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Патент USA US2090123

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Aug. 17, 1937.
2,090,123
R. c. HOFFMAN
MOTOR VEHICLE
Filed D80. 1, 1932
7 Sheets-Sheet l
I
/
/
'
INVENTOR
Roscoe C Hoffman
_
'BY
M44, M51,
qzzzm‘“
ATTORNEYS.
Aug- 17, 1937-
R. c. HOFFMAN
2,090,123
MOTOR VEHICLE
Filed Dec. 1, 1932
7 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR
?’ascoe C. #0199770”
ATTORNEYS
Aug” 17, 1937.
2,090,123
R. C. HOFFMAN
MOTOR VEHICLE
Filed Dec. 1, 1932
7 Sheets-Sheet 3 _
QW
.
INVENTOR
Fosroe C‘. /7’offm0n,
‘BY
_
'
.
ATTORNEY5~
Aug. 17, 1937.
R. c. HOFFMAN
2,090,123
MOTOR VEHICLE
Filed Dec. 1, 1952
7 Sheets-Sheet 4 I
INVENTOR
Zi’ostoe 6‘. Hoffman
BY” ,
@9074”,
TTORNEYS
Aug- 17, 1937- v
v
R. c. HOFFMAN
2,090,123
MOTOR VEHICLE
Filed Dec. 1, 1932
'7 Sheets-Sheet 5
INVENTOR.
Foams C. ?of?na?.
ATTORNEYS.
Aug. 17; 1937.
R, c, HOFFMAN
2,090,123
MOTOR VEHICLE
Filed Dec. 1, 1932
7 Sheets-Sheet 6
F
__E_ _1_ 3_
INVENTOR
~
ATTORNEYS .
Aug. 17, 1937.
R. c. HOFFMAN
2,090,123
MOTOR VEHICLE
Filed Dec. 1, 1932
7 Sheets-Sheet 7
WWWI
INVENTOR
Roscoe C. dofr’man ‘
A‘ITORNEY5
Patented Aug. 17, 1937
' 2,090,123
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,090,123x
MOTOR VEHICLE
Roscoe O. Hoffman, Detroit, Mich.
Application December 1, 1932, Serial No. 645,218
'19 ‘Claims. (01, n-azn'
This invention relates to motor vehicles and
particularly to motor vehicles of the rear engine,
rear drive type, the principal objects being the
provision of a vehicle of this type of improved
an construction together with a power plant there- _
for of improved and simpli?ed design.
An object of the invention is the provision of a
' lo
mission shaft; to provide a power plant for a. mo
tor vehicle having a’ simple and advantageous
construction permitting an overrunning oi’ the
axle shaft‘with respect to the crank shaft of the
engine, and/or the provision of a two speed ?nal
drive mechanism therefor; to provide a power
plant unit in which the speed change mechanism
rear engine rear drive motor vehicle so construct
acts as a spacer between the engine drive gear
ed and arranged as to permit a maximum-amount
housing and the axle reduction housing; to pro
vide an_internal combustion engine of the type 10
having a single ‘row of aligned or approximately
aligned cylinders and so mounted that the plane
of passenger carrying capacity with respect to the
wheel base thereof.
,
j
,
Other objects are:—.the provision of a power
plant design for a rear engine, rear drive-motor
vehicle that permits of a minimum amount of
of cylinder axes is normally disposed at an angle =
with respect to‘ both the horizontal and vertical;
' space to be utilized therefor, thereby permitting‘ -,to provide. a driving unit having a novel means 15
for taking the reactiveload on the gearing con
a maximum amount of passenger carrying vQapac
ity to be realized in the body of the motor vehicle;
to provide a power plant design for a rear engine,
rear drive motor vehicle in which a minimum
amount of changes in ‘the parts of conventional
necting the crank shaft of the'engine thereof
withthe transmission shaft of the transmission
thereof; to provide a power plant for a motor
vehicle including a_ plurality of aligned cylinders _
disposed with their axes in a plane transverse to
types of motor vehicles is required-in order to
produce the same; to provide a ,power plant for the longitudinal axis of the vehicle and a trans
rear engine, rear drive motor vyehicles permitting '_mission and ?nal drive gear unit unitarily asso- ready assembly and disassembly of- the various ciated therewith on the forward side thereof; and
parts thereof; to provide a power plant for a rear generally to provide an internal combustion en- 25
engine, rear drive motor vehicle in which a maxi
gine form and unit having various novel features ,
mum amount of accessibility to the various parts
of the power plant is permitted; and to provide
of construction.
'- ~
Other objects are:—to provide an axle struc
a power plant for a rear engine, rear drive vehicle ture of novel construction for motor‘vehicles; to
provide an axle structure largely formed of sheet
of generally improved and simpli?ed construc
_m'eta1; and to provide a novel method of form
tion:
.
s
'
' Otherlobjects of the present invention are:
;ing an axle structure.
.
