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Патент USA US2085942

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July 6, 1937.
P. A. BANCEL ET AL
REFRIGERATING' APPARATUS
2,085,942
Filed June 28, 1934
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Patented July 6, 1937
* '- 2,085,942 I
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
’
2,085,942.
REFRIGERATING APPARATUS
Paul A. Bancel, Montclair, N. J., and Frederick
H. Hibberd, Bayside, N. Y., assignors to Inger
soll-Rand Company, Jersey City, N. J., a cor
poration of New Jersey
Application June 28, 1934, Serial No. 732,826
5 Claims. (Cl. 62-152)
Our invention relates to improvements in re
frigerating apparatus, and particularly to means
of the steam supplied to each ejector, to prevent
waste of energy in operation.
Another object of the invention is to provide
for regulating the power required to operate same.
The invention ‘is of the type in which a non
regulating means which are responsive as the
5 volatile refrigerant, such as water, is employed ' pressure rises or falls in' the condenser to alter
as the refrigerant, to be cooled by‘ vaporizing a the amount of steam supplied to the steam ejector
-part thereof in a closed vessel or evaporator and
removing the vapor thus formed by an evacuator,
as conditions require.
The objects andradvantages of the invention
such as a steam ejector, which carries the vapor ' are set out in the following description, and the
10 to a condenser wherein both the vapor and steam.
novel features are de?ned in the appended 10
are. lique?ed. The aim of the invention is to claims. We reserve the right to make changes
govern the steam consumed while the ejector is‘ in shape,,size and arrangement of the various
maintained continuously in action, so that the members Without departing from the principle
amount of steam expended is always no greater of the invention, or exceeding. its scope and'spirit.
than the-conditions demand.
_
On the drawing, Figure 1 shows in outline a top 15
i
For the operation of.~a refrigerating system of
this class, the quantity of steam needed may fluc
view‘of refrigerating apparatus according to this
invention;
and
I
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'
’
tuate according to variations in either the load
Figure 2 is a side view, partly in ‘section,
or the temperature of the water supplied to the
condenser to cool the latter. In either case con
The numeral [indicates an evaporator enclos- 20
ditions inside the condenser undergo change, ing two or more chambers‘to which water flows
with the result that the performance of the steam through a supply pipe 2. This pipe is connected
ejector is affected, and, if the pressure and tem .in each of the chambers to a nozzle 3, having a
perature within the condenser are increased too number of openings 4 through which the‘ water
25' much, the steam ejector may even be stopped. issues in the form of jets. The temperature and 25
.It_is well known that a steam ejector, steam jet pressure in the evaporator are low enough so that
booster or a thermo-compressor as it is also the water sprayed into the chambers is vaporized
called, when used for this purpose, has an ap
in part, and in the process of vaporization enough .
proximately constant capacity, that is, the quan
heat is taken out of the main body of water to
30 tity of water vapor drawn by the ejector from the
cool it down to the required degree. The chilled
evaporator and compressed for ‘delivery to the water is removed through an outlet pipe 5, and 30
condenser, is substantially the same in amount the water vapor formed in each chamber of the.
regardless of the quantity of steam used, so long evaporator I is carried o? through an opening '6
as the suction pressure, which is the pressure in the top by the action of a steam ejector 1. This
35 in the evaporator, remains unchanged. It is also
ejector member is connected to a steam supply 35
‘a characteristic of the steam ejector that it must pipe 8, and the steam with the entrained water
be used at its full rated capacity so long as the vapor passes'through a tubular casing 9 into the
condenser ID. This condenser may be of vany
pressure in the evaporator remains at a prede
termined degree, that is, the steam ejector cannot suitable type and is cooled by water to liquefy
4O be regulated merely by turning it partly on or the steam and water vapor delivered thereto.
40
partly off, but must be turned on full to whatever ' The ejector compresses the water vapor, and the
mixture
of
water
vapor
and
steam
flows
into
the
pressure steam is supplied to it. Hence, a satis
factory means for regulating the steam ?owing condenser at a somewhat higher pressure than
thereof.
