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Патент USA US2083133

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June 8, 1937.
H. WINOGRAD
2,083,133
ELECTRIC VALVE~ ‘SYSTEM .
Filed Nov. 5, 1934
s Sheets-Sheet 1,
June 8, 1937.
H. WINOGRA;
4
2,083,133
’ ELECTRIC VALVE SYSTEM
- ‘Filed Nov. 5, 1934
s Sheets-Sheet ‘2 '
June 8, 1937..
I
2,083,133
H. WINOGRAD
ELECTRIC VALVE SYSTEM
File-d Nov. 5, 1954
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
37
2/70
87
v
Patented June 8, 1937
2,083,133
UNITED SKATES PATENT OFFIQE
2,083,133
ELEQ'ERIC VALVE SYSTEM
‘Harold ‘tivincgrad, Milwaukee, Wis., assignor to
Aiiis~€h liners ltlanufacturing Company, Mil
waukee, Wis, a corporation of Delaware
Application November 5, 1934, Serial No. 751,492
a
4’
10
16 Claims. (Cl. 175—363)
This invention relates in general to electric circuits from the source of supply therefor to
valve systems, and more particularly to a sys
avoid transmitting to such source the potential
tem for producing proper operating conditions of the valve electrodes or of the valve casing.
in an electric valve structure before connecting
Such auxiliary circuits generally include a plu
such valve with the working circuit thereof.
rality of auxiliary transformers and of auxiliary
Electric valves are generally designed to oper
motors in which the introduction of insulation
ate in the most efficient manner and with the
for the whole potential of the elements of the
highest degree of safety when in the tempera
valve would lead to a bulky construction of ex
ture condition reached thereby upon continued cessive cost. It is therefore preferable, and cer
operation. When the operation of the valve is tainly more economical, to supply all the auxiliary
initiated, the valve is generaliy not in the most circuits of the valve from the secondary winding
favorable condition of temperature, and it is of the heating transformer; only the secondary
then frequently desired to raise the temperature winding of the heating transformer then needs
of the valve, and more particularly the tempera
to be insulated for the full voltage of the valve
15
' ture of its electrodes, to a predetermined. value
before putting the valve into operation. To avoid
the complications inherent in the installation of
heaters in or about the valve, it is generally pre
ferred to heat the electrodes of the valve by
t'
causing a flow of current to occur therebetween.
Such ?ow of current is preferably brought about
at a voltage considerably lower than the normal
operating voltage to reduce the amount of losses
or; in the heating circuit, and also to avoid disturb
"' ances in the operation of the valve which might
result from operation thereof at too high a volt“
age before the electrodes reach a suitable tem
perature. Such heating of the valve may be at
30 tamed by inserting a suitable transformer in
series with the transformer normally supplying
operating current to the valve to reduce the volt
age impressed across the electrodes, but such a
method of connection presents the disadvantage
35 that the heating transformer must have a com
paratively high output voltage to overcome the
rea'ctance drop in the main. transformer, which
may have a comparatively high value if the valve
normally operates at a high voltage.
40
It is therefore preferred to connect the heat
ing transformer directly with the anode or anodes
of the valve through a comparatively simple and
inexpensive switch, and to leave the anodes of
the valve connected with the supply transformer
45 associated therewith, the valve being then dis
connected from the supply circuit thereof by
means of the usual switch, Suitable interlocks
should then be provided to avoid simultaneous
connection of the valve with the heating cir
50 cuit and with the supply circuit. In addition to
the heating circuit, the valve generally requires
a plurality of auxiliary circuits for controlling
the operation thereof, such circuits being either
conductively or inductively connected with the
55 valve, and it is then necessary to insulate such
C1
against ground or against the associated primary
winding, thereby reducing the cost of obtaining
such insulation. The connection of the heating
transformer with the valve may be automatically
controlled as a function of time or as a func
tion of the temperature of an electrode of the 20
valve.
It is therefore one of the objects of the present
invention to provide an electric valve system in
which proper operating conditions are produced
in the valve by flow of current therethrough.
Another object, of the present invention is to
provide an electric valve system in which the
valve heating transformer is utilized for in
sulating the auxiliary circuits of the valve from
the current source.
Another object of the present. invention is to
provide an electric valve system in which the
heating circuit and operating circuit of the valve
are interlocked to prevent simultaneous comple
tion thereof.
Another object of the present invention is to
provide an electric valve system in which the
valve receives heating current for a predeter
mined length of time before being connected with 40
the working circuit therefor.
Another object of the present invention is to
provide an electric valve system in which the
operation of the valve heating circuit is con
trolled in response to the temperature of an
electrode of the valve.