Other objects are:—to ‘provide a novel method _
to provide a power plant for a rear engine, rear
' drive vehicle in which the power plant comprises
a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine ar
ranged with'the axis of the crank shaft trans
versely with respect to the length of the motor
vehicle, and having the transmission and ?nal
drive unit thereof- formed as a unitary part of
40 the powerplant unit; to provide a power‘ plant
unit in which the transmission and ?nal drive
gear unit is arranged as a unitary part thereof
at one lateral side thereof; "to provide a power
plant unit in which the transmission and?nal
45
drive gear unit is arranged within ‘the longitudi
nal con?nes of the power plant; to provide a
power plant unit in which the ‘transmission and
?nal drive gear unit is arranged within the ion.
gitudinal con?nes of the engine and with their
50 axes substantially parallel to the axis of theven
gine crank shaft; to provide a power plant of
the type described having an improved ‘means for
maintaining the center distances between parts
of the mechanism employed for transmitting the
55 power from the engine crank shaft to the trans
of suspending a power plant unit in a motor ve
hicle; to provide a construction in which means
are provided for resiliently mounting the motor
unit in the frame of the motor vehicle and which
cooperates directly or indirectly to modify the
action of the primary means provided fortrans
mitting the load of the vehicle to the driving 40
wheels thereof; to'provide a construction where
by movement of the wheels of the vehicle with‘
respect to the 'frame thereof is modi?ed in ac
cordance with-movement of the vehicle engine
with respect to the frame; and generallyto pro- 45
vide improved means and‘method of supporting
a power plant unit in a motor vehicle.
'
The- above being among the objects of the pres
ent invention; the same consists in certain novel
features of- construction and combinations of 50
parts tojb‘elhereinafter described with reference
to the accompanying drawings and then claimed,
having the above and other objects in view;
In the accompanying drawings which show
suitable embodiments of thefpresent invention 55
2
2,090,123
and in which like numerals referv to like parts
throughout the several different views:
senger carrying compartment 28 as by means of
_
' a wall 36, and the deck 30 is preferably provided
Figure 1 is a partially broken side elevational with a hinged or removable lid 38 permitting
view of a motor vehicle.
ready access to the compartment 34. Air for
5‘
Fig. 2 is an enlarged, fragmentary plan view
engine cooling purposes may be drawn into the
of a portion of the rear corner of the chassis of
compartment 34 either upwardly through the
the vehicle shown in Fig. 1.
space between the power plant unit 32 and the
wall 36 or may be drawn in from the sides
.
.Fig. 3 is an enlarged end elevational view of
the power plant unit employed in the motor
10 vehicle illustrated‘ in Fig. 1 and taken from the
left hand side of the vehicle, viewed from the
driver’s seat.
through suitable louvres 40 provided therein,
the air passing around and/or over the engine 10
and being discharged downwardly from the tail
end of the compartment 34.
~
Fig. 4 is a partially broken and elevational
Where the driving
unit.32 is of the water cooled type a radiator
view of the power plant unit shown in Fig. 3,
such as 42 may be.located between the engine
and the rear wall of the deck 38, as indicated, in 15
the path of air ?owing out of the compartment
15 but looking from the opposite end thereof._
Fig. 5 is a partially broken and partially sec
tioned view taken in a horizontal plane centrally
through the power transmission mechanism of
the power plant unit disclosed in Figs. 3 and 4,
.34.
The engine element of the driving unit 32 is
of the multi-cylinder internal combustion engine
20 as on the line 5—5 of Fig. 3 and illustrating the
type and, being of entirely conventional con v20
struction except as to certain features of the
mechanism provided for transmitting the power
from the engine to the driving axles of the ve
driving mechanism provided between it and the
hicle.
?nal gear reduction mechanism is concerned, is
Fig. 6 is an enlarged sectional view taken on, shown in outline only with exception of the par
iii :v1 the line 6—-6 of Fig. 5 and disclosing the con
tially broken view shown in Figs. '7 and 8 which 25
‘struction of the overrunning clutch employed "indicate that it is provided with a combined cyl
in connection therewith.
inder block and crank case upper half 44, cylin
Fig. 7 is an enlarged fragmentary vertical sec
der head 46, oil pan 48, crank shaft 50, cam
tional view taken on the line 'l--'l of Fig. 3 and shaft 52 and connecting rods 54. The crank
30 illustrating the drive from the engine through shaft 50 is shown in Fig. 8, as being provided 30
the clutch of the power plant unit.
with a sprocket 56 and the cam shaft 52 with
Fig. 8 is an enlarged fragmentary vertical sec
a sprocket 58 which may be connected to
tional view taken on the line 8-8 of Fig. 4 illus- ’ _ gether by means of a suitable belt chain (not
trating the cam shaft drive for the motor unit
33 and further bringing out the drive between the
axle shaft and the wheels of the vehicle.
Fig. 9 is a transverse sectional view taken>
through one of the axles as on the line 9_—-~9 of
Fig. 7.
40
Fig. 10 (Sheet 1) is a transverse sectional view
‘
taken through the rear axle as on the line l0—l0
of Fig. .2 and illustrating by. the use of dotted
lines the method employed in forming the cen
tral portion of the axle.