4
.Ul.
,
to an ejector in a refrigerating system like this,
in accordance with changes in conditions within
the ‘condenser, must in?uence both the quantity
of steam and'the pressure thereof without in
any way reducing the maximum discharge capac
_
that in the evaporator l.
'
.
The supply pipe 2 is connected to the nozzles 45
3 in the evaporator by means of branches H in ‘
which are cut-off valves 12. Similarly the steam
pipe 8 is connected to. the steam ejectors 1 by
branch pipes l3-in parallel, each having a cut
o?f valve I4. Also the delivery conduit 5 is‘ con- 50
50
ity of the ejector.
If]
An object of the invention is to ensure e?icient nected to the chambers by branches l5. These
and economical operation of such a system, and ' branches may also contain cut-off valves, or
to govern the amount of steam that is consumed they may be permanently open when the con—
at varying loads, in connection. with one or more duit 5 is beneath the chambers and the branches ‘
55 evaporator chambers, as. by varying the pressure
l5 have the form of risers of su?icient height be 55
,
2,085,942 "
tween these conduits and the evaporator l. A‘ then expands, the valve 23 opens furtheryand
more steam at higher pressure flows through the
, partition 16 is shown in the evaporator l, divid
casing 32 of this valve. The opening of the valve
ing the interior into two chambers l1. ~Ob
viously the evaporator i may be divided into
more chambers if desired. Whenever one of
the chambers is to be cut out the valve I2 is.
closed to shut off the water supply and the valve
i4 is closed to cut o? the steam for that chamber.
If valves are provided in the branch pipes 15, the
10 branch l5 of the non-operating chamber is also
closed, butlif these branches .are in the form of
risers without valves, the operation is similar
to that set forth in the application of Frederick
H. Hibberd for patent on a Controlling device
15 for a refrigerating system, Serial No. ‘716,945,
is of course opposed by the pressure in the tube
3| and chamber 21. On the other hand, if the
pressure in the condenser drops, less steam at a
lower pressure will sufficev to compress water
vapor created in the evaporator I and force this
vapor into the condenser. Upon the pressure
in the condenser falling, the temperature of the, 10
liquid in the bottom l9 decreases, and the valve
23 is then actuated towards closed position by
the chamber 21, so that less‘ steam at lower pres
sure flows past this valve 23. The pressure of
the steam in the pipe 8 to the right of this valve 15'
will
of course, be high enough to meet all‘
?led March 22, 1934, the water in the chamber '
cut out being then forced by the pressure in the demands.
condenser out through its open riser pipe l5
and down therein to a point above the conduit 5,
_ Suppose for example, the apparatus is oper
ating with all chambers and steam ejectors work
20
where it is trapped and seals this chamber, so ing, and it becomes desirable to cut out one of
that the heat of the condenser does not aiTect the the chambers of the evaporator, because of av
chilled water delivered by the conduit 5 from the drop in the load. With the remaining chamber
or chambers in operation,‘ less steam and water
other chamber or chambers which are working.
