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Aug. 3, 1937; 2,088,692 C. DORNIER FLYING MACHINE ' Filed March l, 1934 3 Shee-ts-Sheet’l C Aug. 3, 1937. 2,088,692 C. DORNIER FLYING MACHINE Filed March 1, 1954 ¿sheets-sheet 2 ffm/eff Zar; @laude ßor/z/'ff' , ¢ l Äffy. Aug. 3, 1937-v c. DORNIER FLYING MACHINE Y 2,088,692 Patented Aug. 3, Y ` » i - ‘ i *Y UNITED STATES ' PATENT " ori-*ICE* ' FLYING MACHINE l Claude- Dornier, Friedrlchsliafen-on-the-Boden see, Germany, assignor of one-half to Dornier Metallbauten G. m. b. H., Friedrichshafen-on tlie-Bodensee, Germany Application March 1, 1934, Serial No.- 713,450 ' y In Germany March 3, 1933v 5 Claims. (Cl. 244-102) My invention relates to flying machines and the propeller shaft and engine, .3 being the vpro more particularly to the arrangement, in such peller. The cowl 2 is hinged tothe top of the machines, of the propellers and the supporting fuselage at 4 so as to be tiltable abouta hori means, such as landing and starting gears, floats, 5 etc. in such machines. . zontal axis, as shown in dotted lines in` Fig. 1. ' 5, 5 are the wheels of the carriage or landing gear, 5 It is an object of my invention to provide means wherebylv the propellers and the supporting means can be arranged in such manner as to im- which ‘are mounted >on`an _axlef`6, Vthe ‘ends__of which are supported by arms ‘lfrockable about the axis 8. Links Q_ connect the arms l with slides prove the stability and the aero-dynamic eili- I0 mounted for displacement in inclined tracks 10 ciency'of the craft. » Il. Rods> I2 pivoted to points near the bottom 10 In ordinary airplanes for use on land. as well of the cowl 2 extend axially through the fuseas in seaplanes, flying boats, etc. diiliculties are lage, their rear ends being supported by.rollers I3. I frequently encountered in positioning the propel- 1 Sprockets Il and I5 Aare disposed inthe fuselage 1ers sufiiciently high above the ground cr the sur- above and below the tracks I I, respectively,> and 15 face of the water to prevent their tips from hit- ting the ground or cutting through the water. Moreover in hydroplanes4 and more especially in flying boats, if, in order to avoid this, the propeller shaft is positioned sufficiently high above 20 >the water to prevent the tips of the propeller blades from entering the water, it may happen 25 ‘ endless chains I6 running over these sprockets 15 lower the slides I0, fixed to them, in the tracks when the cranks I'I are turned in the direction of the aITOW. and lift them. When the Crank-S are turned the other way. Sheaves I8 mounted co axially with the 60D Sprockets I4 serve for wind- 20A ing up cables I9 flxed to the-rear ends of the that the stability of the craft, more especially rods l2. when the engines are stopped of a sudden, ls greatly impaired. , When the cables are Vwound on the. sheaves I8, » the rods I2 being pulled forward cause the cowl 2 In order to avoid this and other drawbacks, I provide means for lifting the propeller free Vof . Y ' ' '. to tilt about its hinge point I, thereby lifting thè 25 PI'ODeller free 0f the ground. 'At the Same time the ground or the surface of the water before landing, and I combine therewith means for simultaneously lowering the landing gear, such 30 as a carriage or the ‘floats supporting the craft. I may lift the propeller either by a. pox-ane] djsplacement cf the propeller shaft or by a tilting the sprockets I4 causing the chains to. shift the slides lll from their position of rest, shown in dotted lines, into their lowermost positions allow _ the landing wheels 5 to be lowered into oper- 30 ative position also. Inversely, if on starting the craft the cranks are turned in clockwise direc-V movement of the shaft Vand Ivmey lift or tilt the engine along with the shaft. In either case pro^ 35 vision is made for simultaneously lowering the tion. the slides l0 are'lifted in the tracks, pulling ' the links 9 and arms l along with them so as to ’swing the wheels back into inoperative position m35 landing gear andî for lifting same again, when the propeller is lowered on starting.v In the drawings affixed to this specification and the fuselage. While the Cables being UIlWOund from their sheaves I8 allow the weight ofthe engine and Pl'Opeller i0 fOi‘Ce the COWI back into forming part thereof several embodiments of my operative position. 