Objects and advantages other than those above
set forth will be apparent from the following
description when read in connection with the ac
companying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 diagrammatically illustrates one em
bodiment of the present invention in which the
heating ‘current circuit of the valve is controlled
manually;
Fig. 2 diagrammatically illustrates a modi?ed
2
2,083,133
embodiment of the present invention in which
the heating circuit of the valve is automatically
controlled in function of time; and
Fig. 3 diagrammatically illustrates the modi
Cl ?ed interlocks to be provided for the control
elements of the embodiment illustrated in Fig.
2 when the heating circuit is to be controlled in
response to the variations of the temperature of
an anode of the valve.
10
Referring more particularly to the drawings by
character of reference, reference numerals 6 des
ignates an electric valve utilized for controlling
the flow of current between an electric line 1 and
another electric line 8. In the embodiment illus
trated, line 1 is assumed to be an alternating cur
rent line and line 8 a direct current line, valve 6
manually by opening the circuits of solenoid 32
by means of a push button 39.
Before connection of valve 6 with either the
heating circuit or the working circuit therefor,
recti?ed current obtained from line 1 or for
the valve is made conductive by suitable means
which, in the type of valve illustrated, comp. "
circuits of the valve as is well known in the art.
Valve 6 is herein represented as being of the type
having a reconstructing cathode 9 connected with
[9 in one of the conductors of line 8 and with a plu
rality of anodes || severally connected with line
‘I by means of a transformer l2.
The connec
tions between lines ‘I and B by way of valve 6 are
completed by suitable switches such as a switch
30 l3 inserted in the connection between line 1 and
transformer H2. The operation of valve 6 is con
trolled by means of suitable control electrodes [4
which may be of any suitable type such as grids
severally associated with the anodes H of the
valve. The operation of valve 6 then depends
upon the energization of control electrodes l4 at
suitable potentials considered relative to the po
tential of cathode 9, the potential of the cathode
being taken as datum.
The operation of the valve requires the use of
different auxiliary circuits which differ with the
type of valve utilized, and which may be supplied
with current from an auxiliary supply source of
alternating cur ht such as an auxiliary line l6
which may be energized from line 1 through a
transformer ll. The connection of the auxil
iary circuits with line H5 is effected through
a transformer l9 having a primary winding l8
connected with line H3, and having a secondary
50 winding 2| preferably connected in star or in
zigzag and having a neutral point connected with
cathode 9. Even when winding 2| is not provided
with a neutral point, a point thereof should be
connected with cathode 9 to thereby avoid build
ing up of dangerous potentials between valve 6
and the auxiliary circuits by electrostatic induc
tion.
Transformer I9 is also utilized as a heat
ing transformer for valve 6, and each phase of
winding 2| is accordingly connected with a plu
rality of load devices such as resistors 22, each
resistor being connected with one of the anodes
II of the valve through one of the contacts of a
switch 23. Closure of switch 23 is normally pre
vented by a latch 24 which is withdrawn by ener
gization of a solenoid 2B.’ The solenoid is ener
gized from line ‘I through a transformer 21, the
circuit thereof being completed by a push button
25 and by auxiliary contacts 28 of switch‘ l3,
thus providing an interlock which prevents clo
sure of switch 23 when switch I3 is closed.
Switch Ill may be closed manually against the
action of a spring R9, and is held closed by means
of a latch 3| maintained in engagement there—
with by means of a coil 32 energized from trans
former 21 through auxiliary contacts 33 of switch
U!
closed. Upon occurrence of a disturbance in the
system causing an excessive flow of current to
occur between line 'i and transformer l2, scle
noid 32 is deenergized to allow switch l3 to open.
Such result is obtained by means of a current
transformer 35 connected between
l' and
switch l3 to energize a relay 3! to short circuit
the solenoid 32. Switch l3 may also be tripped
then being utilized for supplying line 8 with
supplying line 1 with inverted current obtained
from line 8, such operations being alternately
obtainable by suitable adjustment of the control
40
23 and in series with resistor 38. Switch I3 is
preferably of the trip-free type so that the switch
cannot be closed manually when solenoid 32 is not
energized, thus providing an interlock which pre~
vents closure of switch l3 when svitch 23 is
an ignition anode 39 and excitation anodes 4! a .
well known. Such electrodes receive current
from winding 2| through a transformer 42 and
through relays 43 and 44. Control electrodes l4
receive a unidirectional voltage component from
a voltage divider 46 connected with cathode 9
and receiving current from a suitable source of
direct current such as a generator 41 driven by
a motor 48 connected with winding 2|. Valve 6
is maintained in suitably evacuated condition
motor
by means
52 energized
of
mechanical
from winding
pump 5! Eldriven
and by
by a 30
diffusion pump 53 having a heater element 54 also
energized from winding 2|.