vapor are transmitted to ‘the condenser, and
To govern the amount of steam used, a thermo
therefore the water ?owing through the cooling 25
25 static device comprising a bulb or element I8
is inserted into the bottom l9 of the condenser pipes of the condenser absorbs less heat and the
II]. This bulb is connected by a tube 20 to the pressure in the condenser drops (i. e. the vacuum
?xed end of an expansible chamber 2|, the other increases). Therefore, the temperature of the
end 22 of which is movable, and is adapted to liquid at the bottom 19 of the condenser formed 30
by condensation of steam and water vapor de
30 in?uence a valve 23 in the line of.the steam
pipe 8. The stem 24 of the valve is'surrounded creases. The liquid in the tube l8 and chamber
by a spring 25 which presses at one extremity 22 becomes cooler, allowing the valve 23 to move
on the movable end 26 of a second expansible toward closed position, with the result that steam
chamber 21 and at the other extremity on a head at lower pressure and in smaller quantity is sup
or washer 2B slidably mounted on the stem 24. plied to the remaining nozzle or nozzles .1. The
This stem also passes through an opening in the reduced load can thus be carried economically
end of a lever '29, connected at its opposite end and steam is saved. Upon the load increasing,
to the movable end. 22 of the chamber 2|, and so that all the chambers in the evaporator and
mounted on an intermediate pivot 30. The all the ejectors have to be used again, the condenser will become warmer, the vacuumwill be
40 washer 28, lever 29 and expansible chamber-2|
constitute a shifting abutment means for the come less in the condenser and the back pressure
spring 25. The spring 25 will preferably be against the steam, and water vapor will be in
under su?icient compression and be of suf?cient 1 creased. Therefore, the water in the bottom of
length to cooperate with the aforesaid abutment ' the condenser will be hotter and the regulating 45,
45 means throughout the entire range of move
ment of .both expansible chambers. In the bulb
I8, the tube 20 and chamber 2| is a suitable ex
pansible fluid which, on an increase of tempera
50
at higher pressure and in'greater quantity to pass ,
this v'alve.
-
.
.
. The valve 23 can be ‘sensitive enough to respond
ture in the condenser It! will force the lever 29 to ' to variations in load of smaller range than those
compress the spring 25 and chamber‘ 21 andv necessitating the cutting out or the addition or
cause the valve 23 to, open and allow more steam
at higher pressure to pass to the nozzles 1.‘ The
55
means will now open the valve 23 to allow steam
chamber 21 has a ?xed end connected by a tube
3| to the pipe 8,. on the low pressure side of the
valve 23.
‘
_ This arrangement enables steam to be sup
plied to the-ejectors at the pressure required
by working conditions. The pressure in the con
denser opposes the admission of the steam and
60 water vapor and if this pressure exceeds a pre-V
determined value, in relation to the pressure of
so
‘one or more chambers of the evaporator I, to
permit more ‘or lesssteam at higher or lower
pressure to ?ow to such of the chambers IT as
are active, in the manner above described.
Another function 'of the device is to control.
*the system in the event that the cooling-water
supplied to the condenser for l?luefying the steam
55
and vapor changes in temperature. In that case
the pressure in the condenser changes and the
regulating device will now act as before.
The valve 23 thus operates tovary the pressure
the- vapor and steam, the ejector will “break. and quantity of steamdelivered to the nozzle or
nozzles 1, according‘ asv the condenser pressure
back”, or cease to function, because it now will
65 be unable to compress'its own burden, or even
a small quantity of water vapor, until the
evaporation pressure has materially increased.
and the temperature of the chilled water has
become much higher.
increases or diminishes. For greater condenser 65
pressure,'steam at higher pressure and in greater
amount ‘is furnished to the nozzles and for small
condenser pressures both the quantity and pres
sure of the steam are reduced.’
.
'
'
The liquid of condensation formed in the con 70
The remedy for this condition is to raise the’ denser
“! can be removed through a pipe 33 and
70 pressure
of the steam at the ejector ‘I. When transferred to any desired point by a pump 34.
the pressure in the condenser rises, the tempera
‘With this construction a‘ great saving in the’
ture of the ‘water in the bottom IQ of the con
supply of steam in the operation of the apparatus
denser goes up a proportionate amount.‘ The at light loads or ‘with cold condenser water is
75 .liquid in the bulb II, tube 20 and chamber 2!
2,085,942
a 3'
and to actuate the control means in response to
effected, and the cost of'operation is-corresp0nd-‘
ingly reduced.
variations in condenser temperature. .
While we have described herein an expansible ~
10
.
