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Патент USA US2086584

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- July 13, 1937.
E. sump
2,086,584
APPARATUS FOR SEPARATING AND CLEANING MATERIALS
Filed July 29, _l952
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
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July 13., 1937.
’
E. STUMP
2,086,584
APPARATUS FOR SEPARATING AND CLEANING MATERIALS
Filed July 29, 1932
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3 sheetsfvshee'b 2
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July 13, 1937.
E. STUMP
2,086,584
APPARATUS FOR SEPARATING AND CLEANING MATERIALS
Filed July 29, 1932
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
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?atented' July 13, 1937 Y‘
DEC 31 1940
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APPARATUS FOR SEPARATKNG AND CLEAN
IING MZSTERIQLS
‘Earl Stump, Chicago, lilL, assignor to Roberts
and Schaefcr Company, Chicago, 1111., a cor
poration of llllinois
' Application July 29,
5 Claims.
My invention relates primarily to apparatus for
gravitally separating particles of different spe
1932, Serial No. 625,767
(01. 209-—4:75)
formed preferably of screened gravel, shot saw
dust, mineral wool or any suitable material. This
resistance bed is bounded at its upper side by a
perforate screen or deck B1. The deck B1 is in
clined to" the wall A5 so that the thickness of the
air'resistance bed or ?lter decrease from one end
to the other. The perforate plates B1 and A5 are
?xed in position and so related with the re
sistance bed that the material therein remains
at rest and furnishes at all times a ?xed unchang
ci?c gravities and while it is especially applicable
to the cleaning of coal by air, it is useful in con
5 nection with separating other materials both by
the use of air and other ?uid separating mediums.
One object of my invention is to provide a ma
chine which can be applied to the separation of
fragmentary materials in one operation through
10 a relatively Wide range of sizing, thereby dis
pensing with the necessity of excessive prelimi
nary screening.
ing internal resistance bed to control therate at
which air escapes from the chamber A and so to
Another object is to provide a material sep
control'the pressure of air available along the
deck surface B1. The walls A4- project above the
arating device which, will ‘be simple, light, inex
15 pensive, of large capacity, take up a minimum of
deck surface B1 to form a trough bounded on its 15
room and have a minimum of vibration whereby
under side by the perforate plate B1, which plate
it becomes ‘unnecessary to build special ‘rein
is as indicated’ downwardly inclined.
‘forcing or stiffened buildings or structures to
auxiliary air chamber located beyond the cham~
ber A and joined to it by a plurality of bleeder
house the same. Other objects of my invention
will appear from time to time throughout the
speci?cation and‘ claims.
pipes B3 of such size that the air pressure in the
chambers A and B2 is substantially the same.
This chamber B2 is bounded on its opposed sides
My invention is illustrated more or less dia
grammatically in the accompanying drawings,
wherein-'-
25
\
by the Walls A4 which extend forwardly from the
chamber A for that purpose and is bounded at its
top by a perforate plate Bl?. B4 is the end Wall of
the device. It forms the end wall for the cham
.
Figure 1 is a side elevation;
Figure 2’is a plan view;
'
Figure 3 is a section along the line 3-3 of Fig
ure 2;
Figure 47is- a section along the line 4-4 of
'30 Figure 2;
B2 is an
ber B2, projects upwardly thereabove to a point
above the lower end of the deck B1 and termi
'
nates in a weir or plate B5 mounted for vertical
adjustment. B6 is a tailings discharge passage.
.
Figure-5 is a detail of‘ the butter?y valve drive;
Figure 6 is a diagrammatic view of a variant
It extends clear across the machine between the
side walls A‘. It is bounded at the rear by the
'
wall A2, at the front by the rear wall 13'' of the
Figure '7 is a modi?ed form of the device.
air chamber B2. This channel B6 inclines for
Like parts are indicated by like characters wardly as indicated at B8 along the under side
‘throughout the several ?gures.
of the chamber 132 and is closed by a pivoted ?ap
form of blower or pump.
- A is an air chamber.
It has a bottom A1, end
gate B9.
