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Патент USA US2083797

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June 15, 1937.
2,083,797
J. D. SCOVILLE
HYDRAULIC MACHINE
Filed Nov. 15, 1935
9 Sheéts-Sheet 1
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June 15, 1937.
_|_ D, scovlLLE;
2,083,797
HYDRAULIC MACHINE
Filed Nov. 15, 1935
9 sheets-sheet 2
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INVENTOR
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ATTORNEY
June 15, 1937.
J. D. SCOVlLLE
2,083,797
HYDRAULIC MACHINE
Filed NOV. 15, 1935
9 Sheets-Sheet 5
June 15, 1937.
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June 15, 1937.
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.1. D. SCOVILLE
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Filed Nov. 13, 1955
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June 15, 1937.
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2,083,797
HYDRAULIC MACHINE
Filed NOV. 13, 1935
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June 15, 1937.
J. D. SCOVILLE
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HYDRAULIC MACHINE
Filed Nov. 13, 1935
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June 15, 1937.
J. D. SCOVILLE
2,083,797
HYDRAULIC MACHINE
Filed Nov. 15, 1935
9 Sheets-Sheet 8
INVENTOR
June 15, 1937.
J, D_ scowLLE
2,083,797
HYDRAULIC MACHINE
Filed NOV. 13, 1935
9 Sheets-Sheet 9
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' INVENTOR
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jlJaoa?le,
BY
ATTORNEY
2,083,797
Patented June 15, 1937
UNITED STATES
PATENT 'OFFICE'
2,083,797
HYDRAULIC MACHINE
James D. Scovllle, York, Pa., assignor to S. Mor
gan Smith Company, .York, Pa., a corporation
of Pennsylvania
Application November 13, 1935, Serial ‘No. 49,457
2 Claims. (Cl. 253-143)
rangement and combination of the several parts
This invention relates to improvements in hy
draulic machines of the type wherein the blades
of the runner are adjustable to vary their angle
and the area, of the water opening through the
runner to correspond with the angle and opening
of the wicket gates which control the admission
of which it is composed, as will be hereinafter
more fully described and claimed.
of a hydraulic machine employing a runner of the _
adjustable blade type and embodying controlling
means according to the present invention, the
of water to the runner.
Heretofore, in hydraulic machines of this type,
it has been customary to construct the mecha
main part of the governor being omitted so as to
nism so that when the wicket gates were operated
10 by the governor in response to variations in the
load, the adjustable blades of the runner would
be correspondingly moved to thereby maintain a
de?nite relationship between the angle or posi
tion of the wicket gates and the angle or posi
15 tion of the runner blades at all times.
‘
For a given head, as the wicket gates are
opened the runner blades must be opened, slowly
in the lower gate range, rapidly from about 60%
2 to 90% gate range, and slowly at the end of the
_ gate stroke. This relationship is determined by
tests and is obtained in the hydraulic machines by
means of a cam in the blade control valve, said
2
cam being operatively connected to the shaft of
the wicket gates so that motion of the gates
causes the blade control valve to rise or fall, which
in turn causes the runner blades to open or close
to their correct position.
.
.
For a given head the above referred to cam has
a de?nite shape. However, if the head at the
30 plant increases, the relationship between the
wicket gates and the runner blades must be
changed to obtain the maximum efficiency. For a
given gate opening the blade angle must be
larger,
35
An object of the present invention is to provide
an improved hydraulic machine of the above type
in which means are provided by which the rela
4
tive positions of the runner blades with respect
to the wicket gates can be quickly adjusted to ob
tain the maximum efficiency of the hydraulic
machine when the head at the plant changes.
Another object of the invention is to provide
an improved hydraulic machine of the above type
45 in which means are provided for adjusting the
cam of the runner blade operating mechanism
control valve, so that the relative positions of the
runner blades with respect to the wicket gates
will be correspondingly adjusted to maintain such
50 a relationship between the angle or position of the
gates and the angle or position of the runner
blades when the head at the plant changes that
maximum e?‘iciency will be obtained.
'
In the accompanying drawings:
Figure 1 is a side elevation, partly in section,
-
Another object of the invention is to provide an
55 improved hydraulic machine of the character
mentioned, which is simple in construction, and
reliable and exact in function under all conditions
of service.
The invention also comprises certain new and
60 useful improvements in the construction, ar
show the control valve device;
'
Fig. 2 is a plan of a portion of the structure.
10
shown in Fig. 1, showingthe governor and con
trol valve device;
-
Fig. 3 is an enlarged vertical section of the
lower end of the runner and shaft, showing the
construction of the parts within the hub of the
runner;
-
i
Fig. 4 is an enlarged vertical section of the servo
motor associated with the runner blade operating
mechanism;
20
Fig. 5 is an enlarged vertical section of the 011
head and associated parts on top of the gen
erator;
.
