Патент USA US2087329код для вставки
July 20, 1937.. H. N. OTT 2,087,329 NICROSCOPE "ili, INVENTOR Patenteeì 51123,! 2%, 1937 UL‘E’È’EÙ STATES Harvey N. Ott, Bu?alo, N. Y., assignor te Speneer Lens Company, Bu?’alo, N. Y. Ùrìginaî appìication November 16, 1935, Serial N0- 50,165- Divìàed and this applieation June 25, 193.5, Serial NO. 87,189 2 Cìa-ims. This ìnventìon relates to ìmprovements in bi nocular mìcrosoopes of the kìnd havìng the optical axes of a paìr of objectìves arranged ai; 5 Fig. 5 ìs a perspectìve view of a, mounting for the prisms of Fig. ‘1; different angles from those of the optîcal axes Fig. 6 is a diegrammatìc representation of the prisms showìng the passage of a 1ìght ray there of the eye pieces or oculars. through. ' In such a microsoope ìt 1's desìrable to have the axes of the oculars converge ai; substantially the normal angle of convergence of the human eyes, which ìs usually about eight degrees, so 10 that a person using the mìcroscope oan remove hìs gaze from the instrument for readìng or making notes, end return to the microscope Wìth out requìrìng readjustment of the eyes. On the other band, ‘che angle between the paìr of objectîves should preferably be somewhat greater than the angle between the oculars, say sixteen degrees, since by so disposìng the ob jectives greater perspectîve and stereoscopic ef fect results. Th1's applìcatìon 15 a division of my copendìng application for Letters Patent, Serial No. 50,165, ?led November 16, 1935 for Improvements in 'I‘he optical system of the instrument, as shown in Fig. 1, incìudes one or more sets of paìred ob jectives, one pair 28 of whìch ìs ìllustrated in Fig. 1, end a pair of oculars or eyepiece tubes 21. Dìsposed between each cbjeotive 25 and one of 10 the oculars 21 îs one of my improved re?ecting systems 22 so posîtìonecî thet image rays passing upwarrîly through an objective 23 are diverted by the assooiated re?ecting system end re .?ected to the companìon ooular 21 at an angle 15 di?erent to that of the image rays al: ‘che ob jectîve. The re?ecting systems 22 2.150 erect the images. Each re?ecting system 22 is mounted in a hous ìng 25 which includes a base 2% end a cap or cover portìon 2?. The prìsm housìngs 25 are mìcrosoopes. substantialîy of cylindrical Îorm and the base 26 of each housîng ìs rotatably connected to the top An object of this inventìon ìs to provide a. bi nocular rnìcroseope Wìth novel, improved. and of a body member or support 15 by a hollow swivel sìmpìi?ed re?ecting means, in the nature of a prìsm system for changìng the angle of the image rays' from one anglo at the paìred objectives to a different angle at the oculars, and for erectìng 30 the image. Another object of the ìnventìon is to provide a. novel prìsm system of thîs sort, one for each eyepìece Whìch ìs composed of îhe minimum nuînber of par‘bs end ìs relìable and dependable 7 (01. 38-39) in use. Various other objec‘às end advantages of the ìnvention will be apparent from the followìng descript-ìon of an ernbodiment thereof and the nove1 features of the invention Wìì1 be pointed 40 out in connectìon wìth the appended claims. Fig. 1 is‘ a face vìew, partly in section, of a portion of a bìnocuîar microscope in which the features of my inventìon are embodied; Fig. 2 1's a plan vîew, partly in sectìon, of one of the re?ectìng sys'rems of the ìnstrument, mounted in its housìng; Fig. 3 is a s?de elevation thereof, taken in the dìrec’cion of the arrows, Fig. 2; Fig. 4 îs a perspective view of two prîsms foimìng one of the refìeotìng means of the in connectìon 28 which îs concentrîc wìth the axis of the? related objective 25, see F‘ìgs, 1 and 2. Eaoh eyepîece tube or ocular 21 ìs mounted ec centrically of the swiveî connectìon of its sup porting housing 25 upon the top WBÀI of the hous ing and, by rotatîng the housings 25 abou‘b theîr 30 swìvel oonnection 28, the oculars 21 may be moved towards and from eaoh other so that they may be adjusted to suit the pupillary distances of the eyes of different users or‘ the ìnstrumen’s. As shown, each objectìve is mounted in the lower portìon of the body member 15, in aline ment with the hollow swìvel connectîon 28 of the related ooular mountìng. The details ci” ‘che mountìng in Whìch the objectives are supported are fully discîosed in my saìd pendîng applica tìon Serial No. 50,165, to whìch reference may be had for a more full dìsclosure. Hoxvever, in orcìer to produce the desired stere oscopîc e?ect, the axes of the two objectives 26 may be arranged et a suìtable angìe, for example, about 16° apart. On the other band the tWo oeulars 2! are each dìsposed so that the angle between