’ 45,
‘
Fig. 11 is a view similar to Fig. 2 and illus-'
trating a modi?ed form of drive between the
?nal reduction gearing and‘ the wheel and modi
. ?ed form of suspension means between the ve
50
hicle frame and the wheels.
Fig. 12 is a side elevational view of the parts
shown in Fig. 11.
‘
'
shown). The sprockets 55 and 58 are provided
with the usual housing 60 and the outwardly 35
projecting end of the crank shaft 55 is shown ,
as being provided with a vibration damper as
sembly 62 the ‘driving member of which is formed
to provide a pulley 64 for driving purposes'in
connection with an electric generator and/or 40
vcooling fan. The only other material modi
?cation of the engine structure itself is best'il
lustrated in Fig. 3 in which it will be observed
that, because of the tiltingof the engine itself
‘or reasons which will hereinafter be more fully 45
pointed out, the oil pan 48 is somewhat modi?ed
so that the screened intake 66 for the oil pump
68 will be suitably located at the lowest eleva
tion in the oil pan 48.
The engine, as illustrated in the various ?g
50
- ures, is arranged within the compartment 34
Fig. 13 is an enlarged fragmentary view taken
with the axis of its crank shaft horizontally
as on the line l3-—|3 of Fig. 12 and disclosing
disposed and perpendicular to the longitudinal '
an end view of the connection between the ve
‘axis of the motor vehicle, and with the plane
of the cylinder axes tipped forwardly about
55 hicle frame and the s'uspensionispring.
_
.
Fig. 14 is a. view somewhat similar to Fig. 5
but showing the ‘modi?edform of construction
the axis of the engine crank shaft which, as il
lustrated best in Fig.1, permits the rear face of
the engine to be brought into approximate par
allelism with the rear deck 30 and thus permits
illustrated in Figs. 11 and 12.
Fig. 15 is a fragmentary, horizontal sectional
60 view taken centrally through the axle of the ,a shorter and smaller and, therefore, a. more un
mechanism shown in Fig. 14 and illustrating the obtrusive appearing deck or tail to be employed. 60
construction at the outer end of the axle struc
This feature, particularly when employed‘ in
ture shown in Fig. 14.
combination with the particular arrangement of
Referring to the drawings and particularly to - driving parts, to'be hereinafter more speci?cal
65 Fig. 1, a motor vehicle is shown therein including ly described, and in which the crank shaft of 65
wheels 2|! secured by springs 22 to a'vehicle the cylinder is rearwardly disposed relative to
chassis frame 24 in arconventional manner.- The i the axle shafts, permits a relatively greater proé
frame 24 receives a vehicle body including a portion of body space to be employed for pas
hood section 26, a passenger carrying compart
senger carrying purposes as compared to similar
70 ment 28 and a tail or deck section 30, the latter constructions heretofore proposed and of a. com 70
adapted to enclose a driving unit including an mensurate overall length. Furthermore, and
engine,
clutch,
transmission
and ?nal drive . particularly where the internal combustionen
mechanism, indicated in Fig. 1 generally as at
32. The engine compartment 34 under the rear
7;, deck 30 is preferably separated from the pas
glue is of the L-head type and the valve side
of the engine is arranged to the rear, as indi
cated, for instance by the presence of the in
75
3
2,090,123 '
take manifold v‘I8 in Figs. 3 and 4, unusually
ready access tothose parts of the motor requir
ing the most attention from a service stand
tional type of clutch throw out collar II2 axially
Yslidable' upon the sleeve I82, clutch-throw out
arms H4, clutch throw out shaft vII6v and yoke
member II8 ?xed thereto. All these last men
is realized.
.
v I
—
"
As best illustratedin Figs. 5 and 7., the end of tioned parts may be of any conventional con
the crank shaft 58 opposite to that shown in Fig. ' struction and need not be described in detail
8 is rotatably received by a plain bearing ‘I2, here. The clutch shaft II6 has bearings in suit
formed in part integrally with the corresponding » able bosses I28 formed integrally with the clutch _
point
5
end wall of the cylinder block 44, and projects
10 outwardly therebeyond Where it terminates inv a
tapered portion 14 which serves to support,
‘through the medium of a ?anged hub ‘I6, a ?y
wheel ‘I8 forming part of a clutch mechanism,
including a conventional type of spring pressed
l5 pressure plate 88 and driving element 82.
The corresponding end of the cylinder block
44 is closed by a ?at metal plate member 84
secured thereto by means of cap screws 86. The
plate 84 is de?nitely and accurately located rela
20 tive to the axis of the crank shaft 58rby means
of an annular bearing support 88 piloted within
the central opening 98 in the plate 84 and in turn
piloted within the recess 92 formed in the vcor
responding end wall of the cylinder block'con
25 centric with the'bearing ‘I2. The lower half of
the support 88 is piloted in‘ an extension of the
housing member 96 and, as illustrated, is'pref
erably positioned with its axis vertically arranged
so thatitsrotatable position may be more easily '
and ‘simply controlled through connections such
as I22 (see Fig. 1) extending to a clutch pedal
such as I24 suitably positioned within the pas
senger compartment 28 for operation by the 15
driver of the vehicle.
