian
gular load distributing members, the intermedi
ate member extending from the middle of one
main bar to the middle of the other main bar of
projecting beyond the other bars, and said ends
parts being oppositely twisted at the slits without
disturbing the original position of the top and
bottom edges of the slitted ends.
13. A grating comprising main bars and cross
bars secured together, both ends of some of the
bars projecting beyond the other bars and oppo
site ends of the projecting bars being slitted lon
gitudinally substantially midway between the
longitudinal edges of the projecting bars, the cor
ners formed by said slits being twisted sideways
in opposite directions without de?ecting the top
and bottom edges of the bars.
the pair, and each of the substantially triangular
members extending from one main bar to the
other.
WALTER A. BATES.
20
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