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Патент USA US2083064

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June 8, 1937.
J. E. HESS. JR '
Filed Oct. '15, 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
8B [3 l6
(/OHN E. HEss L/NR.
June 8, 1937.
Filed Oct. 15, 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Wig” '
Patented Junev
.1937 t
John a. Hess. as, New Westminster, was 0»
lnnihia, M
Application October 15, 1935, Serlal'No. 45,22’!
s Claims.‘ (01. 244-0)‘
[My invention relates to improvements in hell in the body of the blade as at is. > From opposite
copters the objects of which are to provide means
the machine when m ?ight; to pro- '
vide automatic means for increasing the lift of
5 one lifting propeller and to simultaneously're
duce the lift of a complementary propeller, and
to provide means serving as automatic stabilizers
which also serve as planes for the helicopters in
the event of the lifting power of the propellers
10 being less than that necessary to keep the ma
The invention consists essentially of a pair of
lifting propellers provided on the trailing edge of
their blades with an aileron and means for mov
15 1118 the ailerons of one'propeller up and those of
the other propeller down, as will be more fully
ends of the rocker arm ll wires I. extend to op-'
positeendsofanarmll whichissecuredtothe
aileron s at the point of its hinge pin II. The ’
cylinders II and ii are each provided with a port
It ‘through which the ?uid for operating the pis
tons is introduced and withdrawn.
Suitably mounted in the cockpit, not shown
are two operating cylinders 20 and 2| each of
which are provided with spring returned pistons 10
22 and connectingrods'22.__-1A T-shapedrocking '4
lever 24 is mounted below the cylinders 22 and
It, the head member 25 of which is connected at
opposite ends to the connecting rods 22, and the
leg 28 is connected to two armatures 21 of two 15
solenoids 28 and 22.
Two wires so are led from opposite ends of:
'shown in the accompanying drawings, in, the-head member 25 of the rocking lever 24 .to
the ends of a second rocking lever 2| (shown en
20 Fig. 1 is a general rear 'elevational view of a‘ larged in Figure 5) which is connected to the 20
base of the control stick 22, so that the operation
helicopter showing the invention.
of the T-shaped rocking lever 24 can be operated
.7 Fig. - 3 is a fragmentary view of a propeller as desired by the pilot~through the control stick
. described in the following speci?cation and
blade ?tted with an aileron.
Fig. 4 is a sectional view through a blade and
aileron showing thecontrol cylinder.
telll'lig. 5 is a sectional view of the control sys
Flg. 6 is a sectional view of'the oil feed gland to
30 the aileron control cylinders.
Fig. 'l is a detail view of the automatic control
Pig. 8 M
showing the aileron control.
35‘ Pig. 9 is a detail ‘view ofthe wing vane struc
should the solenoids be out of operation. ‘
Each of-the, cylinders 20 and 2| is provided 25
operating ?uid. .A tube 24 leads from the’ port
22 of the cylinder 22 to the base of ‘each of the
shafts 2, and a tube 25 also'leads from the port
22 of the cylinder 2|. to the base of each of the 30
shafts 2. These two tubes connectto a sta-'
tionary part 26 of a gland 21 which is provided
with a port 22 as an inlet and outlet for the
with a central
e 22 and an annular groove
' 22 on its upper face. the upper part ll, which is
rotatable with the shaft, is provided with a com
s5 '
plementary central passage 22 and[- an ‘annular
groove 2|. The tube 2| connects th the cen
e" 22 of both parts of the gland and
_ The nmneral l indicates generally a fuselage or continues upwards to the upper extremity of the
40 frame having a'taiP-?n 2, a rudder 2 and a power ‘shaft 2' and there'branches out to each of the 40'
plant . not shown. Suitably driven from the control cylinders ll of the blades 2A andthe
In the drawings like characters of reference
indicate corresponding parts in each ?gure.
power plant are horizontal shafts I, each of which
drives through a housing 5 and a vertical tubu
lar shaft 2. These shafts are driven preferably
45 in opposite directions and are/each ?tted with a
corresponding tube extends through the'other
shaft to the control cylinders ll of the blades 28;
and in a corresponding manner the tube 22 con
nects with the annular groove 29 of the sta
lifting propeller ‘I having. radiating blades 2 ofv tionary part 22 and connects with the corre
suitable pitch. The trailing edge of each blade 2' sponding groove in the upper part 0, continuing
\is ?tted with an aileron 0 which may extend any. upwards to ‘the upper end of its shaft,‘ thence.
desired distance along ‘the blade from its outer . branching out to the control cylinders. The
,50 periphery inwards. For the purposes of descrip-~ tubes 25 passing to the blades IA communicate 50
tionthe two propellers'will be'respectively re with the control cylinders l2, and those pass
ferred to as ‘IA and 1B and their respective blades ing to the blades 88 communicate with the con
‘Housed within an opening in each‘ propeller
'55 blade I is a pair of hydraulic control cylinders
which are respectively indicated by the numerals
trol cylinders II, by this means force exerted by
the piston 22 of the operating cylinder 20 is trans
mitted through the control cylinders to depress
the ailerons of the 'propelier‘blades 0A and to
II and II, each cylinder is ?tted with a suitable raise those of the propeller blades 83.