The
degree of
evacuation
electric
2| through
vacuum
of
a transformer
valve
gauge
8 is56indicated
energized
51. Valve
byfrom
means
5 isWind
gener
of
ally provided with a water jacket '38 05;‘ suitable
construction, and the heat transmitted thereto
by operation of valve 6 is dissipated in a radia
tor 59 by circul tion of the cooling Water there 40
through under the action of a pump
driven
by a motor 62 energized from winding 2 l. Motors
48, 52 and G2 and transformers 42, 45 and 57
are connected with the casing or with electrodes
of valve 6 and therefore need to be insulated
against line l6 or against ground for the voltage
of valve 6, such insulation being provided “
tween windings 2| and i8 and between win ing
2| and ground. Transformer it) being of color-
paratively high rating when compared to the
rating of the individual auxiliary circuits, the
insulation thereof for the voltage of valve (5 does
not materially increase its cost, Wl'l€'."€2t$ con~
siderable complications and expense would result
from insulation, for the volt
4 of valve 6, of the
comparatively small transfu .ers 42, ii and 49
and especially of motors 48,
and 62. The
auxiliary circuits are preferably severally con
nected with windings 2| through knife switches,
to permit sequential closures thereof at the proper 60
times during operation of valve
with the ex
ception of transformer 5'! which is permanently
connected with winding 2i to give a continuous
indication of the vacuum condition within the
valve.
When it is desired to put valve 6 in operation,
line ‘I being energized, the switches: connecting
the auxiliary circuits with winding 2! are closed,
with exception of the switch controlling the
energization of transformer 159. Connection of
transformer 42 with winding 2| causes a dis
charge to be initiated between anode 39 and
cathode 9, such discharge being thereafter main
tained between anodes Ill and cathode 9. The
connections of voltage divider 4b‘ are then so
3
2,083,133
adjusted that all control electrodes M of the
valve receive, from generator 47, a positive uni
directional component to facilitate the undis
may be Withdrawn by a solenoid ‘i2 energized
turbed ?ow of current between anodes H and
cathode 9. If switch I3 is open, push button
25 may then be closed to complete the circuit
of solenoid 26 to withdraw latch 24 and thus
permit manual closure of switch 23. Upon clo
sure of such switch, winding 2| supplies current
10 to the several anodes H of valve ii, each anode
then carrying current while receiving a positive
potential from the associated portion of winding
2|, the several anode currents combining into a
flow of direct current from cathode 9 to the
15 neutral point of winding 2|. To avoid the com
plication of building winding 2| with as many
phases as valve 6 has anodes, each phase por
tion of winding 2| is connected with at least
two anodes of valve 6 through separate resistors
controlled by a reclosing relay it and by an
anti-pumping relay 14. Switch 23 is likewise
provided with a closing coil “i6 acting against
20 22, such connections permitting the several paral
means of the segments 88, 89 and 9|? of a drum 20
controller 86, such controller being driven by a
from a suitable auxiliary source of current such
as a battery 10. The closure of switch is is
the action of a spring Tl.
cooperating with contacts ‘iii, and with con 10
tacts 82 connected in series with coil ‘it. In the
present embodiment, transformer 5i, motor E52
and heater 54 are shown as being all permanent~
1y connected with winding 2|. Motors 62 and
d8 are connected with winding 2i through the
contacts of a relay or‘ contactor 83, and trans
former as is connected with winding 2| through
the contacts of relay 83 and of another relay 8d.
The operation of the system is controlled by
lel connected anodes to carry current simultane
self-starting synchronous motor d'l energized
ously. During such operation, winding 2| is con
nected with the secondary winding of transformer
52 and therefore supplies magnetizing current
25 to such winding to magnetize the core of trans
former l2. In general, however, the voltage of
winding 2| is very low compared to the voltage
of the secondary winding of transformer l2, so
that the amount of magnetizing current supplied
by winding 2| may generally be neglected. A
small amount of circulating current will also be
present in each group of windings of transformer
from winding 2|.
intervals, but it will be understood that controller 25
86 may also be caused to move at irregular
intervals to cause operation of valve 6 to occur
during arbitrary time intervals, such a result
being obtained by intermittent energization of
I2 connected with one of the terminals of wind
35 limited to a small value by the load resistors 22
traversed thereby. During such operation how
ever, line 8 should be disconnected from any gen
erators connected therewith which would other
wise be short circuited through winding 2| and
40 the secondary winding of transformer l2. It
may also be found desirable to disconnect the
current consuming devices supplied from line 8,
although such disconnection is not generally es
sential.