‘,1 In accordance with the present invention the
transmission and ?nal drive unit is positioned
adjacent the front side face of the engine, and
power from the engine is transmitted thereto
through the gear I86. In order to effect a drive
between the transmission and the gear I86, the
plate 84 is extended forwardly beyond the cor
responding side face of the engine and beyond
such side face is' provided, as best indicated in
Fig. 5, with an opening I26 in which is closely
received,
and preferably ?xed thereto as by weld
recess 92 formed in the end wall of the bearing
ing, a tubular bearing support I28 which serves
cap 93.
v
s
The plate 84 on its outer surface is provided -to support a roller bearing assembly I38. The
30 with an outwardly projecting ring 94, suitably bearing assembly I38 in turn receives therein 30
?xed thereto as by welding, and the outer surface the hub of a gear I32 which meshes with the (
of which is located in-true concentricv relation gear I86. The bearing assembly I38 is main
with respect to the axis of the crank shaft 58. A tained against axial movement by being clamped
clutch housing member 96 of cast construction between the inturned ?ange I34 formed on the
35 and of generally cup-shaped conformation is left hand end of the support I28, as viewed in
Fig. 5, and the tubular pilot I36 formed on the
provided in the bottom end thereof with a circu
lar recess 98 which is‘ piloted over the ‘ring .94 spacer bracket I38 secured to the right, hand face
and which thus de?nitely locates the housing 96 of the plate 84 by means of bolts I48. The cas
centrally with respect to the axis of the'crank. ing. I42 of a transmission mechanism indicated
generally at I“ is secured at its left hand end 40
40 shaft 58. The clutch housing member 96 is se
cured to the end of the engine by a portion of by cap screws such as I46 to the right hand end
the same screws 86 which secure the plate 84 of the spacer bracket I38. The transmission
thereto, as illustrated in Fig. 5. - Thev bottom
end of the cup-shaped housing member 96 within
45 the recess 98 is inwardly recessed as at I88 to
form a chamber and centrally thereof is pro
vided with an axially-‘outwardly projecting sleeve
like portion
I82.
.
_
l
'
.
The hub portion of the clutch driven member
50 '82 is splined to the end of a sleeve I84 which has
bearings on the outer surface of the ‘hub member
16. This end of the clutchfmechanism is en
closed by a cup-shaped sheet metal housing mem
mechanism I44 may be made in substantial ac
cordance with any conventional transmission
mechanism now being employed in motor ve 45
hicles and consequently is not shown in full de
tail, it being understood that it includes the usual
counter-shaft and counter-shaft gears (not
shown) adapted for engagement with the gears
I48 and I58.
-.
.
A ball bearing assembly I52 is secured between
the "left hand end of the transmission casing
I42 and the spacer bracket I38 in concentric re
lation with the bearing assembly I38. The stub
55.ber 96. The opposite end of the sleeve member shaft I54 is received ‘within the bearing assembly 55
‘I52 and its left hand end is splined for reception
I84 is formed to provide a gear~I86 located with
in the chamber I88. Concentricity of the gear within the splined bore of the gear I32. The right
hand end of the bore of the gear I32 is‘not splined
I86 with the crank shaft 58 is "insured by provid
ing bevel shoulder portions I88 at opposite ends and is adapted to closely receive the correspond
ing portion of the stub shaft I54 so as to aid, in 60
60 thereof to serye as the inner race of bearingsas
sembly II8 therefor. The outer race of the outer conjunction with the bearing I52, to provide an
bearing assembly H8 is received in a suitable‘ outboard bearing for the gear I32. It might be
recess formed in the outer wall of~ the chamber noted at this point that the bearing assembly
I38 is located substantially centrally of the width
I88 while the outer race of the inner bearing H8
65 is received within the annular bearing support 88. of the face of the gear I32, thus permitting it to 65
previously described. By the \aforementioned take the torque from the gear I86 without being
means concentriclty of the gear I861with ‘the subject to a tendency toward de?ection from its
.
crank shaft 58 is positively assured. From the , true position.
Again referring to Fig. 5, it will be noted that
above it will be observed that the gear I86 is re
70 leasably secured to the'érank shaft 58 through the right hand end of the stub shaft I54 is recessed
the medium of the above described clutch, and concentrically with respect to its- axis as at I56,
is positively and amply supported in concentric and rotatably received therein with the aid of
vneedle bearings I58 is the pilot portion I68 of
relation with respect to the crank shaft.
Control of the ‘clutch illustrated in Fig. '7 is the main transmission shaft I62. At the right
hand end of the transmission casing I42 a?nai 75
75 accomplished through employment of a conven
ber I85 secured at its rim to the rim of the mem
4
'
-
2,090,123
» ,drive housiwng I64 is rigidly secured to the front
side of the cylinder block by means of bolts I66
(see Fig. 4) and the left hand end of the main
transmission shaft I62 projects through and be
5 yond the same. A ball bearing assembly I68 is
clamped between the right hand end of the trans-1
mission casing I42 and‘ the differential casing I64
to serve to support the main transmission shaft .