them ìs con sìderably less than 16°, say approxîmately 8°, from one 01° the objectîves to its assooìated whereby ‘che user of the instrument san vîew ob jects through the inst‘rument et‘ a more conven ìent or comfort‘able angle, thaî, is, an anglo whîch ìs approximately that of nìs eyes when making ocular; notes or observations adjacent the ìnstrument, strument, detach°d from their mountings, anzi illustrating the paîh of lìg’nt rays therethrough 22% 2,087,329 the oculars, at the same time being slightly in olìned. toward. the user. Each of the re?eoting means or systems 22, before mentìoned, ìnoludes two re?ectìng unìts or structures, each havìng a pair 0Î opposed, an gularly related re?ectîng surfaces dìsposed so that imago rays passìng up=warclly through an objec tìve 25 are ìntereeptecl by a re?ecting surface of one of said unìts and are dîverted therefrom to 10 the other surfaoe of that unìt in a path lateral to the axis of that objectìve, and are then in turn diver'oed baok along a path towards the ob-jectìve to one of the re?ecting faees of the other unit, from which the rays are, in turn, re?ected. to the As W'Ìl]. be seen from an examinatîon of Figs, 1 and 2, the top fase 95 of the part H6 of the body ìs divided into two portions which are slìghtly ìnclìned in opposite direcî;ions from front to rear o-f the ìnstrument from a line passìng through the axìs art and these inolìned_ fase planes are normal or at right angles to the axes of the objeotîves, and the base 25 of the ho-usìngs 25 are in parallel relation to these faoes. The prism systems 22 in said housings 25 are rigidly mount ed so as to turn Wlth the housings, and‘ slnoe, as before stated, the swivel conneotîons 28 are con centrìc Wìth the axes of the objectìves, the anglo at which the image rays leave the re?ectìng sys tems and pass into the ooulars Will remain the vertecl upwardly by that face through the asso same W'lth reference to the axìs of the objectives ciated ocular 29 but at a different angle to the in any posîtion to whioh the housings and ocu pa’ch of the rays through the objectìve, and. dur lars are turned for adjusting the pupìllary dis ìng the passage of the rays through the reflectîng tance between the oculars. ‘ 20 means or system 22,1;he ìmage is ereoted. However, in the movement of the oculars to 20 In the construotìon illustrated, the re?eotìng wards and from one another in their adjust unìts of each re?ecting system 22 o‘omprìses a ments to di?’erent pupìllary dìstances the angle paìr of glass prìsms 15 and 'l‘à rigiclly mountecly between the axes of the oculars Wîll change upon the base 26 of the housing for the system. slightly. The maximum change in use, however, ìs relatìvely small, say from an angle of about 25 25 The prism ‘E5 has tvvo reflecting faces ‘H and '53 15 other face of that unît. The rays are then di whìch are arrangecl so that the angle between them (Whìch ìs preferably 90°) faces towarcls the objeotìve With whîch il; ìs associate'd anol is so dìsposed that the face ‘l’? thereof extends oblique 30 1y at any angle of 45° across the axis of that objective, whìle the other re?ectlng face 78 ìs disposed laterally of said axis. The other prism ‘7° to an angle of about 9° or 10°. This varìatìon ìs of advantage in that a per son havîng a relatively narrow pupillary dìstance Will normally see things at close range through a narrower stereoscopic angle-than a person hav 30 ing a wìder pupillary diesis-ance, and vice versa. The re?ecting means or prism system 22 can or unìt ‘55 is also formed. Wìth two opposecì re flecting surfaoes ‘l'8 and 88 so that the angle be 35 40 45 50 be rigidly mounted in the housings 25 in any ‘suitable way. As shown in the drawing, see tween them faces upvvardly towards the associat Figs. 1, 2 and 5, I provide the base 25 of each e‘d ocular 25 Wìth the fase 80 extending ob housìng With an upstanding, hollow boss or sleeve lîquely across the axìs of that ocular. The prìsms 96 whìoh is apertured concentrically Wìth the or units 715 and ‘E6 are completed by faces 82 swîvel connection for that housing, and this boss and 83 extendìng across the angles of the prisms. terminates in a ?at face across which an end of The tvvo prìsms of eaoh system are dìsposed cross the prìsm 15 extends so as to posìtion the re?ect 40 wìse of and at rìght angles to each other Wlth ing fase T1 thereof to întercept the rays from the approxìmately half of the face 82 of the prìsm assocìated objectîve. This prism 15 is rigidly ‘E5 extending parallel W'lth and preferably en secured in thìs posîtîon between a ?xed or inte gagìng upon approxìmately half of the fase 83 gral plate 98 extending upwardly from the boss of the prìsm 'ri5 as shown clearly in Fig. 4. The 96, and a clampîng bar 99 Which is secured to the 45 other portîon of the face 83 is out away al: a. plate 98 by sorews lilli. The other prism 76 ìs slìgh‘b angle or taper as shovvn in Fìgs. 3 and 6 secureol between a ?at fase l02 on the boss 96 so that thîs portion, which faces the ooular 2l, and a clamping bar E53 as by screws HM.