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Патент USA US2088692

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Aug. 3, 1937;
2,088,692
C. DORNIER
FLYING MACHINE
'
Filed March l, 1934
3 Shee-ts-Sheet’l
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Aug. 3, 1937.
2,088,692
C. DORNIER
FLYING MACHINE
Filed March 1, 1954
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Aug. 3, 1937-v
c. DORNIER
FLYING MACHINE
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2,088,692
Patented
Aug.
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UNITED STATES ' PATENT " ori-*ICE* '
FLYING MACHINE l
Claude- Dornier, Friedrlchsliafen-on-the-Boden
see, Germany, assignor of one-half to Dornier
Metallbauten G. m. b. H., Friedrichshafen-on
tlie-Bodensee, Germany
Application March 1, 1934, Serial No.- 713,450
'
y
In Germany March 3, 1933v
5 Claims. (Cl. 244-102)
My invention relates to flying machines and the propeller shaft and engine, .3 being the vpro
more particularly to the arrangement, in such peller. The cowl 2 is hinged tothe top of the
machines, of the propellers and the supporting fuselage at 4 so as to be tiltable abouta hori
means, such as landing and starting gears, floats,
5 etc. in such machines.
.
zontal axis, as shown in dotted lines in` Fig. 1. '
5, 5 are the wheels of the carriage or landing gear, 5
It is an object of my invention to provide
means wherebylv the propellers and the supporting
means can be arranged in such manner as to im-
which ‘are mounted >on`an _axlef`6, Vthe ‘ends__of
which are supported by arms ‘lfrockable about
the axis 8. Links Q_ connect the arms l with slides
prove the stability and the aero-dynamic eili-
I0 mounted for displacement in inclined tracks
10 ciency'of the craft.
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Il. Rods> I2 pivoted to points near the bottom 10
In ordinary airplanes for use on land. as well of the cowl 2 extend axially through the fuseas in seaplanes, flying boats, etc. diiliculties are lage, their rear ends being supported by.rollers I3. I
frequently encountered in positioning the propel- 1 Sprockets Il and I5 Aare disposed inthe fuselage
1ers sufiiciently high above the ground cr the sur- above and below the tracks I I, respectively,> and
15 face of the water to prevent their tips from hit-
ting the ground or cutting through the water.
Moreover in hydroplanes4 and more especially in
flying boats, if, in order to avoid this, the propeller shaft is positioned sufficiently high above
20 >the water to prevent the tips of the propeller
blades from entering the water, it may happen
25
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endless chains I6 running over these sprockets 15
lower the slides I0, fixed to them, in the tracks
when the cranks I'I are turned in the direction of
the aITOW. and lift them. When the Crank-S are
turned the other way. Sheaves I8 mounted co
axially with the 60D Sprockets I4 serve for wind- 20A
ing up cables I9 flxed to the-rear ends of the
that the stability of the craft, more especially
rods l2.
when the engines are stopped of a sudden, ls
greatly impaired.
,
When the cables are Vwound on the. sheaves I8, »
the rods I2 being pulled forward cause the cowl 2
In order to avoid this and other drawbacks, I
provide means for lifting the propeller free Vof
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to tilt about its hinge point I, thereby lifting thè 25
PI'ODeller free 0f the ground. 'At the Same time
the ground or the surface of the water before
landing, and I combine therewith means for
simultaneously lowering the landing gear, such
30 as a carriage or the ‘floats supporting the craft.
I may lift the propeller either by a. pox-ane] djsplacement cf the propeller shaft or by a tilting
the sprockets I4 causing the chains to. shift the
slides lll from their position of rest, shown in
dotted lines, into their lowermost positions allow
_
the landing wheels 5 to be lowered into oper- 30
ative position also. Inversely, if on starting the
craft the cranks are turned in clockwise direc-V
movement of the shaft Vand Ivmey lift or tilt the
engine along with the shaft. In either case pro^ 35 vision is made for simultaneously lowering the
tion. the slides l0 are'lifted in the tracks, pulling '
the links 9 and arms l along with them so as to
’swing the wheels back into inoperative position m35
landing gear andî for lifting same again, when the
propeller is lowered on starting.v
In the drawings affixed to this specification and
the fuselage. While the Cables being UIlWOund
from their sheaves I8 allow the weight ofthe
engine and Pl'Opeller i0 fOi‘Ce the COWI back into
forming part thereof several embodiments of my
operative position.