Fig. 6 is an elevation, partly in section, of the
control device as seen from the line 6-6 of Fig. 2; 25
Fig. '7 is a diagrammatic section of the control
valve device, taken on the line 'l-‘I of Fig. 2;
Fig. 8 is a view similar to Fig. 6 showing the
cam of the control valve device in an adjusted
position;
30
Fig. 9 is an elevation of the adjustable blade
runner, the blades being shown in the position
assumed when the cam of the control valve device
has been shifted from the position illustrated in
Fig. 6 to the position shown in Fig. 8;
35
Fig. 10 is a horizontal section taken on the
line ill-l 0 of Fig. 1 showing the wicket gates and
their operating mechanism;
Fig. 11 is a detail plan of the adjustable rod
connecting the cam of the control valve to the 40
governor;
Fig. 12 is a side elevation of the structure
shown in Fig. 11;
Fig. 13 is a sectiontaken on the line Iii-l3 of
45
Fig. 11; and
Fig. 14 is an enlarged view of a portion of the
rod shown in Fig. 11.
Referring to the drawings and especially to
Figs. 1, 2 and 10, the hydraulic machine may be
in the form of a hydraulic turbine ll adapted to 50
operate an electrical generator l2, and \included
in the complete generating unit is a governor
l3 adapted to automatically control the operation
of the turbine l I, so that the turbine will operate
at a substantially uniform speed, irrespective of 55
the variations in the load.
The turbine H has a runner which is made
with adjustable blades, the angular positions of
which are adapted to be varied, together with
the wicket gates, according to the load, so that 60
2
2,083,797
the turbine will operate at its highest efficiency
at all times.
-
In mechanisms falling within the scope of the
present invention, the operating ?uid is generally
oil, and the oil is supplied from the usual pres
The inner end of each blade 34 is formed with
a trunnion 35 which is journalled in bearings 36
and 31 supported in the hub. The construction
is such that the blades are rotatable into differ—
ent angular relationships with the axis of the
sure tank (not shown) which is installed in the runner.
‘
power house as a part of the equipment. The
Means are provided for simultaneously rotat
oil pressure tank is connected with the governor ing all of the blades 34 and for maintaining them
| 3 and also with the runner blade operating in equal angular relationship, such means com
10 mechanism, means being provided for control
prising preferably an, arm 38 rigidly fixed on the
ing the oil in such a manner that when the gov
trunnion 35 of each blade, and links 39 which
ernor operates in either direction to adjust the ' pivotally connect the arms on the different blades
angles of the wicket gates, the runner blades will to a cross head 40. The cross head 40 is guided
be caused to rotate in a similar direction so as
to reciprocate in a direction axially of the run
to effect a corresponding adjustment in the an
ner by guide pins 4|, which are mounted in the
gles or positions thereof. In this way the parts hub of the runner in the manner shown in Fig.
of the turbine will be simultaneously adjusted, 3. It will be understood that the relative positions
so that all of the parts will at all times retain
of the blades 34 govern the area of the water
their correct relationship with each other, and passages or openings between the blades, and
the turbine will operate with maximum eiiiciency that when the blades are rotated, the area of
and smoothness and with minimum vibration.
the water passages is increased or decreased de
For the purpose of controlling the actuation pending upon the direction in which the blades
of the runner blade operating mechanism, a con
are moved.
trol valve device | 5 is employed. This control
As shown in Figs. 1, 3 and 9, a cap 42 is bolted
valve is connected to the ?uid pressure line and or otherwise removably secured to the lower end
is adapted to be operated in the manner to be of the hub of the runner 28. Since the hub of the
hereinafter described.
runner is otherwise enclosed and the hub is hol
The turbine || comprises a casing it which low, the cap 42 provides a closed chamber or
forms a peripheral water inlet in which are
reservoir for containing a supply of grease for
30 mounted an annular series of movable wicket
lubricating the various working parts of the
gates l1 and stationary guide vanes l4.
mechanism contained within the hub :f the
Projecting from the lower end of the wicket runner.
gates H, are trunnions l8 which are journalled in
The cross head 40 is bolted or otherwise ?xed to
the adjacent portion of the casing l6.
Stems |9 project upwardly from the wicket
gates I1 and terminate a suitable distance there
above, said stems being journalled in suitable
bearings carried by the casing IS.
The wicket gates H are adapted to be rotated
40
simultaneously into different angular positions to
control the ?ow of water into the turbine in the
usual manner, and for this purpose the upper
ends of the stems l9 are provided with gate oper
ating arms 2|) which are ?xed to said stems and
connected by links to a gate adjusting ring 2|,
as shown in Fig. 10.