When the flow of heating current through valve
6 has taken place for a length of time sufficient
to bring the valve, and more particularly the
anodes
normal
voltage,
shown.
| |, to a temperature such as to permit
operation of the valve at the desired
switch 23 is returned to the position
Contacts 33 of switch 23 are thereby
again closed andlatch 3| is engaged with switch
|3 by solenoid 32 so that the switch can be
closed manually.
Closure of switch i3 opens
contacts 28, so that latch 24 remains in engage
ment with switch 23 and the switch can no
longer be returned to the closed position.
The
flow of current between lines 1 and 8 is then es
tablished by way of valve 6, and transformer
155 may then be connected with winding 2| to
cause impression on control electrodes ill of suit
able alternating voltage components to permit
adjustment of the flow of current through the
valve by adjustment of the connections of volt
; age divider 46 as is well known.
It will be un
derstood that transformer 49 and voltage divider
46 may also be provided with adjusting means
operating in response to operating conditions of
valve 6 to automatically regulate the flow of
current therethrough.
The valve 6 is thus caused to
operate periodically during predetermined time
ing 2|, such circulating current being, however,
45
Switch 23 is pro
vided with auxiliary contacts ‘l8, ‘l9 and 80 and
relay M is provided with additional contacts at
_
In the embodiment illustrated in Figure 2,
switch I3 is represented as being provided with
a closing coil 63 and with auxiliary contacts 64,
65, 68, 61, 68 and 69. Switch l3 may be main
75 tained in the closed position by a latch 1| ‘which
motor Bl or by manual operation of controller 30
86. Valve ii may be disconnected from the work
ing circuit thereof during time intervals of such
short duration that the valve is still at oper
ating temperature at the time of reconnection
thereof with the working circuit. Under such 35
circumstances it is then unnecessary to connect
the valve with the heating transformer befere
connecting it with the working circuit and the
direct connection with the working circuit may
be effected as a result of the presence of a sec
40
ond controller 92 driven by a reversible split
phase motor 93 energized from winding 2i.
Such controller is so driven as to move from the
position shown to the other extreme position
in the length of time required for heating of 45
valve 6, such controller being so controlled as
to- return to the position shown upon discon
nection of valve 6 from the working circuit
thereof and to reach the position shown in the
length of time required for valve 6 to reach a 50
su?‘iciently low temperature to require reheat
ing thereof before reconnection with the work
ing circuit. For this purpose, controller 92 is
arranged, to be in intermittent engagement with
another controller 94, the engagement being
such that controller 92 reverses controller 94
when reaching the one or the other extreme po
sitions. Controller 94 is provided with a plurality
of conductive segments 96, 9‘! and 98 cooperating
with the other control elements of the system 60
as will appear hereinafter. Valve 6 is preferably
connected with line 8 through a switch 99 pro
vided with a closing and holding coil |il| ener
gized through contacts 65 of switch l3, and pro
vided with auxiliary contacts Hi2 cooperating 65
with contacts 82 of relay 44. A double throw
switch 9| connecting controller 86 with battery
‘H1 is provided for permitting manual tripping
of switch | 3 and resetting of relay ‘l3.
In operation, the system being connected as
shown, motor 8'! moves controller 85 at
pre
determined rate, and the system remains inactive
as long as the controller maintains the connec
tions shown. After a predetermined length of
time, controller 86 causes such connections to be
4
2,083,133
changed, and a circuit is established from battery
19 through switch 9|, segment 9|] andthe coil of
relay 83 back to battery 10. Relay 83lcloses the
contacts thereof, thereby connecting motors 62
and 48 with winding 2| and causing energization
of transformer 42. Such energization results in
the establishment of a discharge between excita
tion anodes 4| and cathode 9,,relay 44 operating
to close contacts 8| and 82 upon establishment of
Such action establishes a cir
10 such discharge.
cuit from battery 19. through coil 16, contacts 82
and I02, segment 91 of controller 94, and contacts
66 of switch l3 back to the battery. Coil 16 thus
being energized causes closure of switch 23, which.
15 connects winding 2| with anodes II to establish
a flow of heating current therebetween.