I62 at this point. ‘Bolts I18 extending through
288, and, accordingly, will lock the ‘member I82
to the‘ member I96 for equal rotation therewith.
When, however, the member I82 attempts to over
run the member I96 when turning in the above
described direction, the rollers 282 will tend to
roll towards the deep end of< their corresponding
recesses I98 and will permit the member I82 to
run free of, or overrun the member I96.
Accordingly, with this mechanism as in con
10 the width of the rear portion of the ?nal ‘drive
ventional constructions, when the free wheeling
housing I64 and threading into the transmission _ clutch just described is effective, if the engine
-
' casing I42 serve to secure the right hand end of
_ the transmission casing to the differential hous
tends to rotate faster than the corresponding
speed of rotation of the wheels the free wheeling
ing and, at the same time, serve to secure the clutch is effective to transmit torque from the
engine to the wheels, but if the wheels tend to 'll
overrun the corresponding speed of the engine,
then the free wheeling clutch is effective to per;
mit such overrunning. Obviously, an additional
15 locating ring I12 of the bearing-assembly I14 in
place within the ?nal drive housing I 64.
A second bearing assembly I16 suitably sup
ported within the ?nal drive housing I64 in
spaced and concentric relation with respect to
‘ 28 the bearing assembly I14 serves, together with
the bearing assembly I14, to rotatably receive
gear reduction may be‘inserted with, orgin place
of the'free wheeling clutch indicated. It may
also be noted at this point that a suitable bell
‘ the opposite ends of a pinion gear I18 rotatably , housing 288 is sealed to the final drive housing
surrounding the extended end of the main trans
mission shaft I62. The right hand end of the
25 pinion gear I18, as viewed invFig. 5, is extended
as at I88 to a position,beyond the corresponding
side face of the final drive housing I64 and is
I64 over the mechanism just described. Another.
feature that it is desired to call attention to at
this time is the fact that the transmission casing
I42 is preferably entirely free of contact with the
forward face of the crank case 44 and with the
there splined to the hub of a dog or dental clutch ' spacer bracket I38 serves as a spacer between
member I82 having internal teeth I84 formed
30 in its outer end.
the final drive housing I64 and the plate 84.
The corresponding end portion a Thismethod of forming the transmission casing
of the main transmission “shaft I62 is also splined
I42 serves to simplify the construction and aids
and non-rotatably but slidably received thereon
in ease of production.'
is the other member I86 of the dental clutch
having teeth I88 formed on its periphery for
Forwardly of the main transmission shaft I 62
the ?nal drive housing I64 is provided ‘with a pair
.
~35 selective engagement with the teeth I84. The‘ of ' spaced roller bearing assemblies 2I8 which ro
hub of the clutch member I86 is peripherally tatably receive between them the extended tu
grooved as at I98 for engagement with the fork bular ends of the differential housing 2I2 to the
of a suitable shifting lever (not shown). The
extreme right hand end of the main transmission
40 shaft I62, as viewed in (Fig. 5, may be provided
with a gear member I92 adapted ‘to mesh with a
second gear I94 suitably connected in a conven
tional-manner to a speedometer in accordance
with conventional practice.
It will be observed that if the clutch member
I86 is shifted .to the left’ as viewed in Fig. 5 to
bring the teeth I88 into meshwith the teeth I84,
the main transmission shaft I62 will be positively
locked to the pinion gear I18 for equal move
,50 ment therewith but that when the clutch member
I86 is- in" the position indicated in Fig. 5. no such
45
periphery of which is suitably secured a ring gear
2| 4 which lies in mesh with the pinion gear I18.’
The differential housing 2I2 is interiorly provided 40
with the usual spider 2I6 which supports the dif
ferential pinions 2I8 which lie in mesh with the
differential side gears 228 in accordance with
conventional practice. The hubs of the side gears
228 have suitable bearings within the differential
housing 2 I 2 and are internally splined for engage
ment with the splined ends ‘of the stub-shafts 222
which project outwardly from each end thereof
'and'each of which has an additional bearing 224
outwardly of the corresponding roller bearing 218. 50
The forward end of the differential housing I64
positive engagement is provided.
The purpose . is enclosed by an oil tight sheet metal housing
of such construction is to permit the employment member 226 suitably secured thereto in a con
of a so-called “free wheeling” clutch between the
55 main transmission shaft I62 and the, pinion gear
|18._'-In the particular illustration shown, this
free wheeling clutch takes the form of a driving
“ventional manner.» .