The gate adjusting ring 2| is connected by link
30
cent to the point where the runner shaft is joined 40
to the generator shaft 3|.
The servo motor piston 44 is contained in a
cylinder which may be formed as an enlargement
of the runner shaft 29, the upper portion of said
cylinder being closed by the lower portion of the 45
generator shaft 3|, as shown in Fig. 4.
The upper portion of the operating rod 43
means for closing the chamber 41 on the lower
runner shaft 29, and this bushing besides forming
a bearing for the operating rod 43, provides 50
side of the piston 44.
The servo motor piston 44 is double acting, and
in order to supply oil to both sides thereof for the
purpose of operating the same in either direction,
two tubes or pipes 48 and 49 are employed. The
pipes 48 and 49 are mounted within the hollow
generator shaft 3| and rotate therewith, said
pipes extending from the servo motor upwardly
through the shaft 3| to a head 50 which is mount 60
ed on top of the generator |2 (see Figs. 1 and 5).
If so desired the pipe 49 can be concentrically dis
posed within the pipe 48.
The lower end of the pipe 49 is in communica
tion with the chamber 41 on the lower side of the 65
servo motor piston 44 and the lower end of the
pipe 48 is in communication with chamber 5| on
the upper side of said piston.
The lower end of the pipe 49 is ?xed to a cap 52
carried by the servo motor piston 44, and there
of the runner shaft 29.
fore thepipe 49 will be moved rectilinearly in the
A suitable number of blades 34 are rotatably generator shaft 3| when the servo motor operates.
supported in the hub of the runner 28 and pro-w, A chamber 53 is provided within the cap 52, said
'J'ect radially therefrom. In the present instance
25
ing rod 43 is ?xed to the piston 44 of a servo motor
45 which is mounted in the runner shaft 29 adja
trolling member (not shown) of the governor
l3 (see Fig. 2).
As shown in Fig. 1 the lower portion of the tur
bine casing “5 forms an axially directed chamber
21 in. which the runner 28 operates.
The hub of the runner 28 is ?xed to the lower
75 four blades are shown (see also Figs. 1 and 10) .
20
tends upwardly through the hollow runner
shaft 29.
As shown in Fig. 4 the upper end of the operat
passes through a bushing 46 mounted in the
Any suitable type of setting may be used for
the turbine installation, a concrete setting 32
being shown in the present instance. The por
65 tion of the setting below the turbine forms a
draft tube 33 into which the water is discharged
from the runner. The electrical generator l2
may rest on top of the setting as shown in Fig. 1.
Referring now to Fig. 3, the hub of the runner
28 is bolted or otherwise ?xed to the lower end
15
the lower end of an operating rod 43 which ex
means 22 to a shaft 23. Fixed to the upper end
of the shaft 23 is an arm 24 which is connected
by a link 25 in a well known manner to the con
end of a hollow or tubular shaft 29 which is jour
nalled in a suitable bearing 30 mounted in the
turbine casing. The upper end of the runner
60 shaft 29 is directly connected to the shaft 3| of
the generator l2 (see also Fig. 4).
10
70'
chamber being connected to the piston chamber
41 by means of passages or ports 54 formed in the 75
3
2,088,797
piston 94, so that oil supplied through the pipe 99
the shaft 13, with the result that the shaft will
will flow into the chamber 01.
The lower end of the pipe 48 terminates above
the cap 52, so as to hem communication with the
chamber H of the servo motor. The lower end of
understood that due to the provision of the ball
‘Id, a universal joint is formed between the pipe
49 and arm ‘II, so that the pipe-‘09 will be free
be rotated in either direction.
It will also be
to rotate with respect to the non-rotating arm
‘II, during the operation of the turbine.
generator shaft 3 I, by means of a member 59 hav
Referring now to Figs. 6, 7 and 8, the control
ing a peripheral ?ange which is bolted or other
valve device I5 comprises a casing formed with
wise secured to the adjacent portion of the gen
96. Contained in the cylinder 80 is 10
erator shaft 9!. The member 55 provides means aa cylinder
valve 81. ' As shown, the cylinder and valve
for closing the lower end of the hollow generator may be vertically disposed, and the valve has a
shaft 9| and thereby cut off communication from stem 08 which projects upwardly through the
the chamber bl to the space within said shaft top of the casing of the valve device IE.
exteriorlyof the pipes 09 and 09.
A plurality of ports M, 92, 90, 94 and 95 are 15
Referring now to Fig. 5, the head 50 is formed provided for connecting the cylinder 80 with a
15
with a plurality of superposed cavities 56, 91, 50 plurality of chambers 96, 91, 99, 99 and I00 re
and 59, the cavities 5i and 59 constituting cham
spectively. The valve 91 is formed with a pair
bers for containing oil, and the cavities 50 and 59 of spaced apart and connected heads 89 and 90.
forming housings for the mechanism.