The above considered movement of controller
88, and the resulting closure of switch 23 also
cause a circuit to be established from winding 2|
20. through the segment of controller 92, segment 89
of controller 86, contacts 88 of switch 23, to motor
93 and back to winding 2|. Motor 93 being thus
energized rotates in the forward direction and
moves controller 92. After a predetermined
25 length of time, controller 92 is moved to the ex
treme position opposite the position shown, and
engages with controller 94 to reverse the position
thereof. The circuit of motor 93 is then opened
by controller 92 and such motor stops. Reversal
30 of controller 94 causes opening of the circuit of
coil 16 at segment 91, so that switch 23 opens
under the action of spring 11. A circuit is then
established from battery 10 through switch 9|,
segment 90, contacts 19, coil of closing and re
35 closing relay ‘l3 and contacts 68 back to battery
19. After a predetermined time delay, relay T3
corresponds substantially to the time required by
valve 6 to reach a temperature below the normal
operating temperature thereof, controller 92 re—
turns to the position shown and engages with corn
troller 94 which is thereby also returned to the
position shown. The circuit of motor 93 is then
interrupted by controller 92 and the motor stops,
the entire system being returned to the position
shown in the figure.
If controller 86 is again moved away from the
position shown before controllers 92 and 94 are
valve
returned
8 will
to then
the position
still be at
shown
a temperature
in the
within
the normal range of valve operating temperatures
and may therefore be connected directly with the 15
working circuit without ?rst being connected with
heating transformer l9. Such result is obtained
by establishment of a circuit from battery 10
through switch 9|, segment 98 and the coil of
relay 83 back to battery 18, causing relay 83 to
connect motors 63 and 48 and transformer 42 with
winding 2|. A discharge is thus established
through valve 6 and relay 44 closes contacts 8|
and 82. Closure of contacts 82, however, does not
cause energization of the coil 16 of switch 23, the
circuit of such coil then being opened at seg—
ment 9‘! of controller 94. Switch 23 therefore
cannot close and a circuit is established from bat~
tery 10 through switch 9|, segment 99, contacts
19, the coil of relay 13 and contacts 83 back to ' e. a
battery 19. After a predetermined time delay, re
lay 73 causes closure of switch |3 in the manner
above explained, and valve 8 is put in normal
operation without being previously heated by con—
nection thereof with transformer | 9. The coil
of relay 84 is also energized as previously ex
closes the ?rst contact thereof, thereby closing
plained, thereby connecting transformer 09 with
a circuit from battery 10 through contacts 18 and
8 I, segment 96 of controller 94, ?rst contact of re
winding 2| to cause regulation of the flow of cur
rent through valve 6. Motor 93 is then energized
from winding 2| through the segment of con 40
40 lay ‘I3, back contact of relay 14, contacts 64 and
coil 63 back to battery 10. Coil 63 thus being en~
ergized, closes switch l3 which is maintained
closed by latch '||. Closure of switch l3 opens
contacts 68, thereby deenergizing the coil of relay
45 13 which returns to the position shown; it also
closes contacts 65 connecting‘coil | 0| with battery
‘l0, thus causing switch 99 to close. Opening of
switch 23 also establishes a circuit from battery
1|] through contacts 18 and 8|, segment 96 and
50 coil of relay 84 back to battery 10. Relay 84 closes
the contacts thereof to energize transformer 49
which supplies alternating voltage components
to control electrodes M to regulate the flow of cur
rent through valve 6.
After a predetermined length of time, con
troller 86 reestablishes the connections shown in
the ?gure. A circuit is then established from
troller 92, segments 89 and 98, and rotates in the
forward direction to move controller 92 to the
position opposite to the position shown. Upon
return of controller 86 to the position shown,
motor 93 may then return controllers 92 and 94
to the position shown as above explained.
Upon occurrence of a disturbance in the sys
tem resulting in an excessive flow of current
through current transformer 39, relay 3? closes
the contacts thereof to. connect battery 10 with
coil 12 through contacts 67, thereby causing latch
1| to be withdrawn and switch 13 to open.
Rc~
closing relay T3 and anti-pumping relay 14 then
cause switch l3 to be reclosed and, in the event
that the cause of disturbance is not removed, :3"
switch l3 will be tripped and reclosed two more
times and will thereafter be locked in the open
position. After the cause of the disturbance has
battery 18 through switch 9|, segment 99, con
tacts 6i, and trip coil 12 back to battery 18. Coil
60 12 being energized lifts latch ‘II and switch l3
opens under the action of spring 29. Opening of
been removed, relay 13 may be reset by manually
switch l3 causes the circuit of coil |8| to be
opened at contacts 65, and switch 99 opens in
turn. Movement of controller 86 also opens the
switch 9i to the position shown. Switch 99 be
ing controlled by contacts 65 of switch it, the
65 circuit of the coil of relay 83 and such relay
returns to the position shown, thereby deenergiz
ing transformer 42 and causing relay 44 to return
to the position shown. Such action opens con
tacts 8| which interrupt the circuit of the coil of
70 relay 84, and such relay returns to the position
shown. Segment 88 also closes a circuit from
winding 2| through the segment of controller 92,
segment 88 and motor 83 back to winding 2| to
cause motor 93 to rotate in the reverse direction.