‘ The swivel connectìon between each housîng and the Will be normal to the axis of that ocular to there by avoid distortion of the image by refraction. part H5 of the body may be constructed by the 50 By this arrangement ìt Will be seen upon refer provisìon of a downwardly extending annular ence to Fig. 4 that a ray of light passing up shouloler l58 formed on the bottom or base 26 of wardly from the objective ?rst- ìmpinges upon the oblique fase Il! of the prìsm 'L’5, is diverted transversely thereby to the opposeol face '58 which in turn refleots the ray downwardly through the abuttìng portions of the faces 82 and 83 of the tWo prìsms. The ray continues through those faces to ‘the oblique fase î9 of the prìsm '15‘, is the prìsm housing and which rotatably ?ts in a 60 clîverted thereby in a lateral directìon (but at righi: angles to the dìrectìon in which ìt was ?rst slirectecl laterally by the face TE) until it ìs ìntercepted by the last oblique fase 85 of the prism ‘E6. " I-îere it ìs re?ected. upwardly through the ocular. In order to change the anglo between the rays passing through a. paìr of objeotìves which, as above stated, may be approxìmately 16° to a dif fel‘ent anglo, say an anglo 01° approxîmately 8° 70 between the ooulars I Îorm one cf the prisms, of eaoh re?ee 'ng system, for example, the prìsm '55 so that the anglo between the re?ecting faoes thereof is greater than a rìght angle, far exarn ple, 93°, while the corresponcling anglo of‘ the 35 prism 15 is 90°. ' hole extendîng through the top wall of said. part 15. A ring or retaining member l 50 abuttìng 55 the bottom face of the shouloler 108 and the adja cent bottom face of the wall of saìd arm part l6 and suîtably secured, acts to retaìn the housing in rotatable connected relation to the part H6. I claim as my înventìon: 1. In a microscope having an objective, an ocu 60 lar which has îts axis at one side of and at approximately an anglo of 4° to said objective, re?ecting means interposed between said. objec tive and said ocular comprising a prism having a 65 pair of opposed, inclined reflecting surfaces with an anglo between thèm of 90", one of said sur faces being dìsposed to receive imago rays from saîd objective and reflect the same to the other surface of saìd prìsm, and a second prism having 70 a pair of re?ecting surfaces With an angle between them of 93°, one of saìd surfaces beìng dìsposed to receive the image rays from the second surface of said ?rst prism and re?ect them to the second surface of saìcl second prìsm, said. second surface 75 2,087,329 of saìd second prìsm being dìsposed to re?ect said. rays ìnto said. ocular, and one of saìd prisms beìng arranged in a direction transverse of the other prism, whereby an image is erected in the pas sage of said rays through saìd re?ecting means, and is re?e‘cted into the ocular along the axìs thereof by reason of the 93° angle between the re?ecting surfaces of said second prîsm. 2. A binocular microscope havìng a set of paired objectîves havìng theîr axes at an angle 10 of approxîmately 16°, two oculars arranged wìth their axes at approximately 8° and each of whîch receives ìmage rays from one of said objectìves and has its axìs dìsposec'l at an angle of approxì mately 4° to that of the corresponding objectìve, 15 an image erectìng re?ectìng system interposed between each of saìd objectives and its ocular and comprising a. prìsm havîng a. pair of opposed, 3 inc1ìned re?ecting surfaces disposed. sia an angle of 90°, one surface of said prìsm being dìsposed obliquely upon the axis of said objective to re?ect ìmage rays therefrom to the other surface of said prism, and a -second prism havìng a pair 0Î re ?ecting surfaces disposed at an angle of 93° and arranged crosswìse of saìd ?rst prìsm and having one of its re?ecting surfaces positioned. oblìquely upon the axìs of saìd ocular, and the other sur face of saìd second prìsm beìng posìtìoned. to 10 receìve the image rays from the second surface of said ?rst prìsm and re?ect them to the ?rst mentioned surface of saìd second prism, whereby that surface of saìd second prìsm which crosses the axis of saìd ocular Will re?ect ìmage rays înto 15 said ocular along the axis thereof. I-IA'RVEY N. OTT.