The ports 92 and 94 are spaced apart a suitable
The upper end of the pipe 48 terminates within distance, so that the heads 99 and 90 will lap
20
the chamber 58 so that said chamber is at all said parts when the valve 81 is in one position,
times in communication with the servo motor as will be hereinafter~ described, and all of the
chamber 5 I. For the purpose of securing the ports are so disposed relatively to each other,
upper end of the pipe 99 in position, a member 59 that when the valve 81 is in certain other posi 25
25 is employed. This member ‘has a peripheral
tions said ports will be connected in the manner
flange which is bolted or otherwise secured to the to be hereinafter described.
adjacent portion of the body of the head 50. In
Chamber 91! is connected by a pipe IOI, with
order to prevent leakage of oil from the chamber the chamber 58 in the head 50, and apipe I02
50 into the cavity 59, a packing gland GI is ?tted connects chambers 99 and 51 (see Figs. 5 and 7). 30
to the member 60 and surrounds the pipe 00.
The chamber 99 is connected to the oil pressure
The pipe 09 projects upwardly through the conduit E03, by a pipe I04, which is ?tted with
chambers 58 and 51, and terminates in the cavity a manually operated valve I05. (See Figs. 2
56. For the purpose of guiding the pipe 09, a and 7.)
bearing 62 is ?tted in the wall separating the
Chambers 90 and I00 are connected by a pipe 35
chambers 51 and 50. Since the bearing 62 snugly I09 to the return conduit I01 which connects
?ts around the pipe 99, leakage of oil between the the governor I3 with the sump tank (not shown)
' the pipe 08 may be secured to the lower end of the
chambers 51 and 58 is reduced to a minimum.
The top of the chamber 51 is closed by means of
a cap plate 63 which is detachably secured to the
40 head 50 by means of bolts or other suitable fasten
ing means. A packing gland 00 is secured to the
cap plate 63 and surrounds the upper portion of
the pipe 49 so as to seal the top of the chamber 51.
A plurality of openings 95 are formed in the
portion of the pipe 09 which is located within the
chamber 51, so that oil can ?ow from said cham
ber into vthe pipe and from thence downwardly to
the chamber 51.
.
At a convenient ‘point in the cavity 59, the pipe
50 08 has ?xed thereto a sealing ring 56. This seal
ing ring is associated witha pan 6'? carried by the
upper portion of the generator I2 in such a man
ner that any oil seeping through the packing
of the oil pressure system (see Figs. 2 and '7) .
For the purpose of operating the valve 81, a
cam I00 is provided. This cam comprises an 40
elongated body which is mounted for horizontal
movement in a slot I9I formed in a saddle I09.
The saddle I09 is bolted or otherwise attached
to the side of the casing of the control valve
45
device I5, as shown in Figs; 6 and '7.
One end of the cam I00 is connected by a link
or rod IIO, to an arm III ?xed to and projecting
from the gate operating shaft 23, so that rota
tion of the shaft 23 resulting from the opera.
tion of the governor I3, results in the cam being 50
moved rectilinearly in the saddle I09 (see Fig. 2).
As shown in Figs. 6 and ,8, the upper surface
of the cam I08 is formed with a cam face H2
which is adapted to engage a roller H3, carried
gland BI will be prevented from passing down the by a vertically movable plunger I“. The plung 55
55 exterior of the pipe 98 to the upper end of the
generator shaft 3 I. In order to prevent oil from
accumulating in the pan 01, the bottom of the pan
is perforated, as at 00 (Fig. 5), near the outer
edge thereof, so that the oil will pass to the out
65
er is mounted in a bore I32 formed in the saddle
I09.
The upper end of the plunger I“ is formed
with a threaded portion I25 which passes thrmgh
an opening I21 formed in a bracket I28. Above 60
side of the upper end of the generator shaft 3|.
The upper end of the pipe 99 is closed by a
the bracket I20, the, threaded portion I26 has
plug 69. The plug projects upwardly into the
cavity 56. The upper portion of the plug 09
as to provide means for manually raising the
plunger Ill, should it be so desired.
The bottom of the plunger III! is formed with 65
an enlarged portion II5, which constitutes a
weight for maintaining the roller H3 in contact
is hollowed out to form a recess ‘I0.
Mounted on a shaft ‘I3 which is transversely
disposed in the upper portion of the head 50,
is a lever ‘I2, and depending from said lever is
an arm ‘II which extends into the recess ‘I0 in the
plug 69. A ball ‘I4 is interposed between the end
70 of the arm ‘II and a bearing block ‘I5 in the bot
tom of the recess.‘I0. The construction and ar
rangement of these parts is such that vertical
movement of the pipe 49 in either direction is
transmitted through the arm ‘II and lever ‘H .to
nuts I29 and a washer I30 mounted thereon so
with the cam face.