A-switch 4| is provided for controlling the pull
piston ‘i2, see detailsin Figure 4. and a connect-'
ing rod i2, The connecting rods engage oppos of the solenoids, this switch consists of an insu
wiii) ing
of a rocker arm ii?which is fulcrumed lated arm 42 which is pivotally mounted inter 60
I '
8,088,064 ‘
mediate its length upon a pin 43.’ Extending from
eachendoithe armisalaminated springcontact
?nger?andexrtendingbelowthearm?isa' toreturntoth'eirnormalsubstantiallyvertical
position orsus'pension. Air is normally free to'
pass‘ between the suspended vanes and thereiore__ 6
panel, not shown, are rheostats “A and 133,-, no resistanceto vertical lift bythe
‘pendulum l! to maintain‘ the arm in horizontal
I position.
Suitably mounted
on an ’ insulated
.which are disposed adjacent the free ends of the
_' contact '?ngers‘“, each of the rheostats are pro-g
vided with contact points I‘!‘ which are disposed
oi lilting propellers ?tted with ailerons on
their blades'may be used forward and to the 10_
along a curvevx--x;shown in dotted line,'the
innermost point is connected by a wire ll to one
rearoiashiptokeepit on alevel course or on
or the solenoids 2| o_r 2l'and banks 01' resistancer 'anydesiredinclineordecline.
are interpond betw
Itwill beapparentthatthesystemoi'uslnga
the innermost and outer
WhileI have shown a hydraulic system. em-I
ploying pairs‘ of control cylinderrand a-pair oi ‘
most points 41, so that as the pendulum lvl swings
15 the tip of-the cojitact ?nger ll which is_approach-w
operating cylinders, it will_be obvious that single 15 '
cylinders ‘having double acting'pistons ‘may be
ing a rheostat
contact ?rst the outermost
point 41, interposing the maximum resistance in
used to e?'ect the same purpose.
the line and then the next adjacent point. thus‘ .
The invention as above ‘described is drawn par
ticularly to the automatic control of ailerons at- =
cutting out ‘one bank of resistance and so on
until the innermost point is reached. Obviously.‘ tachedtothetrailingedgeot'thebladesoi‘ lilting 2°
the points contacted will depend on ‘the inclina
propellers, but it is well within the'soope oi the»
present invention to control the a'ilerons oi the
tion or the machine, the resistance of the contact
?nger tobending and the resistance to ?ow of wings, or the elevators 01' a conventional plane
current will be reduced as the inclination of the I in the samemanner by using a gravity‘ operated '- I
device-and hydraulicnneans to raise an aileron 25
‘ Irosnthedissram. Flam-es, itwill be‘ apparent on one wing and correspondingly depress an
i that on the machine tipping downwardly on, the
leit or with the propeller blades IA'lower than
3 WhatI claim as,my invention is:
'1,'A helicopter having a pair of transversely a,
arranged lifting propellers; a supporting wing 30
left and current from the battery ll will ?ow
through the.rheostat “A and its contact ?nger, ' mounted transversely beyond theslip stream of" 4
through- the wire a to the solenoid‘ll, thence ‘to each propeller, said supporting wings consisting ~.
ground, thus energizing thesolenoid to‘draw in voi’ frames set to a dihedral'angle‘and-havln'g a >
its armature and swing the rocking lever 24, thus plurality oi.’ vanes hingedly mounted in said ‘
urging the piston .22 upwardsin the cylinder 20 frames on axes wholly parallel to the line of ?ight a5
and allowing the piston- in the cylinder 2! to ' and adapted normally to hang‘ substantially-in
descend. The ?uid expresed by the above move I a vertical position whereby when the helicopter
meat‘ from the cylinder}! forces the pistons oi= .is in normal ?ight the/slip stream of air from
half the control cylinders outwards as- previously - above‘ passes treelysthro'ugh said vanes and
whereby one end of each of said vanes'is pre-' 4”
2. A helicopter having a pair'oi transversely
arranged lilting propellers, a pair of frames ex
'lendme transversely beyond said
w thea'nsleeotthe
.wingirama-?aeyoverlapeach other slightly
.Ion that. side, whereas none is,
on the otheriside-oi.
e or
mt to . air. the
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