40~ invention are illustrated diagrammatically by Way OfßxamplfïIl? the drawings» f " ` , ` ' In the airplane illustrated in Figs. 3 and 4A the 40 fuselage 20 is supported by the self-supporting Y Eg' à .is a side ïlievati‘fm' wing 2| between two engine cowls 22 hinged lto j i the front edge of the wing at 23. Armsv24 linked y 45 pmi-1lerlìâdpegëmeegfanîêdaorlfläefggevglâeits~ et 2s te supports so mounted in the fuselage sup- 45 Fig 3 is a front elevation', ’» Fig. 4 is an elevation of a. twin-propeller air- plane, Fig 5 is a similar View ofl a p incdmed form' 50 Fig 6 is a front elevation, 1 `struts horizontal 28 embracing tracks 29. these' Cables axles 3U can are be guided .wound in i _ Fig_ 7a side` elevation of a flying boat' port the axles 26 of the landing wheels 21, whichk thus are pivoted to the hun’ The top ends of y .on sheaves 3| fixed to an axle v32 extending horl- 50 Y zontally across the fuselage substantially Yin the Fig. a illustrating a detallada larger seele, and vpiane Of the axes 0f the Propellers 33, when a» Fig. 9 is a side elevation of an alternative form. Referring to the drawings and first to Figs. 1 55 and 2, I is the fuselage and 2 is a cowl enclosing Worm 34 meshing With 8' Wheel 35 Onthe axle 32 ` is turned by means of a crank 36. Other gear e wheels 31 ñxed on the axle to the rear of the 55 Y ' cowls mesh with gear wheels 3l iixed on the hinge 'pins II of the cowls. In the operation of this device, when the crank is turned in one direction, the worm u will 5 _rotate the axle 32 and thereby cause the wheels I1 to rotate the wheels 3l and tilt the cowls and propellers as shown in dotted lines. At the same timek the cables ll being released allow the wheels to be lowered! crßnkfbeins 'turned » the gear and> simultaneously, and in dependence thereupon, tilting said propulsion unit relative to said hull and said wings, in a sense opposite to. that in which the landing gear moves, whereby the weight of the landing gear at least partially 5 balances the weight of the propulsion unit. 2. In an aeroplane, the combination according to claim l, including a member provided onA the landing gear'and pivoted to the hull, a guide path l0 other way the cowls and propellers are lowered secured to the hull and a secc;:'i member slid- 10 again into operative position, 'while the cables, ably arranged in said guide path, and common being woundvon the sheaves Ii, lift the wheel actuating means for tilting and raising the pro axles and cause the struts Il to travel along the tracks Il, until they have reached their hori v 15 mm positions of rest m‘whicn they are locked by pawls I! acted upon Vby spl erned by cables 4i. sïrl'lfand fgov ` ’ Y ‘ pulsion unit and simultaneously sliding said secondmember in said guide path. thereby lower ing Vsaid landing gear. ~ »15 3. In an aeroplane comprising a hull element L and wing elements, the combination of at least Pig. 5 illustrates a very simple form of connec Y one propulsion unit mounted upon a pivotal axis tion between the propellers and the-landing gear.> directly on one of said elements, the center of i 20 Here the struts l! carrying the wheel axle- are muss> of said propulsion unit being located ahead 20 >ilixedon theaxleßonwhichisalsoilxed theen-v of said pivotal axis, with a landing gear pivoted gine cowl M. By turning the crank' handle I5 on one of said elements for extension and re androtating the worm L“ a worm wheel 41 keyed traction, mechanism connected'at- one end to on the samesaxle is rotated and the axle turned said landing gear and supporting at least a part 25 in oneor the` other direction, tilting the »cowl of .the weight thereof, said mechanism at its 25 and propeller upwardly andl lowering the landing other en_d being connected to said propulsionunit ' at a point displaced from said pivotal axis, and Pigs. 6 and 'I 4show'the invention as applied to common 4actuating means yfor operating said gear, orviceversa. ' ‘ ' r _ >aff-lying boat. To'the'self-supporting wing l. ’30. resting-courbe hun Il munged» n thetwo enginercowls Il.' Parallel links Il, “pivoted to the cowl at II andto the hull at l1, respectively- support the iioats Il. The forward links il are .fixed to an axle l’ extending across the hull and 35 and carrying a worm wheel ll actuated by a worm ll and crank handle ‘L A sprocket wheel landingv gear and simultaneously, ‘and infde pendence thereupon, tilting said propulsion unit 30 relative to said hull and said wings, in a sense opposite to that in which the landing gear moves, ‘ whereby the weight of the landing gearat least partially balances the weight of the Vpropulsion unit, ysalti mechanismand said actuating means 35 comprising a rotary shaft, a.,V sprocket and a ' Il on the axle Il is connected with a sprocket Y wheel Il on anotheraxle ß aboveit, whichex-’ sheave mounted on'said shaft, another sprocket ` rotatably mounted on said hull, an endless chain tends through the hinge points of _the cowls, by ` passing over said sprockets, a guide path se 40V meansrof a chain l’. g cured vbetween said sprockets and slides con'- 40 Sprocket wheels O1 on axle Il are connected by nested with sam cham slidably rarranged in said chains Il with similar wheels Il on