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Патент USA US2085903

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Patented July 6, 1937
' Wilhelm Fitz, Essen, Germany, assignor, by me'sne
assignments, to Koppers Company, a corpora-y
tion of Delaware‘
No Drawing. Application ‘January 19,1934, Se
rial No. 707,419. in Germany, January 20,
1 Claim.
_My invention relates to the carbonization of
fuel, such as ?nely divided and well coking coal,
especially bituminous coal and the like, and has
particular reference to the so-called medium
202-—20) '
must be as small as possible.v Furthermore, the
material tobe subjected to the medium tempera
ture coking process must show, already at the
coking temperatures above indicated of the
5 temperature carbonization of fuels, that is, a ' medium temperature carbonization, such a‘con
carbonization process which is carried through
traction, that it can be removed from the coking
in such a manner that no portionof the coke
chamberwithout difficulty, for example with the
produced, when gradually reheated in a closed
space, for instance in a closed electric furnace,
10 begins to give oi gas outside the range of tem
known horizontal chamber ovens by means of the
usual‘p-ushers. With most of. the well coking coal .
sorts both these‘condition’s are improved to the 10
desired extent by adding ?nely divided coal which
perature of from 609 to 756° centigrade. '
The temperature at which gases begin to escape ‘ has been subjected to
from coke being slowly reheated in an air-tight ment at temperatures
oven is determined in the usual manner by tracing or, ?nely divided coal
15 the tangent on that section of the curve of car
dry heating of coal
bcnization, which shows uniform formation of
above the softening point (low temperature coke). ,
The above additions when compared with crude
coal, possess a comparatively high heat con
By “curve of carbonization”v I mean a
curve which indicates the quantity of gas deliv
ered at different temperatures by a determined
20 quantity of coke when gradually heated. In
order to facilitate comprehension, it may be men
tioned that the usual high temperature coke or
blast furnace coke begins to give off gases at
temperatures of from 780 to 830° centigrade or
a preliminary heat treat
below its softening point,
particles obtained by the
to temperatures slightly 1
In the medium temperature carbonization the
coal is heated preferably in a chamber coke oven
made of a suitable ceramic material, such as
?re-clay bricks, to a temperature of about 600
30 ?56" centigrade, the walls of the coking chamber
being kept at a temperature, measured on the
inner side of the chamber walhwhich does not
exceed the aforesaid temperature. The coke is
withdrawn from the coking chamber as soon as
35 the condensable hydrocarbons cease to escape
ductivity. Consequently, mixtures of crude coal
and the above indicated additions require a 20
notably shorter'coking time than pure crude coal.
Besides, the contraction of the coal andthus of
the product of the carbonization isimproved by
the additions indicated; to ,such an extent, that
practically no difficulties arise in pushing from‘
the cokingohamber medium temperature coke
obtained by coking a mixture of crude coal and‘ the
above additions.
Hithereto the mixture of crude coal and one
of the abovewnamed additions has been subjected
to the medium temperature’carbonizationin cold
state. .With a width of the coking chamber of
vabout 350 mm. the carbonization ‘time amounts
to about'24 hours.
This time, however, is very
long, considering the comparatively high costs
from the coking charge. In the medium tempera
of V the medium temperature carbonization plants,
ture carbonization an easily inflammable and re
' that means, the output of the coking plant is
active coke in large solid pieces is obtained which
burns without smoke and as to'its properties of
40 combustion closely resembles the natural‘an
thracite or semi-anthracite. 'In addition, by
products are obtained which practically have the
very small’ with relation to the'invested funds, to
same market value as the known by-products of
and thus to improve the economy of the process,
the high temperature carbonization. In this
45 latter respect the medium temperature carboniza
tion process is superior to the known low tempera
the mixture of ?nely divlded,lwell-coking crude
obtain a satisfying lucrative coking process.v ,
Now, according,v to my present invention, in
order to accelerate the coking process proper of _
. ,
the medium temperature carbonization process
coal and an addition of the kind indicated above
is previously to being ?lled into the coking cham 45
ture carbonization which preferably is carried out, ber, preheated and that to temperatures lying-bej
low that point at which the mixture softens or,"
in iron retorts or the like. , ‘
The object of my invention is to provide im
5 O provements in the medium temperature carboni
zation of fuels, especially ?nely divided well cok
ing coal of all sorts, in such a
carbonization process proper
through within a shorter time
55 more economically than it was
manner, that the
can be carried
and thus notably
hitherto possible.
In order to produce medium temperaturecoke
in an economically still admissible relatively short
coking time, the mass to be carbonized must have
the best possible heat conductivity and the con
sumption of heat required for the carbonization
cakes together, and thereupon is charged in such ’
preheated state into the coking chamber.