After a predetermined period of time which
reversing switch 9i, and the system may be re- i?‘
turned to the operative position by returniiiig
two switches are always simultaneously open or
closed during all sequences of operation
In the embodiment partially illustrated in Fig.
the operation of switch 23 is controlled in re~
sponse to the variations of temperature of one
of the anodes H of valve 6, and controllers 92
and 94 are no longer necessary and are therefore
omitted. The remaining switching elements of
the system are those already illustrated in Fig.
2 and, to simplify the drawings, Fig. 3 was drawn
including only the control circuits, the switching
elements and the interlocks therebetween. In
'
2,083,133
the present embodiment, closure of switch 23 is
controlled by a relay H33 having contacts in series
with contacts 82, and operating in response to
the electromotive force of a, thermocouple I04
responsive to the temperature of one of anodes
H.
In the present embodiment, when controller
86 changes the connections of the circuit at seg
ment 955, a circuit is established from battery 1B,
10 through switch at. segment 90!, and the coil of
the relay
as in the previous embodiment. Such
action ultimately results in closure of contacts
82 by relay ed, thereby establishing a circuit from
battery ‘it, through coil ‘it, contacts 82, contacts
15 of relay Hi3, contacts m2 and 65 back to bat
tery it, provided that switches l3 and 99 are
open. Coil ‘it thus being energized, closes switch
23. As a result of the flow of heating current be
tween anodes H and cathode d, the temperature
of the anodes increases until the electromotive
force of thermocouple MM is suf?cient to cause
operation of relay m3 to open the contacts there
of. Such action of relay H13 opens the circuit of
coil ‘l6, thereby causing opening of switch 23.
25 Such opening causes energization of the coil of
relay
to cause closure of switches l3 and 99
as in the previous embodiment. It will be easily
understood that if the temperature of anode II
is within the normal range of operating temper
30 atures at the time of reversal of the connection
of controller 8%, relay H33 will then have opened
the contacts thereof and switch 23 will not close,
thereby permitting relay 13 to cause closure of
switches l3 and 99 after a predetermined time
35 delay.
Although but‘ a few embodiments of the present
invention have been illustrated and described,
it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that
various changes and modi?cations may be made
therein without departing from the spirit of the
invention or from the scope of the appended
claims.
It is claimed and desired to secure by Letters
45
Patent:
1. The combination with an electric. current
supply circuit, an electric current load circuit,
electric valve means comprising an anode and a
cathode constituting spaced electrodes for the
flow of current between said circuits, and switch
50 means having cooperating contacts for control
ling the operative connection of one of said cir
cuits with said electrodes, of means for heating
said electrodes to facilitate the initiation of the
said flow of current comprising a second supply
55 circuit, switch means having cooperating con
tacts, for controlling the connection of the said
second circuit with said electrodes, and an inter
lock comprising means other than said cooperat
ing contacts for preventing the simultaneous
60 connection of said supply circuits with said elec
trodes.
2. In combination with an electric current sup
ply line and an electric current output line, an
electric valve having electrodes arranged to be
65 connected with said lines to control the flow of
current therebetween, switch means for control
ling the connection between said lines by way of
said valve, a circuit for heating said electrodes
by flow of current therebetween including means
70
for obtaining current from said supply line at
a voltage materially lower than the voltage im
pressed on said output line from said supply line
through said valve, switch means for completing
75 said circuit, and an interlock between the ?rst
5
and second said switch means for preventing
simultaneous closure thereof.
3. The combination with an electric current
supply circuit, an electric current load circuit,
one of said circuits being an alternating current
circuit, electric valve means comprising an anode
and a cathode constituting spaced electrodes for
the flow of current between said circuits, and
switch means having cooperating contacts for
controlling the operative connection of one of 10
circuits with said electrodes, of means for
heating said electrodes to facilitate the initia
tion or" said ?ow of current comprising a trans
former having a primary winding energized from
the said one of said circuits and a secondary
winding connectible with said electrodes, switch
means having cooperating contacts controlling
the connection of the said secondary winding
with said electrodes, and an interlock comprising
means other than said cooperating contacts for 20
preventing the simultaneous connection of the
said one of said circuits and said secondary wind
ing with said electrodes.