Each of the stub shafts 222 immediately out
wardly of the housing I64 is secured to a universal
joint 228. Each universal joint 228 has secured
member I96 splined on the right hand end of
thereto the’ inner end of an'outwardly extending
axle shaft 238, the outer end of each of which
60 member I82. The periphery of the member I96, is provided with a second universal joint 232 ad
as illustrated in Fig. 6, is recessed as at I98, the . jacent its point of connection with its correspond 60
. bottoms of the recesses being formed spirally with ' ing rear wheel 28.
respect to the axis of the shaft I62. The clutch
From the foregoing it will be apparent that in i
member I82 is formed to provide a circular track the above described mechanism power from the
65 288 about the periphery of the member I96 and engine crank shaft 58 is transmitted through the
received between the bottom of each recess I98 clutch mechanism back to‘ the gear I86 where it 65
and the track 288 is a roller 282 constantly urged is transferred through the gear I32 to the trans
towards the shallow end of the recess by means mission mechanism and from the?’ti‘ansmission
of a follower 284 constantly urged in that direc
mechanism to/a free wheeling device, if desired‘;
70 tion by means of a spring 286. As is well known I and thence through the pinion gear I18 and ring‘
to those skilled in the art, such'a construction gear 2| 4 to the differential mechanism and thence 70
when the shaft I62 is turned in a counter-clock
through the universal joints 228, drive shafts 238
wise direction, asviewed in Fig. 6, will cause the and universal joints 232 to the driving wheels of
a the ,main transmission shaft I62 within the clutch
roller 282 to be wedged between the bottoms of
75 corresponding recesses I98 and the circular track
the vehicle.
'
' As best illustrated in Figs. 2, 3 and 4, the entire
75
5
2,090,123 - :-;.
driving unit including the engine, clutch, trans
mission and differential mechanisms, is mounted
is disposed with its crank shaft perpendicular to
the longitudinal axis of the motor vehicle and
in the chassisframe in a novel manner, and al
the support is positioned in approximately paral
though, as 'far. as the broad aspect of this engine lel relation with respect to the axis of the crank
' 5 mounting is concerned, the invention involved .shaft, any vibratoryfmovement of the engine
therein‘ forms the subject-matter of a separate - about the ‘axis of the shaft 242 will be apparent
_
patent application, it will be described in detail
_here particularly in view of certain speci?c ap
plications ‘of the same forming a part of the pres
10 ent invention. Referring now\to‘the above men
tioned ?gures. it will be noted that the upper por
tion of the plate 84 projects forwardly into the
angle formed between the cylinder block“ and‘
the transmission‘ housing I42 and '?nal drive
15 unit housing I64. As best illustrated in Fig. 8, a
.
plate member 234 secured to the right hand end of
the engine immediately inwardly of the chain
housing cover plate 60 also projects'forwardly
into the angle formed between the cylinder block
20 44 and ?nal drive housing I64. In each of these
projecting portions of the plates 84 and 234 is
to a considerably less degree if at all in the frame
. 24 than would be the case were the axis of the en
gine crank shaft and of the supporting tube 242
located in parallelism with the longitudinal axis, 10
of the motor vehicle.
-
Referring now‘ to the axle construction, it will .
be noted, as perhaps best shown in Figs. 1 and 2, ,
that the rear axle 260 is a dead type of axle, is
located in_the same horizontal plane as the ?nal
drive unit housing I64 and its central portion is
bowed forwardly relative to the ends in order
to clear the ?nal drive casing I64. The central
15v
portion of the axle 260, which is preferably
formed from sheet or plate metal into‘ tubular 20
formation, is enlarged in diameter at its ends and
rigidly secured as by means of bolts 236 a bracket each enlarged end closely receives therein a com
238, and projecting between the brackets 238 ' plemental tubular reinforcing member 262, see
and beyond each of them and ?xed relative there
Fig. 8, which is welded as at 263 to the abutting
25 to is a tube 240.' A shaft 242 positioned within end of the corresponding tubular wheel spindle 25
the tube 240 and in. generally. spaced‘ relation member 264. The hub 266 of the corresponding
with‘ respect to the interior wall thereof projects wheel 20 is rotatably mounted by means of roller
through the ,entire length of the tube 240 and < bearings ‘such as 268 upon each spindle 264. The
beyond the end thereof. The space between the enlarged outer end‘ portions of the axle 260 are
30 shaft 242 and the tube 240 is?lled with rubber as each provided with a triangular shaped opening 30
at244 which is preferably vulcanized to the op
210 therein and, as best illustrated in Figs. 2
posed faces of each member thereby resiliently and 5, the corresponding axle-shaft section 230
projects into the corresponding hollow outer end
of the axle 266 through thecorresponding open
35 ably received in two-part brackets 246, one part. ing 210, and the enlarged outer ends _of the axle 35
of which is' secured to the corresponding side 2611 are of a su?icient internal diameter to re
frame members of the frame 24 as by means of -ceive therein the corresponding universal vjoint .
connecting them together. The outer ends of the ‘
shaft 242 are splined as at 245 and are non-rotat
rivets 248, and the other or inner part of ,which
is axially slidable relative thereto.
Nuts 25!!