It has already been suggested to preheat to
temperatures below the softening point, previous.
to the carbonization, a badly coking co'al'thatpis
to be subjected to high temperature carboniza
tion. These proposals, however, never have been
realized successfully, as tests have ‘shown that no '
advantage is obtained in the high temperature »' ,.
high temperature
such preheating
coke made
from‘a iBeej
pre- '>~'
heated, ‘ badly ‘ cokin'gcoal. is of a notablyqlower
the ‘addition, for example semi-coke, and con
quality than coke made from crude coal charged
in cold and wet state. This results from the fea
tainingabout from 55 to 60% well coking coal
ture which frequently is overlooked, viz., that‘ and further a small percentage of small coke as
the badly coking coal sorts,»when preheated even itiremains in‘the disintegration of the medium
in an- hermetically closedv space, more or less
temperature coke,'-is preheated, preferably in a '
lose their coking capacity which already is small
hermetically sealed ‘container, to a temperature
of the softening point of the coal or to that/point
in itself. On, the other-hand, when ?nely dis
at which the mixture cakes together. The tem
perature towhich the mixture of coal and semi-,
coke is to be preheated, dependslupon the proper 10>
10 ing chamber in the state of highest baking 'capaca
ity, and, owing to the comparatively high per- ‘ ties of the coal to be treated. As preheating
centage of moisture, it'is maintained at a low devices I use with advantage the usual rotary
integrated cold crude coal ‘with a moisture of more
than about 10% is used, the coal entersthe cok
temperature for a rather long time during the ' drum furnaces with direct or better indirect heat
carbonization, so that also the preheating period ing appliance. From these rotary drum furnaces
of the coal’ during the carbonization processis , the preheated mixture then is conveyed to an 15,
remarkably shortened, and consequently, those intermediate bunker of a small size. From there
alterations of the substance of the coal cannot > the heated mass after a short time without com
occur at all or to a verysmall extent only, which‘ ing into contact with air is delivered intolthe
unfavourably in?uence its coking capacity.
larry car which advantageously is insulated, and
then charged into the coking chamber. Where
3 20 ' In contrast thereto; I have discovered by my
tests,'that well-coking coals, that is, coals rich in
horizontal chamber ovens are used for the exe- "
bright coal, which coke very well and have a high
cution of' my coking process, the mixture is
content of binding substances, can be preheated,
for a considerably longer. period of time, without
hole disposed in the midst ‘of the coking cham- .
charged preferably through one sole charging
affecting the original baking capacity seriously.
ber, since the dry mixture is distributed uniformly
on the chamber almost without any cuter help.
According to the composition of the mixture
and to the temperature obtainable in the pre
heating treatment the carbonization time is re
Suchwell coking coals, however, are preferably
used in the medium temperature carbonization,
as they possess the capacity of binding in a su?i
cient quantity of the above indicated additions,
30 which are required for the economical carrying
duced about to half that required for medium so
out of the medium temperature carbonization. 7
temperature v'car'bonization without preheating
'I obtain very importantadvantages unknown
hitherto by preheating the material to be charged
‘in the medium temperaturefcarbonization: In
the ?rst place the consumption of heat required
for the formation of coke is considerably reduced.‘
Furthermore, the preheated mixture of crude coal
and an addition of the above kind has a notably
higher heat conductivity, since semi-coke has a
treatment of the mixture. In other words, for
the same output the plant can be designed half
as great as and thus at lower costs, than hitherto.
Finally, the preheating treatment aifords the ad- I 35
vantage that a better and more uniform medium _
temperature coke is obtained.
, I'wish it to be understood that the preceding
40 positive 'coe?icient ’ of heat‘ conductivity, that
means, the ‘heat conductivity of semi-coke in
creased with increasing temperature. All these
features result, in the execution of the process
according to my invention, in a notably shortened
V45 carbonization time, without any perceptible nox
ious in?uence being exerted on the quality of the’ .
produced coke by the preheating of the mixture,’
to be coked.
Thus the economy of the medium temperature
carbonization is substantially. improved by the
process according to my invention.
A further advantageous e?ect of my invention
resides in the fact, that it is now possible, under
certain circumstances, to carry through the me
dium temperature carboni'zation " in the usual
coking chambers of’a width ‘of more‘ than 350
mm., without the carbonization time needing to
speci?cation describes only an example of one
way of carrying out my invention which, how
ever,-is not con?ned to this example. On the
contrary, various modifications may be provided
in the process above described, without in any
way departing from'the spirit of the invention as
defined inthe appended claim, and the right to,
make subsequent claimscther than the following
is expressly reserved.
‘What Iclaim is:—
A method of making medium temperature coke “y
by which the coking periodis reduced about one
half from well coking, ?nely divided bituminous
coal and similarly caking carbonizable fuel in a
coking chamber consisting of ceramic material
= a,
heated by'exterrifally applied heat which process
comprises; ' separately. preliminarily preheating a
mixture: consisting of about 55% to 60% of well
coking coal rich in bright coal and having a high
, be prolonged to such an extent, that the coke content of binding'substances and low temper
‘gives off gases to a large extent in the marginal, . ature coke, prior to introducing the mixture into
60 layers; thatjis, up to the extent to be observed
the coking chamber, upto a temperature approx 60'
but lying‘, below that point at which the
' ., quently; the application of my process also secures
‘ mixture softens and cakes together; charging the
in cokingrchambers of greater width the produc- .
in the highitemperature carbonizati'on.‘ ,Conse
tion of a technically homogeneous medium tem
perature coke of good quality. The somewhat
longer'carbonization time can be tolerated in
‘ most cases ofexisting coking plants withv wider
mixture in such preheated condition into the
coking chamber and coking the same therein sep- ?
arately from the preheating’ by externally apply
ing heat to thewalls of the coking'chamber tov
a maximum temperature of from 600° to ‘750°
Centigrade, 'measured on the inner side of the
these older plants as a rule already have been re
70 deemed'completely, so that the coke is not re- 7 chamber wall, throughout the carbonization to
coking chambers without ‘disadvantage, since
V quired to carry the, interest on the invested
A mixture composed ‘of crude coking coaland
, effect and complete'thecarbonization; and with
drawing the coke formed as soon as condensible
My improved coking processis carried through ' hydrocarbons cease to escape from
,in practice for example inthe 'following'manner:
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