40~ invention are illustrated diagrammatically by
Way OfßxamplfïIl? the drawings»
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In the airplane illustrated in Figs. 3 and 4A the 40
fuselage 20 is supported by the self-supporting
Y
Eg' à .is a side ïlievati‘fm'
wing 2| between two engine cowls 22 hinged lto j
i
the front edge of the wing at 23. Armsv24 linked y
45 pmi-1lerlìâdpegëmeegfanîêdaorlfläefggevglâeits~ et 2s te supports so mounted in the fuselage sup- 45
Fig 3 is a front elevation',
’»
Fig. 4 is an elevation of a. twin-propeller air-
plane,
Fig 5 is a similar View ofl a p incdmed form'
50
Fig 6 is a front elevation,
1
`struts
horizontal
28 embracing
tracks 29. these'
Cables
axles
3U can
are be
guided
.wound
in i
_
Fig_ 7a side` elevation of a flying boat'
port the axles 26 of the landing wheels 21, whichk
thus are pivoted to the hun’ The top ends of
y .on sheaves 3| fixed to an axle v32 extending horl- 50
Y
zontally across the fuselage substantially Yin the
Fig. a illustrating a detallada larger seele, and vpiane Of the axes 0f the Propellers 33, when a»
Fig. 9 is a side elevation of an alternative form.
Referring to the drawings and first to Figs. 1
55 and 2, I is the fuselage and 2 is a cowl enclosing
Worm 34 meshing With 8' Wheel 35 Onthe axle 32 `
is turned by means of a crank 36. Other gear e
wheels 31 ñxed on the axle to the rear of the 55 Y
'
cowls mesh with gear wheels 3l iixed on the hinge
'pins II of the cowls.
In the operation of this device, when the crank
is turned in one direction, the worm u will
5 _rotate the axle 32 and thereby cause the wheels
I1 to rotate the wheels 3l and tilt the cowls and
propellers as shown in dotted lines. At the same
timek the cables ll being released allow the wheels
to be lowered!
crßnkfbeins 'turned » the
gear and> simultaneously, and in dependence
thereupon, tilting said propulsion unit relative to
said hull and said wings, in a sense opposite to.
that in which the landing gear moves, whereby
the weight of the landing gear at least partially 5
balances the weight of the propulsion unit.
2. In an aeroplane, the combination according
to claim l, including a member provided onA the
landing gear'and pivoted to the hull, a guide path
l0 other way the cowls and propellers are lowered secured to the hull and a secc;:'i member slid- 10
again into operative position, 'while the cables, ably arranged in said guide path, and common
being woundvon the sheaves Ii, lift the wheel actuating means for tilting and raising the pro
axles and cause the struts Il to travel along the
tracks Il, until they have reached their hori
v 15 mm positions of rest m‘whicn they are locked
by pawls I! acted upon Vby spl
erned by cables 4i.
sïrl'lfand fgov
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pulsion unit and simultaneously sliding said
secondmember in said guide path. thereby lower
ing Vsaid landing gear.
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3. In an aeroplane comprising a hull element
L and wing elements, the combination of at least
Pig. 5 illustrates a very simple form of connec Y one propulsion unit mounted upon a pivotal axis
tion between the propellers and the-landing gear.> directly on one of said elements, the center of i
20 Here the struts l! carrying the wheel axle- are muss> of said propulsion unit being located ahead 20
>ilixedon theaxleßonwhichisalsoilxed theen-v of said pivotal axis, with a landing gear pivoted
gine cowl M. By turning the crank' handle I5 on one of said elements for extension and re
androtating the worm L“ a worm wheel 41 keyed traction, mechanism connected'at- one end to
on the samesaxle is rotated and the axle turned said landing gear and supporting at least a part
25 in oneor the` other direction, tilting the »cowl of .the weight thereof, said mechanism at its 25
and propeller upwardly andl lowering the landing other en_d being connected to said propulsionunit '
at a point displaced from said pivotal axis, and
Pigs. 6 and 'I 4show'the invention as applied to common 4actuating means yfor operating said
gear, orviceversa.
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>aff-lying boat. To'the'self-supporting wing l.
’30. resting-courbe hun Il munged» n thetwo
enginercowls Il.' Parallel links Il, “pivoted to
the cowl at II andto the hull at l1, respectively- support the iioats Il. The forward links il are
.fixed to an axle l’ extending across the hull and
35
and carrying a worm wheel ll actuated by
a worm ll and crank handle ‘L A sprocket wheel
landingv gear and simultaneously, ‘and infde
pendence thereupon, tilting said propulsion unit 30
relative to said hull and said wings, in a sense
opposite to that in which the landing gear moves, ‘
whereby the weight of the landing gearat least
partially balances the weight of the Vpropulsion
unit, ysalti mechanismand said actuating means 35
comprising a rotary shaft, a.,V sprocket and a
' Il on the axle Il is connected with a sprocket
Y wheel Il on anotheraxle ß aboveit, whichex-’
sheave mounted on'said shaft, another sprocket `
rotatably mounted on said hull, an endless chain
tends through the hinge points of _the cowls, by ` passing over said sprockets, a guide path se
40V meansrof a chain l’.
g
cured vbetween said sprockets and slides con'- 40
Sprocket wheels O1 on axle Il are connected by nested with sam cham slidably rarranged in said
chains Il with similar wheels Il on the stumpV ` guide path, a member connected with said slide
axles I1 carrying »the links ß.