A pair of bars I II, which are arranged in par
allel relation on oppositesides of the valve stem 70
88 and plunger I“, have one end pivotally
connected, as at H8, to the plunger III, their
intermediate portion pivoted to the valve stem 00,
as indicated at I I9, and their other end connected
by a link I20, to one arm of a bell crank lever 75
4
31
9,088,797
I2I, the link I20 being connected to the bars II 1
by means of a pivot pin I24 (see also Fig. 1).
The bars II1 constitute a ?oating lever, the pur
formed on the rod I40 and adapted to cooperate
with said pointer. Any number of notches may
be employed. In the instant case, three notches
pose of which will be hereinafter described.
The bell crank lever I2I is supported by a
bracket I22 mounted on the base of the appara
formed on the rod I40 that when the pointer I55
is disposed adjacent thereto the link or rod IIO
tus, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2.
The other arm
of the lever I2I is connected by a rod I23 to an
arm I25 ?xed to the shaft 13.
1O
It will be understood that when the parts are
operatively assembled and the chambers 5| and
41 are charged with oil under pressure, the
are shown, and the intermediate notch I56 is so
will have such length that the cam I06 will be
positioned in the control valve device I5 at the
correct position for the normal head for which
the apparatus is designed. Notch I51 may be for 10
a lower, and notch I56 for a higher head, as
will be hereinafter described.
weight of the parts connecting the ?oating lever
In operation, when the governor I3 operates to
Ill and the arm I25 will pull the lever 12 down
wardly, thereby maintaining the free end of the
arm H in engagement with the ball 14, so that
any movement of the pipe 49 will be transmitted
through the levers and links hereinbefore de
scribed to the floating lever II1.
swing the wicket gates I1 toward open or closed
position to vary the gate opening to conform with 15
variations in the load on the turbine, the rota
tion of the shaft 23 in either direction will effect
a corresponding movement of the valve 61 of the
‘control valve device I5, ‘since said valve is con
nected to the governor through the ?oating lever’ 20
As shown in Figs. 2, 11, 12, 13 and 14, the link
or rod H0 is so made that its length can be
changed, so that the position of cam III with re
II1, plunger II4, cam I08, link H0, and arm III,
and the servo motor 45 will be supplied with
spect to saddle I06 of control valve device I5
?uid under pressure so as to operate the runner
can be shifted or adjusted for the purpose to be
hereinafter described.
The link or rod-IIII is formed with an elon
blade operating mechanism toward open or closed
gated portion I40, one end of which is formed
shown approximately one-half opened and the
position.
25
In Figs. 1 and 10, the runner blades 34 are
with an eye “I through which is inserted a
governor and wicket gates are shown corre
pivot pin I 42 carried by a bracket on the outer
end of the cam I08. The opposite end of por
tion I40 is formed with left hand threads I43.
The opposite end of the link or rod H0 is pref
spondingly positioned. With the runner blades
34 opened approximately one-half, the cam I06 30
of the control valve device I5 is so positioned
that the roller II3 engages the cam face I I2 at a
erably made in the_form of a yoke I44 having
point approximately equi-distant from the high
two arms which straddle the end portion of arm
est and lowest points thereof, so that the plunger
II4 is maintained correspondingly positioned 35
within the frame provided by the saddle I08
(see also Figs. 6 and 7).
III of the governor shaft 23, said yoke being
pivotally connected to said arm by means of a
pin I45, as shown in Fig. 2.
The yoke I44 is formed with an internally
threaded portion having right hand threads I46
40 (see Fig. 13). Engaging the threads I46.is an
end of a threaded rod I41 which is mounted in
the yoke I44 and projects outwardly therefrom.
For the purpose of connecting portion I40 of
rod III) with the yoke I44, use is made of an
elongated nut I48, the threaded bore of which is
formed with right hand threads for engaging
the threaded portion I43 of portion I40 and left
hand threads for engaging the rod I41. Nut I48
is formed with a plurality of openings I46 so that
the nut can be turned by means of a suitable tool
(not shown) having prongs adapted to be in
serted in said openings.
‘ In order that the parts of the link or rod IIO
may be locked in an adjusted position, lock nuts
55 I50, I5I and I52 are provided, nut I50 being
mounted on the threaded portion I43 of rod I40
and being adapted to engage the adjacent end
wall of nut I46, nut I 5I being mounted on rod
I41 for engagement with the adjacent end wall
60 of nut I46, and nut I52 being mounted on rod I41
for engagement with the end of yoke I44.
Threaded rod I41 is held in position in the yoke
I44 by means of a set screw I53.