4. The combination with an electric current
supply circuit, an electric current load circuit, one
of said circuits being an alternating current cir
cuit, electric valve means comprising an anode
and a cathode constituting spaced electrodes for
the flow of current between said circuits, switch
means having cooperating contacts for control
ling the operative connection of said circuits with
said electrodes, of means for heating said elec
trodes to facilitate the initiation of said flow of
current comprising a transformer having a pri
mary winding energized from said one of said
circuits and a secondary winding having one ter
minal thereof connected with one of said elec
trodes, a plurality of auxiliary circuits for con
trolling the operation of said valve means ener
gized from said secondary winding and insulated 40
from said one of said circuits, another switch
means having cooperating contacts controlling
the connection of another terminal of said sec
ondary winding with the other of said electrodes,
and an interlock comprising means other than 4.5
said cooperating contacts for preventing the cir
cuit closing connection of the said cooperating
contacts of either of said switch means when the
said cooperating contacts of the other of said
50
switch means are in circuit closing connection.
5. In combination with an electric current sup
ply line and an electric current output line, one
of said lines being a polyphase alternating cur
rent line, an electric valve having a plurality of
anodes and a cathode connectible with said 55
lines to control the flow of current therebetween,
switch means for controlling the connection be
tween said lines by way of said valve, a trans
former having a polyphase primary winding con
nected with said alternating current line and a 60
polyphase secondary winding connected with said
cathode, a plurality of load devices connected into
groups each connected with one of the phases of
said secondary winding, and switch means for
connecting each of said load devices with one of 65
the anodes of said valve.
6. In combination with an electric current sup
ply line and an electric current output line, one
of said lines being a polyphase alternating cur
rent line, an electric valve having a plurality of 70
anodes. and a cathode connectible with said lines
to control the ?ow of current therebetween, switch
means for controlling the connection between
said lines by way of said valve, a transformer
having a polyphase primary winding connected 75
6
2,083,133
with said alternating current line and a poly
phase secondary winding connected with said
cathode, a plurality of auxiliary circuits for con
trolling the operation of said valve energized from
01
said secondary winding and insulated thereby
from said alternating current line, a plurality of
load devices connected into groups each connected
with one of the phases of said secondary winding,
and switch means for connecting each of said
ll load devices with one of the anodes of said valve.
7. In combination with an electric current sup
ply line and an electric current output line, one of
said lines being a polyphase alternating current
line, an electric valve having a plurality of anodes
I
and a cathode connectible with said lines to con
trol the flow of current therebetween, switch
means for controlling the connection between
said lines by way of said valve, a transformer
having a polyphase primary winding connected
with said alternating current line and a poly
phase secondary winding connected with said
cathode, a plurality of auxiliary circuits for con
trolling the operation of said valve, said circuits
being energized from said secondary winding and
insulated thereby from said alternating current
line, a plurality of load devices connected into
groups each connected with one of the phases
of said secondary winding, switch means for con
necting each of said load devices with one of the
30 anodes of said valve, and an interlock for main~
taining either of said switch means in the open
position when the other thereof is in the closed
position.
8. In combination, an electric current supply
W O' line, anlelectric current output line, one of said
lines being an alternating current line, an elec
tric valve having an anode and a cathode, switch
means for connecting said anode and said cathode
with said lines, a transformer having a primary
40 winding connected with said alternating current
line and having a secondary winding connected
with said cathode, a normally open switch for
connecting said secondary winding with said
anode, means for starting operation of said valve
including means for closing said switch for a pre
determined length of time to cause ?ow of heat
ing current from said transformer through said
valve, and means for closing said switch means
upon reopening of said switch.
9. In combination, an electric current supply
line, an electric current output line, one of said
lines being an alternating current line, an elec
tric valve having an anode and a cathode, switch
means for connecting said anode and said cathode
with said lines, a transformer having a primary
winding connected with said alternating current
line and having a secondary winding connected
with said cathode, a normally open switch for
connecting said secondary winding with said
60 anode, means for starting operation of said valve
including means for rendering said valve conduc~
tive, means responsive to operation of the third
said means for closing said switch for a prede
termined length of time, and means controlled by
said switch for causing closure of said switch
means upon reopening of said switch.