. anda second member pivoted to said hull, and
.By turning the handle l! both axles is and“ - landing means supported 'by said members, a
plurality of rods pivoted to said propulsion unit 45V
being tilted upwardly while the links Il," carry
and supported in rollers mounted on said hull,
-~415 can be rotated in the same direction, the cowls
’ingtheiloatsareloweredandviceversm
Pig. 9 illustrates a modiiication of the device
`ahowninFlgs.7and8. Hereonlythe'loweraxle
50 ‘Il governing the floats is provided, the cowls be
`ing'acted'uponbythrustlevers‘il nxedtothis
axle and?acting onthe rearfacesof the cowls
YV>‘nto tin'n them upwardly about theirhinge
points 13.V
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and cables fastened to said rods and wound on
said sheaves.
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4. In an aeroplane comprising a hull element
and wing elements, the combination of at least 50
one propulsion unitr mounted upon a pivotal axis
directly on one- ofrsaid'elements, the center of
mass of said propulsion Yunit-'being located ahead
of said pivotal axis, with a landing gear pivoted
Obviously in all the embodiments here shown
on one of said elements for extension and re-j >55
and describedtheaxlesmayaswellbetm'nedby
traction, mechanism connected at one end to said
landing gear and supportingv Vat least a part of
the weight thereof, said mechanism at its other
end being connected tosaid propulsion unit at a
point displaced from said pivotal> axis, and com- 60
" motorial force.V
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I wishit tobe understood that I do not desire
to be limited'to the exact details of construction
60 :shown and described, for obvious modifications
will occur to a person skilled in the art.
I claimz-
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, l. In an aeroplane comprising a hull element
and wing elements,. the combination of at least
65 one propulsion unit mounted upon a pivotal axis
directly on one of said elements, the center of,
mass of said propulsion unit being located ahead
oi' said pivotal axis. with a landing gear pivoted
on one of said elements for extension and re
70 traction, mechanism connected at one end to said
landing gear and supporting at least a part of
the weight thereof, Vsaid mechanism at its other
mon actuating means for operating said landing
gear and simultaneously, and in dependence
thereupon, tilting said propulsion unit relative to
said hull and said wings, ina sense opposite to
that in which the landing gear moves, whereby 65
the weight of the landing gear at least'partially
Y
balances the weight of the propulsion unit, said"
mechanism and said actuating means comprising
struts provided -on the landinggear and pivoted
to said hull, a guide path provided on said hull 70
and another strut supporting'said landing gear
slidably arranged in said *guide path, said actuat
end being connected to said propulsion lunit at ¿ ing means comprisingl a rotary shaft provided in
a point displaced fromsaid pivotal axis, and com
said hull, a toothed wheel mounted on said shaft
75 mon actuating means for operating said landing
and a second toothed wheel mounted von said pm- 75»
2,088,692
3
pulsion unit in mesh with the ñrst wheel, a sheave ^ landing float and simultaneously, and in Vde
pendence thereupon, tilting said propulsion unitV
mounted on said shaft and a cable connected to
said struts and adapted to be wound on said relative to said hull and said wings, in a sense
fsheave when said shaft is turned, thereby raising
'the landing gear while the propulsion unit is
lowered.
Í
5. In an hydroplane comprising a hull element
and Wing elements, the combination of at least
one propulsion unit mounted upon a pivotal axis
directly on one of said elements, the center of
mass of said propulsion unit being located ahead
of said pivotal axis, with a landing float pivoted
on one of said elements for extension and re
traction, mechanism connected at one end to
said landing float and supporting at least a part
of the weight thereof, said mechanism at its other
end being connected to said propulsion unit at
a point displaced fromsaid pivotal axis, and'
common actuating means for operating said
opposite to that in which the landing float moves,
whereby the weight of the landing float at least
partially balances the weight of the propulsion
unit, said mechanism and said actuating means
comprising a rotary shaft mounted in said hull,
a plurality of arms connected with and actuatedV
by said shaft,l said arms carrying said landing
float, a sprocket mounted on said shaft, a second
rotary shaft mounted in said hull and adapted
to have said propulsion unit tiltably mounted
thereon, a second sprocket mounted on said '
second shaft and means for connecting said first
with said second sprocket for correlating the
rotary movements of sad shafts.
CLAUDE DORNIER.
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