the stumpV ` guide path, a member connected with said slide axles I1 carrying »the links ß. . anda second member pivoted to said hull, and .By turning the handle l! both axles is and“ - landing means supported 'by said members, a plurality of rods pivoted to said propulsion unit 45V being tilted upwardly while the links Il," carry and supported in rollers mounted on said hull, -~415 can be rotated in the same direction, the cowls ’ingtheiloatsareloweredandviceversm Pig. 9 illustrates a modiiication of the device `ahowninFlgs.7and8. Hereonlythe'loweraxle 50 ‘Il governing the floats is provided, the cowls be `ing'acted'uponbythrustlevers‘il nxedtothis axle and?acting onthe rearfacesof the cowls YV>‘nto tin'n them upwardly about theirhinge points 13.V 55 - Y and cables fastened to said rods and wound on said sheaves. ' ' 4. In an aeroplane comprising a hull element and wing elements, the combination of at least 50 one propulsion unitr mounted upon a pivotal axis directly on one- ofrsaid'elements, the center of mass of said propulsion Yunit-'being located ahead of said pivotal axis, with a landing gear pivoted Obviously in all the embodiments here shown on one of said elements for extension and re-j >55 and describedtheaxlesmayaswellbetm'nedby traction, mechanism connected at one end to said landing gear and supportingv Vat least a part of the weight thereof, said mechanism at its other end being connected tosaid propulsion unit at a point displaced from said pivotal> axis, and com- 60 " motorial force.V y, f ’ ' I wishit tobe understood that I do not desire to be limited'to the exact details of construction 60 :shown and described, for obvious modifications will occur to a person skilled in the art. I claimz- ' , l. In an aeroplane comprising a hull element and wing elements,. the combination of at least 65 one propulsion unit mounted upon a pivotal axis directly on one of said elements, the center of, mass of said propulsion unit being located ahead oi' said pivotal axis. with a landing gear pivoted on one of said elements for extension and re 70 traction, mechanism connected at one end to said landing gear and supporting at least a part of the weight thereof, Vsaid mechanism at its other mon actuating means for operating said landing gear and simultaneously, and in dependence thereupon, tilting said propulsion unit relative to said hull and said wings, ina sense opposite to that in which the landing gear moves, whereby 65 the weight of the landing gear at least'partially Y balances the weight of the propulsion unit, said" mechanism and said actuating means comprising struts provided -on the landinggear and pivoted to said hull, a guide path provided on said hull 70 and another strut supporting'said landing gear slidably arranged in said *guide path, said actuat end being connected to said propulsion lunit at ¿ ing means comprisingl a rotary shaft provided in a point displaced fromsaid pivotal axis, and com said hull, a toothed wheel mounted on said shaft 75 mon actuating means for operating said landing and a second toothed wheel mounted von said pm- 75» 2,088,692 3 pulsion unit in mesh with the ñrst wheel, a sheave ^ landing float and simultaneously, and in Vde pendence thereupon, tilting said propulsion unitV mounted on said shaft and a cable connected to said struts and adapted to be wound on said relative to said hull and said wings, in a sense fsheave when said shaft is turned, thereby raising 'the landing gear while the propulsion unit is lowered. Í 5. In an hydroplane comprising a hull element and Wing elements, the combination of at least one propulsion unit mounted upon a pivotal axis directly on one of said elements, the center of mass of said propulsion unit being located ahead of said pivotal axis, with a landing float pivoted on one of said elements for extension and re traction, mechanism connected at one end to said landing float and supporting at least a part of the weight thereof, said mechanism at its other end being connected to said propulsion unit at a point displaced fromsaid pivotal axis, and' common actuating means for operating said opposite to that in which the landing float moves, whereby the weight of the landing float at least partially balances the weight of the propulsion unit, said mechanism and said actuating means comprising a rotary shaft mounted in said hull, a plurality of arms connected with and actuatedV by said shaft,l said arms carrying said landing float, a sprocket mounted on said shaft, a second rotary shaft mounted in said hull and adapted to have said propulsion unit tiltably mounted thereon, a second sprocket mounted on said ' second shaft and means for connecting said first with said second sprocket for correlating the rotary movements of sad shafts. CLAUDE DORNIER.