'
walls A2 A3, side walls A“. . It is bounded at the
C is an air pipe. ‘ It communicates to one
' top by a perforate wall A5. _A6 is an air duct dis - end with the interior of the chamber A. It
40 charging into the‘ chamber A. Air is supplied to terminates in a goose-neck C1 and. has a dis 40
it and discharged therethrough by a fan or other charge end C2 passing up through a water or
suitable source'of air under pressure A". The liquid reservoir C3 to terminate above the lever
fan is driven by a motor A8 in the usual manner. C4 of the ?uid in the reservoir where it dis
A9 is a butter?y valve interposed in the duct A6
45
between the fan and the chamber. A10 is a power
transmission interposed between the motor and
the butter?y valve which may be 'of any suitable
form but’ preferably is adapted for easy and con
venient speed adjustment so that the revolutions
50 per minute of the butter?y valve may be con
veniently and easily adjusted during operation of
the machine.
‘
Mounted on ‘top of the air chamber A and be
tween the side walls A'? which project upwardly
55 above the chamber is a ?xed resistance bed B,
charges into a ?oat cup C5, which cup is im
mersed in the ?uid. C6 C7 are adjustable weights 45
mounted on the ?oat cup C5 and C8 is a lever arm
interposed between the cup C5 and the shaft C6
which carries the pivoted ?ap gate B9 so that
movement of the cup will move the ?ap gate.
The drive for the butter?y valve shown in Fig
ure 5 comprises opposed pairs of conical driving
wheels D D1, D2 D‘. A lever D4 varies in opposi
“tion to the distance between the conical wheels
of each pair. D5 is a ?exible belt engaged be
tween the opposed faces of these wheels so that 55
2
2,086,584
as one pair approach toward and the other pair
wherein the air chamber B2, pipes B3, perforate
recede from one another, the ?exible belt rides
out further from the center of rotation from one
pair of wheels and closer to the center of rota
E are all dispensed with. At the end of the deck
B1 is a refuse chute H. It is hooded at H1 and
plate B10, the refuse passage B8, the baffle plate
tion of the other pair so that by this method an
the refuse gate H2 is pivoted thereon, being con
accurate control of the speed of the butter?y
trolled in exactly the same manner and by the
same mechanism as the refuse gate C9 shown in
Figure 6. The coal or lighter material passes
off in the same direction, that is, parallel with
the axis of the table over the coal chute H3. A
weir H4 is adjustable horizontally to control the
coal stream. A plate H5 is adjustable horizon
tween it and the coal a bed of refuse material.
In the modi?ed form of the device, there 'is tally to‘ control the refuse stream. Plates H4 H5
substituted for the fan and butter?y valve a are independently adjustable and between them
15 Roots type blower F having vanes F1 F2 driven ' and in cooperation with the refuse gate H2 they
control the relative proportions of material flow
by a motor F3, the speed of which can be con
trolled in any suitable manner. The Roots type ing to the refuse and coal chutes or through the
concentrate and the gangue chutes as the case ,
blower being a positive displacement pump in
sures positive impulses to the air without the may be. The important thing is that the‘ ad
interposition of the butter?y valve and such a justment of the gates H4 H5 may be experimental
adjustments only, that is to say, they depend on
device as this can under some circumstances be
used to displace a liquid rather than a gaseous the size of the material being treated and its
fluid so that if water or other similar liquid is particular, peculiar characteristics.v The adjust
used, the same pulsating effect may be obtained. ment once made when the plant is built, never
again needs to be made. So it is possible that
25
The variant speed drive has been shown mere
ly as illustrative of any suitable type of variable when the adjustment has been made, to take it
off and put a single plate instead of the two ad
speed drive. It is understood that many‘ differ
valve is obtained.
~
E is a baffle plate extending clear across the
deck, above the refuse discharge opening. It is
10 preferably so positioned that it will be embedded
in the refuse and always have above it and be
ent types may be used. ,
justable plates H4 H5, which plate will be welded
'
Intermediate between the air box and the con
30 trol cup or control means is'located the valve G
which may be manually set to initially adjust the
response of the control cup or member and so
the response of the discharge means to the air
pressure in the air flow box. It will be under35 stood of course that when the device is in oper
ation, the control cup constantly pulsates and
there is, a constant opening and closing or move
mentiri the direction of opening and closing of
the refuse valve.