10. In combination, an electric current supply
line, an electric current output line, one of said
lines being an alternating current line, an elec
70 tric valve having an anode and a cathode, switch
means for connecting said anode and said cath
ode with said lines, a transformer having a pri
mary winding connected with said alternating
current line and having a secondary winding con
75 nected with said cathode, a normally open switch
for connecting said secondary winding with said
anode, means for starting operation of said valve
including means for rendering said valve con
ductive, means responsive to operation of the
third said means for closing said switch for a
LA
predetermined length of time, and acting only
after opening or" said switch means for another
predetermined length of time, and time delay
means controlled by said switch for closing said
switch means when said switch is in the open
position.
11. In combination, an electric current supply
line, an electric current output line, one of said
lines being an alternating current line, an elcc-tric valve having an anode and a cathode, switch
means for connecting said anode and said cath
ode With said lines, a transformer having a pri
mary winding connected with said alternating
current line and having a secondary winding‘
connected with said cathode, a normally open
switch for connecting said secondary winding
with said anode, means for starting operation of
said valve including means responsive to the tem
perature of said anode for closing said switch
until said anode reaches a predetermined tem 1'. Li
perature, and means for closing said switch means
upon reopening of said switch.
12. In combination, an electric current supply
line, an electric current output line, one of said
lines being an alternating current line, an elec u
tric valve having an anode and a cathode, switch
means for connecting said anode and said cath
ode with said lines, a transformer having a pri
n
mary winding connected with said alternating
current line and having a secondary winding con
nected with said cathode, a normally open switch
for connecting said secondary winding with said
anode, means for starting operation of said valve
including means responsive to the temperature
of said anode for closing said switch and for 40
maintaining said switch closed only when the
temperture of said anode is below a predeter
mined valve, and time delay means controlled by
said switch for closing said switch means when
said switch is in the open position.
13. The combination with an electric current
supply circuit and an electric current load cir
cuit, of electric valve means comprising an anode
and a cathode connectible with said circuits and.
constituting spaced electrodes for the ?ow of cur 50
rent therebetween, switch means operable to one
position thereof to e?ect thereat the connection
of said circuits by way of said electrodes, means
comprising a time delay device controlling the
said operation of said switch means, a second 55
electric current supply circuit connectible with
said electrodes for rendering said valve means
operative, a second switch means operable to one
position thereof to effect thereat the connection
of the said second supply circuit with said elec 60
trodes and operable to another position thereof
to e?‘ect thereat the operation of said time delay
device.
14. The combination with an electric current
supply circuit and an electric current load cir
cuit, of electric valve means comprising an anode
and a cathode connectible with said circuits and
constituting spaced electrodes for the ?ow of cur
rent therebetween, switch means operable to one
position thereof to effect thereat the connection
of said circuits by way of said electrodes, means
comprising a time delay device controlling said
operation of said switch means, a second electric
current supply circuit connectible with said elec
trodes for rendering said valve means operative,
2,083,133
a second switch means operable to one position
thereof to effect thereat the connection of the
said second supply circuit with said electrodes
and operable to another position thereof to effect
thereat the operation of said time delay device,
and a timing device controlling the operation of
the said second switch means to limit the dura
tion of operation to the said one position thereof.
15. The combination with an electric current
10 supply circuit and an electric current load cir
cuit, of electric valve means comprising an anode
and a cathode connectible with said circuits and
constituting spaced electrodes for the flow of cur
rent therebetween, switch means operable to one
position thereof to effect thereat the connection
of said circuits by way of said electrodes, means
comprising a time delay device controlling the
said operation of said switch means, a second
electric current supply circuit connectible with
29 said electrodes for rendering said Valve means
operative, a second switch means operable to one
7
to the said one position thereof, and a second
timing device for controlling the operation of the
?rst said timing device and for controlling the
duration of operation of the ?rst said switch
means to the said one position thereof.
16. The combination with an electric current
supply circuit and an electric current load cir
cuit, of electric valve means comprising an anode
and a cathode connectible with said circuits and
constituting spaced electrodes for the flow of cur 10
rent therebetween, switch means operable to one
position to effect thereat the connection of said
circuits by way of said electrodes, means com
prising a time delay device controlling the said
operation of said switch means, a second electric 15
current supply circuit connectible with said elec
trodes for rendering said valve means operative,
a second switch means operable to one position
thereof to effect thereat the connection of the
said second supply circuit with said electrodes 20
and operable to another position thereof to effect
position thereof to effect thereat the connection thereat the operation of said time delay device,
and means operable responsive to the tempera
of the said second supply circuit with said elec
trodes and operable to another position thereof ture of said anode for controlling‘ the duration of
N) GI to effect thereat the operation of said time delay
the operation of the said second switch means to 25
the said one position thereof.
device, a timing device for controlling the dura
tion of operation of the second said switch means
HAROLD WINOGRAD.
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