Патент USA US2083064код для вставки
June 8, 1937. J. E. HESS. JR ' HELICOPTER 2,083,064 ’ Filed Oct. '15, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 8B [3 l6 INVENTOR (/OHN E. HEss L/NR. BY TTORNEY June 8, 1937. J. E. HESS. JR 27,083,064 HELICOPTER Filed Oct. 15, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 /NVENTOR L/OHN E. HESSJ/NR. BY Wig” ' TORNEY ‘ Patented Junev .1937 t . 2,083,064 - ' UNIT-ensures PATENT ‘OFFICE Y John a. Hess. as, New Westminster, was 0» . lnnihia, M Application October 15, 1935, Serlal'No. 45,22’! s Claims.‘ (01. 244-0)‘ [My invention relates to improvements in hell in the body of the blade as at is. > From opposite copters the objects of which are to provide means for the machine when m ?ight; to pro- ' vide automatic means for increasing the lift of 5 one lifting propeller and to simultaneously're duce the lift of a complementary propeller, and to provide means serving as automatic stabilizers which also serve as planes for the helicopters in the event of the lifting power of the propellers 10 being less than that necessary to keep the ma chinein?ight. . I - ' The invention consists essentially of a pair of lifting propellers provided on the trailing edge of their blades with an aileron and means for mov 15 1118 the ailerons of one'propeller up and those of the other propeller down, as will be more fully ends of the rocker arm ll wires I. extend to op-' positeendsofanarmll whichissecuredtothe aileron s at the point of its hinge pin II. The ’ cylinders II and ii are each provided with a port It ‘through which the ?uid for operating the pis tons is introduced and withdrawn. . Suitably mounted in the cockpit, not shown are two operating cylinders 20 and 2| each of which are provided with spring returned pistons 10 22 and connectingrods'22.__-1A T-shapedrocking '4 lever 24 is mounted below the cylinders 22 and It, the head member 25 of which is connected at opposite ends to the connecting rods 22, and the leg 28 is connected to two armatures 21 of two 15 solenoids 28 and 22. * Two wires so are led from opposite ends of: 'shown in the accompanying drawings, in, the-head member 25 of the rocking lever 24 .to the ends of a second rocking lever 2| (shown en which:-— i 20 Fig. 1 is a general rear 'elevational view of a‘ larged in Figure 5) which is connected to the 20 base of the control stick 22, so that the operation helicopter showing the invention. of the T-shaped rocking lever 24 can be operated Fig.2isaplanview. .7 Fig. - 3 is a fragmentary view of a propeller as desired by the pilot~through the control stick . described in the following speci?cation and blade ?tted with an aileron. 25 ' Fig. 4 is a sectional view through a blade and aileron showing thecontrol cylinder. ’ telll'lig. 5 is a sectional view of the control sys Flg. 6 is a sectional view of'the oil feed gland to 30 the aileron control cylinders. . ‘ Fig. 'l is a detail view of the automatic control switch. - Pig. 8 M generally. ' ‘ showing the aileron control. ~ . 35‘ Pig. 9 is a detail ‘view ofthe wing vane struc should the solenoids be out of operation. ‘ Each of-the, cylinders 20 and 2| is provided 25 operating ?uid. .A tube 24 leads from the’ port 22 of the cylinder 22 to the base of ‘each of the shafts 2, and a tube 25 also'leads from the port 22 of the cylinder 2|. to the base of each of the 30 shafts 2. These two tubes connectto a sta-' tionary part 26 of a gland 21 which is provided with a port 22 as an inlet and outlet for the . with a central e 22 and an annular groove ' 22 on its upper face. the upper part ll, which is rotatable with the shaft, is provided with a com s5 ' plementary central passage 22 and[- an ‘annular groove 2|. The tube 2| connects th the cen tral e" 22 of both parts of the gland and _ The nmneral l indicates generally a fuselage or continues upwards to the upper extremity of the 40 frame having a'taiP-?n 2, a rudder 2 and a power ‘shaft 2' and there'branches out to each of the 40' plant . not shown. Suitably driven from the control cylinders ll of the blades 2A andthe In the drawings like characters of reference indicate corresponding parts in each ?gure. power plant are horizontal shafts I, each of which drives through a housing 5 and a vertical tubu lar shaft 2. These shafts are driven preferably 45 in opposite directions and are/each ?tted with a corresponding tube extends through the'other shaft to the control cylinders ll of the blades 28; and in a corresponding manner the tube 22 con nects with the annular groove 29 of the sta lifting propeller ‘I having. radiating blades 2 ofv tionary part 22 and connects with the corre suitable pitch. The trailing edge of each blade 2' sponding groove in the upper part 0, continuing \is ?tted with an aileron 0 which may extend any. upwards to ‘the upper end of its shaft,‘ thence. desired distance along ‘the blade from its outer . branching out to the control cylinders. The ,50 periphery inwards. For the purposes of descrip-~ tubes 25 passing to the blades IA communicate 50 tionthe two