The above described construction of the link or
When the governor I3 and control valve device
I5 are inactive, the valve 61 is so positioned in the
cylinder 86, that the valve'heads 89 and 60 lap 40
the ports 92 and 94, respectively. With the valve
81 in this position, communication is cut off be
tween the cylinder 66 and the chambers 91 and
39, respectively, and oil under pressure is re
tained or bottled up in chambers 51 and 56, pipes 45
48 and 49, and chambers SI and 41, respectively,
so that the servo motor piston 44 remains in a
position corresponding to the position of the
runner blades 34. The parts will remain so posi
tioned until the governor I3 operates, in response
to a variation in load, to shift the wicket gates I1.
As shown by the arrow in Fig. 2, the governor
I3 moves toward the left to close the wicket gates
and toward the right to open said gates.
The cam I 06 is connected to the gate shaft 23 55
in such a manner that movement of the governor
I3 in one direction, causes the cam to move in the
opposite direction. That is to say, when the gov
ernor moves toward the left (Fig. 2), the cam I06
is moved toward the right (Fig. 6) and vice versa, 60
when the governor moves toward the right, the
cam I06 moves toward the left.
Should the load on the turbine decrease, the
governor I3 will act to move the wicket gates I1
toward closed position, so as to decrease the
red I I0 constitutes a turnbuckle arrangement by
means of which the length of the link or rod IIO
quantity of the driving ?uid supplied to operate
can be adjusted to suit varying conditions, and
the runner 26.
in order that an operator or power house at
tendant can readily observe the adjustment of the
70 link or rod IIO, suitable indicating means are
provided. Such indicating means may comprise,
as shown in Figs. 11 and 12, an indicator arm
The movement of the governor toward the left
causes a corresponding movement of the cam I06
toward the right, with the result that the plunger 70
II4 moves downwardly.
The downward move
I54 having one end ?xed to the yoke I44 and its
opposite or free end made in the form of a pointer
ment of the plunger II 4 is effective through the
floating lever I I1, and said lever is swung down
wardly on the fulcrum provided by the pivot pin
I55, and a series of notches I56, I51 and I56
I24, and this action causes a downward move
75
5
2,088,797
ment of 'the valve Bl, so that the valve heads 89
and 99 uncover the ports 92 and 99, respectively.
When the valve Bl moves downwardly and port
92 is uncovered, chamber 91 is connected to
chamber 99, through port 92, chamber i133, and
port 9i, and ?uid under pressure is vented from
the servo motor chamber St to the return con
duit on, through pipe 99, chamber 98, ‘pipe l0l,
chamber 9l, port 92, chamber 833, port 9|, cham
10
ber stand pipe nus.
Simultaneously with the venting of ?uid under
pressure fromthe chamber? i ,iluid under'pressure
is supplied to the chamber 91 of the servo motor
99, from the supply pipe 993, through pipe E06,
chamber 98, port 93, valve chamber I 39, port 99,
chamber 99, pipe I92, chamber 51 and pipe #39.
The fluid under pressure thus supplied to the
chamber 97 acts on the underside of the servo
motor piston 99 and forces said piston upwardly.
20 This upward movement of the piston 99 is trans
mitted by the rod 93 to the cross head 90, and
said cross head acting through the links 39 and
arms 39, will simultaneously rotate the runner
blades about their trunnions as axes, toward
closed position.
Since the shaft ‘I9 is connected to the servo
motor piston 94 by means of the lever 12, arm
‘H, and the pipe 139, said shaft will be rotated in
a clockwise direction as soon as the servo motor
piston M commences to move upwardly to effect
a change in the angle or position of the runner
blades.
The rotation of the shaft 73 is transmitted by
the arm I25, rod I23, bell crank Hi and link H20,
to the left hand end of the ?oating lever I I‘! (Fig.
7), and said lever will accordingly be swung up
wardly about the fulcrum provided by the pivot
pin H8. In this action of the ?oating lever ill,
the valve 97 will be raised slightly, thereby mov
. ing the valve Bl toward lap position.
However,
the upward movement of the valve 91 is counter
acted by the continued downward movement of
the plunger I I4, so that while the left end of the
lever ill is gradually raised, the right end of
said lever will be gradually lowered. In this way
the valve 81 will be maintained in the position
in which the ports 92 and 94 are respectively un
covered by the valve heads 99 and 90 an amount
suf?cient to establish communication in the above
described manner to both sides of the servo
motor piston 59.