15
20
25
-'
?uid type of thermostatic control, this arrange ‘ wherein a refrigerant is ‘chilled by partial evapo
'ment is obviously only one of several means’for _ ration, .a thermo-compressor to remove vapor
realizing the end desired. Other forms of :regu-. from the evaporator, a condenser to which the
lators may be adopted, such .as electrically ‘oper
thermo-compressor delivers, a fluid supply pipe
ated thermostatic elements and an electrically for thethermo-compressor, a valve in the ‘pipe, I
actuated valve in the conduit 8.
,
a stem on the valve, a device connected to-the‘
Also the element is may be disposed at various stem to actuate the valve in response to the pres
points in the condenser Ill. The purpose of the sure of the fluid, .a spring around the stem having
connections for the valve 23 is to Operate this
a ?xed abutment at one end, shifting‘ abutment
valve in response to pressure changes in the con
means for the other end of the spring, and av
denser and the temperature of the interior of the secondv device adapted to engage the shifting
condenser is a function of the vapor pressure in
abutment means to apply pressure to the spring 15,
the condenser. Hence the temperature respon
thereby to actuate the valve in response to varia
sive element I8 is merely a convenient form of tions in condenser temperature.
device for giving the resultsought for, and a
4. In a refrigerating system, an ‘evaporator
member responsive directly to the vapor pressure‘ \ wherein a refrigerant is chilledby partial evapo
in the condenser may of course, be substituted. ..
ration, a. steam ejector to withdraw vapor from 20
The regulating means herein set forth can, of the evaporator, a condenser to ‘which the ejector ;
course, be used with various vtypes of apparatus, discharges, a steam supply pipe for the ejector, a
such as systems" having sectionalized condensers valve in the pipe, aydevice to actuatethe valve in
and steam ejectors with various types of valves response to the pressure of the steam, a device
responsive to condenser pressure, and means con--v 25
vnecting the devices‘ whereby the second device
1. In a refrigerating system, an evaporator, also actuates the valve and both- devices cooper‘
an evacuator removing vapor from the evapora
ate to govern the pressure and quantity of steam
tor, a condenser to which the evacuator delivers, supplied to the ejectorpsaid means including a
therefor.
30
.
3. In a refrigerating\.. system, an evaporator
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>
I
means conducting a power medium to the evacu
ator, means controlling the ?ow of ’ medium
through the conducting means, a device to actu
ate the control means in response to the force of
spring member in ?xed'abutment with the ?rst 30
device and. in shifting abutment with the second
vdevice.
">
I
.
-
I
e
. 5. In a refrigerating system, an‘ evaporator, a
35 the medium, "a device responsive to condenser _ ?uid operated evacuator removing vapor from the‘
, temperature, and spring-pressed means through
evaporator, a condenser to which the evacuator
which the second device opposes operation of the
?rst device, and actuates the control means in
response to‘ variations in condenser temperature.
2. In a refrigerating system, an evaporator,
40 an evacuator removing. vapor from the evapora
delivers, a ?uid supply. pipe-for the evacuator, a
valve in the pipe“, '9; device to actuate the valve in
response to the pressure of the ?uid, a spring in
?xed abutment with said- device, a device re
sponsive to condenser pressure, said spring‘being 40
in shifting abutment with the second, device,
whereby upon rising condenser pressure the‘
spring is compressed to actuate the valve to open
- ator, means controlling the flow - of ’ medium
position and upon‘ falling condenser‘ pressure the
through
the
conducting
means,
a
device
to
actu
45
ate the control means in response to the force of spring is released to enable the ?rst device'to 45
> the medium, a spring member having one’end actuate the valve towards closing position, said
seated on said device, a shifting abutment means devices thereby cooperating to maintainaf?xed- ,
for the other end of the spring member, and - pressure differential betweenevacuator and con- ‘
50 means adapted to engage the shifting abutment
PAUL A. BANCEL.
' 7
a .
.50.
means to alter the position of the spring member
tor, a condenser to which the evacuator delivers,
meansconducting a power medium to‘ the evacu-.
denser.
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‘
Y _ FREDERICK H. HIBBERD.
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