40 threaded on the splined ends 245 cooperate with
the inner ‘part of each bracket 246 to hold such
part in place and to control the axial position of
the shaft 242 and consequently the driving unit
32 with respect to the fame 24. Upon backing
45 off the nuts 250 the corresponding inner bracket
parts maybe shifted in that direction until the
bracket parts are disengaged and then the driving
unit 32 moved‘bodily out of engagement with‘ the
frame. This bracket mechanism forms‘part of
50 the subject matter of my copending application
for Letters Patent of the United States for im
provements in motor vehicles, ?led on even date
herewith and serially numbered 645,219, and ref
erence to such application will more clearly.il-'
55 lustrate this phase’of the construction.
By tipping the engine unit, as previously de
scribed, forwardly about the axis of the crank
shaft, and by locating the transmissionand ?nal
232. -
As illustrated'in Fig. 8, each universaljoint
232 is provided with an outwardly extending 4.0
stub shaft 212 which is non-rotatably secured to .
the outer end of the corresponding hub 266 by
means of acap member 214 splined to theouter -
end of the corresponding stub shaft 212. As
also illustrated'in Fig. 8,.each spindle member 45
264 is provided with a radially outwardly ex
tending ?ange 216 to which the backing plate
member 218 of any conventional type of braking
mechanism may be secured as by means of rivets
280. As perhaps best illustrated in Figs. 5 and
8, each rear spring 22 which is shown as of the
semi-elliptical type, is connected to the corre
‘sponding end of the axle- 260 by means of U
bolts such as ,282 which cooperatewith spring
pad members 284 suitably welded‘ or otherwise 55
?xed to the axle 266.
.
'
As best illustrated in Fig. 10, the main portion
of the~ axle 260 is preferably formed from a ?at
drive unit forwardly of the engine crank case, strip of sheet metal such as is illustrated in
00 and by positioning the supporting shaft 242 as dotted'linés at 286,.by ?rst being bent into a U
far rearwardly as is possible in the angle between shape as at 288, and then the free edges of the
the cylinder block 44 and the ~-?nal drive unit, it sheet brought together and welded as at 290.
is possible to locate the shaft 242 close to the ‘During this operation the outer extremities of
center of mass of the driving unit 32 and, due the axle 260 are formed to space their free edges
65 to the fact that the rubber 244 resiliently con ’ . apart to form the openings 210. Now referring 65
nects the tube 240 with the shaft 242, the driving to Figs. 8 and 9, it will be noted'that the rein
unit is ?oated upon the‘ rubber 244 for oscillatory forcing member 264 has a portion thereof cut
movement about the axis of the shaft 242. This away in conformance with the size of the open
permits a limited oscillation of the driving unit ing 210 in the axle 260, and the number 262
70 32 about the axis of the shaft 242 to compensate preferably projects into the corresponding end 70
for variations in the torque being transmitted be
of the central portion of the axle 260 a distance
Y tween the engine and the driving wheels, and also at least as far as the inner end of the corre
serves to absorb engine vibrations and insulate sponding opening 210, and the free edges of the
them from transmission to the frame 24. Fur
member 262 forming its vportion of the corre
75 thermore, in view of the fact that the engine ' spending opening 210 is preferably welded to the
2,090,123
6 .
mating edges of the sheet metal portion of thev leaf spring 328, as by means of U-bolts 330. As
perhaps best indicated in Figs. 12 and 14, each
axle 260. The line of junction between the ex
treme end portion of the sheet metal portion of tubular axle housing member 306-is provided
the axle 260 is also preferably welded to the adjacent its outer end with a pair of spaced
parallel plate members 332 suitably ?xed there
5 spindle member 264 as at 2!“. The above con
to as by welding, and a bolt 334 extending be
tween the lower ends of the plate 332 is rotatably
noted that the forward curvature of the central ‘ received in the corresponding eye 336 formed on
portion of the axle may be effected either during . the forward end of the corresponding spring 328.
10 the forming thereof from the ?at sheet, or after A single leaf spring 340 is clamped by the U-bolts 10
330 between each spring 328 and its correspond
the tubular structure is completed, the latter be
ing bracket 326 and its forward end is formed
ing preferable.
»
With the above described axle structure it will to provide an eye 342 which is journaled on a
bolt 344 extending between the corresponding
be apparent that upon disconnecting the sup
15 porting shaft 242 from the brackets 246 in the members 332 at a point spaced upwardly from
stitutes an economical method of forming a
strong and efficient axle structure.
It may be
the corresponding bolt 334/ The single leaf
manner previously described, and by removing
the caps 214 from the stub shafts 212, the entire
?nal drive mechanism, including the engine,
clutch, transmission, ?nal drive gear unit, drive
20 shafts 230 and universal joints 232, may be lifted
spring 340 serves more or less as a radius rod ‘
which, in conjunction with the corresponding
spring 328, takes the driving and braking torque
on the rear axle structure and prevents rotation
as a unit free and clear from the chassis of the
thereof.
vehicle where it may be readily and easily oper—
ated upon. Obviously, this mechanism may be
initially assembled in this manner, during the
With this modi?ed structure, it'will be apparent
that the point of contact of the wheels 20’ with
the road surface are spaced outwardly, relative
'
to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle with re
25 manufacture of a vehicle, and applied to the ve
h1cle by reversing the above operations.