The movement of the right end of the ?oating
lever H1 is de?nitely limited by the governor l3,
‘but the opposite or left end of said lever will con
tinue to move as long as the ports 92 and 99
are not lapped by the heads 89 and 90, respective
ly, of the valve 81. rl‘herefore, the left end of
the ?oating lever Ill will continue its upward
motion until the ports 92 and 94 are lapped,
60 thereby‘ cutting off the communication through
which ?uid under pressure is supplied to operate
the servo motor 45.
through the action of the ?oating lever H1,
cause the valve 81 to move to the position in
which the ports 92 and94 are lapped. In this way
the communication through which ?uid under
pressure is supplied to operate the servo motor
piston 64 is cut off and the operation of the servo
motor is interrupted. The runner blades will
then have been brought to an angle or position
corresponding with the adjusted position into
which the wicket gates have been brought by the
governor 59.
v
The parts will then remain so positioned rela
tive to each other until the wicket gates are again
operated, whereupon a runner blade adjusting
operation similar to that Just described will again
take place to automatically move the runner
blades into proper position with respect to the
position assumed by the wicket gates.
However, when the load is increased, the gover
nor 53 will move in therdirection opposite to that
shown by the arrow in Fig. 2 and the operation
of the other parts will be reversed to that hereto
fore described. In this connection it will be noted
that the valve 91 moves upwardly in the cylinder
86, so that when the port 99 is uncovered, cham 25
bers 99 and "ill will be connected, and chambers
Bl and 98 will be connected. Fluid under pres
sure will then be vented from the servo motor
piston chamber 91 and ?uid under pressure will
be supplied to the servo motor piston chamber 5i, 30
so that the piston 94 will be moved downwardly.
The extreme positions of the ?oating lever H‘!
are shown by broken lines in Fig. "I. When the
runner blade adjusting mechanism is inactive
and the runner blades are approximately one 35
half opened, the ?oating lever Ill will be in
an approximately horizontal position, as shown.
When the runner blades are closed, the ?oating
lever ill will be in the position shown by the
broken lines indicated at A (Fig. '7), and when 40
the runner blades are opened wide, the ?oating
lever will be in the position shown by the broken
lines indicated at B (Fig. '7).
As above described, under a predetermined
head the adjustable runner blades of a hydraulic 45
turbine are opened or closed to conform with
the opening or closing of the wicket gates by the
usual governor to maintain the speed of the
turbine constant under increases or decreases
in the load, so that the runner blades may 50
always occupy an angle or position which corre
sponds with a de?nite position of the wicket
gates as determined by the output of the turbine.
However, if the head at the plant increases
or decreases, the relationship between the rela 55
tive positions of the wicket gates H and the
runner blades 34 should be changed to obtain
the maximum efliciency.
For instance, if the head increases, for a given
60
gate opening, the blade angle must be larger.
Heretofore, when the head at plant changed
this has been taken care of by removing cam
I98 and installing in place thereof another cam
having a different cam surface for engaging
roller H3. But this method has proven un 65
65 su?icient to cause an overload on the turbine, satisfactory on many occasions, due to the fact
whereupon the governor reverses and moves the
cams were not available to suit the change
wicket gates toward open position, thereby gradu that
in head. That is to say, when the operating
ally relieving the load on the turbine.
head was half way between the points for which
Since the rotation of the runner blades as ef
the cams were designed, there was an unavoid 70
70 fected by the servo motor 45, is not simultaneous able loss in efficiency when one cam was sub
The action of the governor l3 will continue
until the wicket gates have been closed an amount
with the action of the governor i3, but closely
follows the same, the upward movement of the
plunger H4 resulting from the reversed action
of the governor, taken in connection with the
75 movement of the servo motor piston 44, will,
stituted for another.
Therefore, in order to provide means whereby
the relative position of the cam I08 can be readily
shifted in accordance with variations in the 75
6
2,083,797
operating head at a plant, it is proposed to shift
the position of the cam in the control valve de
vice by lengthening or shortening the link or
01 will be lowered until ports 92, and 94 are
lapped, thereby cutting oil.’ the communication
through which fluid under pressure is supplied
rod H0 which connects the cam with the gover
to operate the servo motor 45. The runner blades
will then have been moved to the full line posi
nor arm I I I.
In Fig. 6' the broken line indicating cam sur
face H2 is in the same position as the full line
‘ of said cam surface shown in Fig. 8, and the
broken line indicating cam surface H2 in Fig. 8
10 is the same as the full line of the cam surface
shown in Fig. 6. This shifting of the position of
cam I00 may be easily effected by unscrewing
lock nuts I50 and lil and then rotating nut
I48 to shorten the link H0.
15
Thus, assuming that the normal head at a
plant is 35 feet (see Fig. 11), and the head in
creases to 40 feet, the above described method
of shortening the link H0 can be quickly effected
and when the indicator I55 registers with the
20 notch I58 (40 foot mark on rod), the operator
will have correctly shortened the link H0 to
take care of the change in head at the plant.