This is of course caused by the
40 pulsations of variations in pressure in the‘air ?ow
caused or imparted by the butter?y valve or other
suitable means. This vibratory or pulsating
movement of the refuse gate is of course im
portant in that it tends to break up any accumu
lations of refuse in the discharge chamber.
The high resistance bed is preferably of
or riveted in place.
This plate intersecting the line of flow of the i '
material on the table is peculiar in that it pro
vides a“ relatively wide space between the point
at which the refuse and the coal is removed.
Always when dealing with apparatus such as this
and when handling coal as it comes from the
mine, the horizontal line of cleavage between the
refuse bed and the coal bed as they travel down
the deck is likely to vary. In the past, it has
been necessary to very closely position and watch »
the dividing member to insure that'coal did not’ 40
come out with the refuse when the refuse bed got
thin or that refuse did not come out with the
coal when the coal bed got thin. My structure
with this relatively broad plate insures that the
refuse is taken from the bottom ‘of-the refuse
bed and coal taken from the top of the coal bed
and a very considerable vertical deviation or de-
marbles or shot or some smooth generally spheri
cal objects because while experience shows that
so far as the control of the air pressure itself is
50 concerned, most any resistance medium will do,
the great difficulty lies in obtaining a resistance
medium which will give the desired resistance to
air ?ow and still will be immune from clogging
by dust. This is of the utmost importance be
cause experience shows that this clogging takes
place both as a result of dust entrained by the
air as it passes upwardly through the resistance
bed and also as a result of dust passing down
from the treating deck into the resistance bed,
60 being there lodged and caught and held when the
?ection of the dividing line between the two beds
may take place without interfering with the
product.
‘
i.
It will be understood also that the mechanism
for supplying air to the flow box, the mechanism
for causing the pulsation of air and the mecha
nism for permitting pressure variations and
pressure pulsations to the refusev gate all may.
be varied without departing from the general
principles of operation of my device.
-
The use and operation of my invention are as
follows:
'
I
_With the device .set up‘ as indicated in the
air is ‘turned off and the bed ceases to operate. ‘ drawings, the fan is started forcing air under ,
The smooth walled passages are'essential to pre ‘pressure into the air chamber.v At the same
vent this clogging. They do not need to be per
fectly straight, they can well be of constantly
varying cross section because if the walls are
rough, dust particles catch, adhere and build up
and it is preferably better to have them of vary
70
ing cross section because if the cross section
should be constant, there would be too little re
sistance to air ?ow and not enough eddy currents
in the bed itself and also there would be a great
time the butter?y valve rotates. This butter?y
valve is so arranged that even when in the
closed position it does not entirely out off the
flow of air. As it rotates it thus increases and
decreases any alternation periodically the amount ,
of air fed to the air chamber, thus causing
the pressure in the chamber to vary at a con-'
trolled rate of speed and the air always ?ows "
up through the fixed resistance bed but the
pressure available pulsates or varies between
er chance of refuse bridging or clogging in such
a minimum and a maximum.
minute passages.
any backward movement of the air in the/direc
‘
'
75 ' Figure '7 shows a modi?ed form of the device
There is never
tion of the resistance'bed but always outw‘ard
_
2,080,584
mov‘erLent of the air thr ugh the bed and through
- the deck.
‘Coal or other suitable material is then fed
through the spout as indicated onto the upper
end of the deck, that is to say, into the trough
formed between the perforate deck and the ‘side
walls. This material ?ows down in a continuous
stream through the trough being pulsating or
. vibrating vertically as it ?ows generally hori
10 zontally under the in?uence of gravity, no vi-.
bration of the device, itself occurring or being
desired.
The pulsating air stream sets up -a
vibration in the body of ?owing material giving
15
it a liquid or ?uid characteristic much greater
,
3
or pipes B3 to pass into the refuse bed which
is below or beyond the refuse spout, to the right
as shown in Figure 4.
.