propellers'will be'respectively re with the control cylinders l2, and those pass ferred to as ‘IA and 1B and their respective blades ing to the blades 88 communicate with the con aslAandlB. _' 1 1 1,. ‘Y’ ' ‘Housed within an opening in each‘ propeller '55 blade I is a pair of hydraulic control cylinders which are respectively indicated by the numerals trol cylinders II, by this means force exerted by the piston 22 of the operating cylinder 20 is trans mitted through the control cylinders to depress the ailerons of the 'propelier‘blades 0A and to 55' II and II, each cylinder is ?tted with a suitable raise those of the propeller blades 83. A-switch 4| is provided for controlling the pull piston ‘i2, see detailsin Figure 4. and a connect-' ing rod i2, The connecting rods engage oppos of the solenoids, this switch consists of an insu wiii) ing of a rocker arm ii?which is fulcrumed lated arm 42 which is pivotally mounted inter 60 .r. i 1 a 2 I ' 8,088,064 ‘ mediate its length upon a pin 43.’ Extending from ' r , machinewillreturntohorisontaliiiahtand eachendoithe armisalaminated springcontact ' 'thes'ideslipisstoppedgravitywillcausethelvanes . ?nger?andexrtendingbelowthearm?isa' toreturntoth'eirnormalsubstantiallyvertical position orsus'pension. Air is normally free to' pass‘ between the suspended vanes and thereiore__ 6 panel, not shown, are rheostats “A and 133,-, no resistanceto vertical lift bythe is. ‘pendulum l! to maintain‘ the arm in horizontal I position. Suitably mounted on an ’ insulated .which are disposed adjacent the free ends of the produced. _' contact '?ngers‘“, each of the rheostats are pro-g vided with contact points I‘!‘ which are disposed - ' r ' , oi lilting propellers ?tted with ailerons on their blades'may be used forward and to the 10_ along a curvevx--x;shown in dotted line,'the innermost point is connected by a wire ll to one rearoiashiptokeepit on alevel course or on or the solenoids 2| o_r 2l'and banks 01' resistancer 'anydesiredinclineordecline. are interpond betw 1 Itwill beapparentthatthesystemoi'uslnga the innermost and outer ~ ' 7' WhileI have shown a hydraulic system. em-I ploying pairs‘ of control cylinderrand a-pair oi ‘ most points 41, so that as the pendulum lvl swings 15 the tip of-the cojitact ?nger ll which is_approach-w operating cylinders, it will_be obvious that single 15 ' cylinders ‘having double acting'pistons ‘may be ing a rheostat contact ?rst the outermost point 41, interposing the maximum resistance in used to e?'ect the same purpose. the line and then the next adjacent point. thus‘ . . > The invention as above ‘described is drawn par ticularly to the automatic control of ailerons at- = cutting out ‘one bank of resistance and so on until the innermost point is reached. Obviously.‘ tachedtothetrailingedgeot'thebladesoi‘ lilting 2° the points contacted will depend on ‘the inclina propellers, but it is well within the'soope oi the» present invention to control the a'ilerons oi the tion or the machine, the resistance of the contact ?nger tobending and the resistance to ?ow of wings, or the elevators 01' a conventional plane current will be reduced as the inclination of the I in the samemanner by using a gravity‘ operated '- I device-and hydraulicnneans to raise an aileron 25 ‘ Irosnthedissram. Flam-es, itwill be‘ apparent on one wing and correspondingly depress an i that on the machine tipping downwardly on, the otherontheoppositewing.- leit or with the propeller blades IA'lower than _' ' 3 WhatI claim as,my invention is: lBthependulumllwillswin‘gtothe - - ‘ ‘ -. '1,'A helicopter having a pair of transversely a, arranged lifting propellers; a supporting wing 30 left and current from the battery ll will ?ow through the.rheostat “A and its contact ?nger, ' mounted transversely beyond theslip stream of" 4 through- the wire a to the solenoid‘ll, thence ‘to each propeller, said supporting wings consisting ~. ground, thus energizing thesolenoid to‘draw in voi’ frames set to a dihedral'angle‘and-havln'g a > its armature and swing the rocking lever 24, thus plurality oi.’ vanes hingedly mounted in said ‘ urging the piston .22 upwardsin the cylinder 20 frames on axes wholly parallel to the line of ?ight a5 40 and allowing the piston- in the cylinder 2! to ' and adapted normally to hang‘ substantially-in descend. The ?uid expresed by the above move I a vertical position whereby when the helicopter meat‘ from the cylinder}! forces the pistons oi= .is in normal ?ight the/slip stream of air from ‘ half the control cylinders outwards as- previously - above‘ passes treelysthro'ugh said vanes and - whereby one end of each of said vanes'is pre-' 4” sentedintothetiirectlineot?lght.v _ T - 2. A helicopter having a pair'oi transversely arranged lilting propellers, a pair of frames ex 'lendme transversely beyond said 45 'thatwhencloaedorinclined w thea'nsleeotthe .wingirama-?aeyoverlapeach other slightly 7o-oiorminmchpos'i?onawingcapableotlehding' .Ion that. side, whereas none is, on the otheriside-oi. By- vised e or mt to . air. the said"