When the link H0 is thus shortened and cam
I08 moved toward the left (Figs. 6 and 8),
25 plunger II4 will, through. the engagement of
roller H3 with the cam surface H2, be moved
upwardly in the bore I32 of the saddle I09.
The upward movement of the plunger H4
will effect an upward swinging ‘movement of the
30 floating lever III on the fulcrum provided by
the pivot pin I24, and this action causes an up
ward movement of the valve 81, so that the valve
heads 09 and 90 uncover the ports 92 and 94,
respectively.
35
40
When the valve 0‘! moves upwardly and ports
92 and 94 are uncovered, chamber 91 is con
nected to chamber 98, and chamber 99 is con
nected to chamber I00. Fluid under pressure
will then be vented from the servo motor piston
chamber 41, through ports 54, chamber 53, pipe
49, ports 65, chamber 51, pipe I02, chambers 99
and I00 to pipe I06, and fluid under pressure
will be supplied to- servo motor piston chamber
5|, from pipe I04, through chambers 98 and 91,
45 pipe IOI, chamber 50, and pipe 48, so that the
piston 44 will be moved downwardly. This down
ward movement of servo motor piston 44 is
transmitted by the rod 43 to the cross head 40,
and saidcross head acting through the links 39
tion shown in Fig. 9, from the position indicated
by the broken lines, which full line position cor
responds with the adjusted position of cam III.
In this way the relative positions of the runner
blades with respect to the wicket gates can be 10
altered to suit variations in head, so that when
the head on the turbine changes, the turbine will
operate at the maximum emciency.
It will be understood that when the head on
the plant decreases the cam I00 can be shifted 15
in the opposite direction, which action will ef
fect a corresponding adjustment of the runner
blades in the opposite direction so that under
variations in head in either direction the adjusted
positions of the runner blades with respect to 20
the wicket gates can be altered so that under
all conditions the turbine will operate at the
maximum efficiency.
While one illustrative embodiment of the in
vention has been described in detail. it is not 25
my intention to limit its scope to that embodi
ment or otherwise than by the terms of the ap
pended claims.
Having thus described my invention what I
claim is:1. In a turbine, a runner having blades and
means for adjusting the blades into different
angular positions, gates and__means for adjusting
the gates into different angular positions, a gov
ernor, mechanism operated by the governor for 35
controlling the operation of the gate adjusting
means, means separate from said mechanism op
erated by the "governor for controlling the run
ner blade adjusting means, means for adjusting
said controlling means, a rod connecting the 40
governor with said controlling means, and means
for changing the length of said rod whereby the
adjustment of said controlling means is changed
in accordance with variations in head on the
runner.
-
45
2. The combination with a runner having
blades‘ adjustable into different angular posi
tions, and gates adjustable into different angular
positions and controlling the flow of the driving
50 and arms 30, will simultaneously rotate the run
ner blades 34 about their trunnions as axes, so
fluid to the runner, of a governor for adjusting 50
the angular positions of the gates, fluid pressure
that the runner blades are shifted from the
operating means for adjusting the positions of
the runner blades, means for maintaining the
relative positions of the runner blades in syn
chronization with the gates, comprising a valve 55
device for controlling the supply of fluid under
pressure to said runner blade adjusting means,
dotted line position shown in Fig. 9, which dotted
line position it will be noted corresponds to the
55 full line position, Fig. 1, in which the runner
blades have a position corresponding to the one
half opened position of the wicket gates (see
also Fig. 10) toward the full line position, Fig. 9.
As the governor I3 is inactive during this ad
60 justment in position of the runner blades, no
change in position will be imparted to the wicket
gates I1, as will be understood.
Since shaft 13 is connected to the servo motor
piston 44 by means of the lever ‘I2, arm ‘II, and
65 pipe 49, said shaft will be rotated in a counter
clockwise direction as soon as the servo motor
piston 44 commences to move downwardly. This
rotationof shaft 13 is transmitted by arm I25,
rod I23, bell crank I2I and link I20, to the left
70 hand end of the ?oating lever II'I (Fig. 7) and
said lever will accordingly be swung downwardly
about the fulcrum provided by the pivot pin H8.
In this action of the ?oating lever H1, the valve
a cam for actuating said control valve device, a
rod connecting said cam with said governor
whereby operation of said governor simultaneous
ly effects operation of said cam so that the run
ner blades will be adjusted in accordance with
changes in position imparted to the gates by the
governor, and means for changing the length of
said rod whereby the position of said cam with
respect to said valve device is changed in ac
cordance'with variations in head on the runner
so that the relative positions of the runner blades
with respect to the wicket gates are changed in
order that the runner will operate at the maxi
mum e?iciency.
JAMES D. SCOVILLE.
60
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