In view of the fact that the deck is smooth and
unobstructed, there is no tendency toward the in
hanging _or sticking of material on the deck
and the constant. upward movement of air
through the perforations in the deck prevents
clogging, plugging or blinding. ‘It is true that
wet or soggy material cannot be as satisfactorily
separated on any air deck as can dry material‘
but the presence of wet or soggy material mere
ly decreases for a time to a’limited extent the
separating effect but does not interfere with the ‘
than without the pulsating air ?ow. This liquid ' operation of the device beyond that and more
characteristic being su?lcient to enable the heav
ier particles as the flow goes on to gravitate to
over as soon as the wet material has passed off
the deck, operation continues without change in
the bottom and the lighter particles to the top. any essential respect.
"
This forms a bed which'toward the lower end
If it is desired to use’a ?uid medium other
consists in light material or coal at the top sup
than air for separation, water, gases or‘ other
ported on heavier material, refuse, slate or the liquids may be used, being treated in the same 20
like at the bottom as indicated in Figure 4 of way exceptthat other means may be provided
the drawings. ‘This refuse ?lls up the refuse than the butter?y valve for interrupting the
discharge passage and builds up a bed of refuse
at the bottom of the machine beneath the ?ow
ing stream of coal. As this bed builds up it adds
it, together with the coal and the ?owing mate
rial on the deck resistance to the escape ‘of air
and causes an increase in air-pressure in the
air chamber. This increase in air ‘pressure makes
itself felt through the air» deck in the control
oup'as indicated, thereby raising it and opening
?ow or there may be substituted for the butter
?y valve and centrifugal fan, a positive dis 25
placement pump which will give a pulsating ef
fect. ' This is shown diagrammatically in Figure 6.
Preferably, I propose to use a separating ?uid
medium which is fed through the bed of material
to be classi?ed pulsatingly in a continuous for 30
ward moving current at varying speed which oi’
course means that normally there is always a
pressure in the air chamber, the pressure in
the refuse ?ap valve wider. It will be under
stood, of course, that the refuse ?ap valve isior .creasing and decreasing periodically. Under
, dinarily setso that it is always partially open some circumstances, however, it may be desir
but this variation in, pressure in the air chamber . able vto use an alternating current, that is, the
caused by variation in the resistance to the es
air or other ?uid medium may' go out and the
cape of the air results in opening, or closing the pressure may drop in .the air chamber or ?uid
refuse valve more or less so as to maintain to
containing box below atmospherlc'and exert' a,
ward the lower end of the chute or trough on back suction.
,
the lower end of the perforate deck, a bed of
It will be noted also that the resistance bed 40
refuse of the desired thickness, the coal which beneath the deck is a fixed
held bed,
by the timkerit reaches the lower end of the and the material or particlesimmovably
between the under
chute will have become separated from the refuse, side of the deck and the perforated plates which
Cl will run out over the adjustable weir: or gate
form this resistance bed are about the deck
at the lower end while the refuse runs put and the plate held in ?xed position so that they 45
through the refuse spout.
. 4
'
.
do not move, vibrate or have any‘, displacement
It will'be noted that beyond the refuse spout in response to the current of separating or ?oat
is a bank or wall of refuse<whiclrv takes an up
wardly inclined position and. is kept alive by‘ ing medium. They merely serve as a part of a
- the pulsating effect of the air and'provides a ?xed immovable resistance bed.
50
live abutment to bound the lower limit of the
refusebed. The de?ector plate extending as _it
does horizontally across the refuse discharge
opening insures that the refuse runs in from
the side and not from the top‘ and thus prevents
excessive local draining off of the refuse bed
which might result in drawing coal down through
the refuse discharge.v The only adjustmentsthat
are necessary are the height of the weir or dis
charge gate which assists in' controlling the
depth of the refuse bed immediately at the coal
discharge, the speed of the butter?y‘ valve which ,
controls the rate of pulsation, and‘the weight
.The use of the butter?y valve interposed be
tween the fan or pressure source and the re
sistance bed because the valve never entirely
closes the aperture, causes, this pulsating or cur
rent eifect brft since the pump or fan or blower 55
continuously operates the partial interruption of
the current by the butter?y valve seems to tend
to build up excess pressure which as the valve
is opened is released thereby increasing the pul
sating e?'ect.
I claim:
1. In a concentrator, a downwardly inclined
60
pervious unobstructed deck of constant width,
means for feeding a continuous sheet of material
opening of the refuse discharge gate and the by gravity there'across, means for forcing a ?uid 65
?uid pressure supplied by the fan or pump. Ex- , medium upwardly through the deck and the
perience shows that under ordinary conditions sheet of material thereon, the resistance of which v
, of the ?oat cup which-controls the degree of ‘
when these adjustments have been made, the
apparatus will thereafter unless change in prod
uct or change in the material treated isldeslred,
continue substantially without change to operate
in a satisfactory manner. The perforated plate
B1" permits air pressure from the chamber 1?,2
which has reached it through‘ the bleeder pipe
/
to ?uid ?ow decreases toward the lower edge
thereof, and a perforate plate spaced from but
in general alignment with the lower boundary
of the, pervious deck and adapted to receive and
support material as it travels across the lower
boundary of the deck and means for ‘forcing a
?uid medium upwardly through such plate, and '
aconcentrate chute extending clear across the
4
,
deck and interposed between its lower boundary
the loweredge thereof, a weir extending entirely?
and the perforate plate, a battle plate'generally
parallel with the direction of flow of material
along the deck spaced above the deck, overlying
the refuse chute and projecting on its upstream
side away from the chute to overlie the resistance
ings may pass, and a perforate plate between the
weir and the deck, and means for forcing the
aross the deck at the lower end thereof and pro-1 ..
jecting upwardly thereabove over which the tail- ‘
?uid medium upwardly through the plate in the
same general manner as it is forced through the
deck, and a refuse discharge chute extending
2. In a concentrator, a. downwardly inclined clear across vthe deck and between it and the‘
perforate plate, and a ba?‘le plate overlying the
10 pervious unobstructed/deckof constant width,’
means for feeding a continuous sheet of material refuse discharge chute generally parallel with
by gravity thereacross, means for forcing a fluid the deck and located at a point below the weir. ‘ .
bed and on its downstream side’ away from the
chute to overlie the perforated plate.
medium upwardly through the deck and the sheet
v15
of material thereon, a ?xed high resistancebed
on the underside of the deck, the resistance of
which to fluid fiow decreases toward the lower.
edge thereof, and a perforate plate spaced from
but in general alignment with the lower ‘boundary
of the pervious deck and adapted to receive and.
20 support material as it travels across the lower
boundary of the deck and means for forcing a
?uid medium upwardly through such plate, said
4. In an air concentrator, an air pervious, ma
terial supporting deck, means for supplying ma-'
terial to travel thereacross under the in?uence 15
of gravity, (‘means for effecting a separation‘ of _
material, toward the discharge end of the deck,
along horizontal planes, means for forcing a con
tinuous uninterrupted column of air under pres
sure upwardly through the deck and the bed of 20
materlal'thereon, automatic means responsive to
variation in the air pressure beneath the deck
means comprising an air pocket bounded by said for varying the relative proportions of separated
plate and an unobstructed air passage between material in the discharge zones as they leave the
it
and the air chamber, and a concentrate chute ,- deck.
25
5.'In an air concentrator, an air‘ pervious, ma
extending clear across the deck and interposed
' between its lower boundary and the' perforate terial supporting deck, means for supplying ma-'
plate, ‘a battle plate generally parallel with the terial to travel thereacross under the ‘influence
direction of ?ow of material along the deck, 10f gravity, means for e?ecting a separation of 30
30 spaced above the deck, overlying the refuse. chute material, toward the discharge end of the deck,
andprojecting on its upstream 'side away from. along horizontal planes, means for forcing a con
‘the chute‘yto overlie the resistance bed and on tinuous uninterrupted column oi" air under pres
sure upwardly through the deck and the bed of
its downstream side away from the chute to over
material thereon and‘ for imparting a pulsating
lie the perforated platae.
'
35 3. In a concentrator, a downwardly inclined effect to the air column, automatic means re
‘ perviousi deck, means for feeding a
ntinuous sponsive to variation in the air pressure beneath
the deck for varying the relative proportions of
sheet of material by gravity thereac oss, means
for forcing ailuid medium upwardly through the
separated material in the discharge zones as they
deck and the sheet of material thereon, a ‘fixed
leave‘ the deck,
40 resistance bed on the underside of the deck, the
resistance of which to ?uid flow decreases toward
l
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'
9
_
EARL STUMP.
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