_
Referring now to Figs. 11 to 15 inclusive, a
modi?cation of the previously described con
struction is illustrated.‘ This modi?cation deals
spect to the points of application of the springs
328 to the axle housing members 306.
As a re
sult of this relation of these parts, the upward
reaction on the wheels 20’ and the downward
reaction. of the vehicle weight transmitted
through the springs 328 to the tubular axle mem
bers 306 tends to move the inner ends of the mem
bers 306 downwardly or towards the road surface.
30 mainly with the spring suspension at the ‘rear
end of the vehicle and in this modi?ed construc—
tion the previously described mounting of the
?nal drive unit affects such spring suspension.
This tendency towards downward movement of
the inner ends of the tubes 306 tends to rock the
?nal drive unit 32 in a counter-clockwise direc
‘ As indicated in Fig. 14, the ‘?nal drive unit in
35 cluding the engine, clutch, transmission and
drive to the differential mechanism is identical
tion as viewed in'Fig. 12,. about the supporting
to that previously described, the whole unit be
ing, supported through the medium of the tube
240 andtelescoped shaft 244 connected thereto
shaft 244 as an axis, and this, tendency is re
sisted by distortion of the rubber interposed be
40 by rubber as in the previously described con- ’ tween the tube 240 and the shaft 244. In addi
tion it is to be noted. that any such movement
‘ In this particular ‘construction the formation of the ?nal drive unit 32v about the shaft 244 as
of the ?nal drive housing I64’ is slightly different a result of road shock or other forces transmitted
tojthe rear axle structure is also resisted by the
from that previously described in order to ac
45 commodate at each end thereof universal joints , force necessary to move the mass of the ?nal
300 connected to the differential side ‘gears 220 drive unit 32 about its pivotal axis on the shaft
by means of stub shafts 302. In the present case 244. Consequently,‘ with this construction, the
each of the axle shafts 304 which are connected > action of the springs 328 is modi?ed not only by
the resistance to deformation or by the rubber
to their corresponding universal joint 300 is en
50 closed in a tubular axle housing member 306 the between the shaft 244 and on the tube-‘240 but .
inner end of which is formed into a partially also by the force necessary to move the mass of
the ?nal drive unit 32 about theaxis of the shaft
spherical shape as at 308 and is secured for uni
versal movement, ‘but against axial movement, 244. Such an arrangement offers many pos
with respect'to the ?nal drive housing I64’ by sibilities towards bene?cial control'of the spring
action and riding qualities of the vehicle.
55 means of the cooperating inner and outer par
While only two modi?cations of the present
tially spherical members 3l0 and M2 suitably
secured to the side face of the ?nal drive housing invention, have been shown and described in the
struction.
.
.
foregoing speci?cation, it will _be apparent to
I64. As indicated in Fig. 15, in this modi?ca
those'skilled in the art that the broad invention
involved is capable of a wide variety» of changes
and modi?cations, and accordingly it will be ap 60
parent that formal changes may be made in the
‘speci?c embodiments of the invention disclosed
without departing from the spirit or substance
of the broad invention, the ‘scope of which is com
tion no. universal joints such as 2132 in the pre
60 viously described construction are" employed ad
jacent the wheels, but instead each tubular hous
ing member 306 is ?anged at itsf‘outer end as at
3“ and has secured thereto the backing plate
3l6 of a suitable type of brake mechanism. The
65 outer end of each tubular housing 306 is pro
vided internally thereof with a pair of bearing
assemblies 3“! which serve to rotatably support
the outer end of the corresponding shaft 304 to
which the hub 320 of the corresponding wheel‘ is
70 looked as by means of 'akey 322 and nut 324.
Now referringto Figs. 11', '12 and 13, it will be
noted that the rear end of each side member of
the frame 24'-is provided with a bracket 326,
. and toythe lower face of each of which is se
75 cured. the‘ forwardly extending ‘quarter-elliptic
mensurate with the appended claims.
‘
“ , I
claim:
65
-
1. In a driving mechanism, an engine having
a crank-case, the crankshaft of said engine pro
jecting through one end of said crankcase, a gear
surrounding the projecting end of said crank
shaft, means ?xed w'ith respect to said crankcase
rotatably supporting said gear independently of
said crankshaft and manually controllable means
4 for releasably clutching said gear to said crank- ' ,Y .
shaft for driving movement therefrom including '
2,090,123
7
/..
clutch driving member secured to said crank
vone end of said crankcase and ?xed thereto, said
engine having a crankshaft projecting through
antric with said crankshaft connecting said gear said plate, a gear rotatably supported at least in
part by said plate, and means for releasably
nd said clutch driven member.
iaft, a clutch driven member, and means con
2. In a driving mechanism, an engine having a
rankcase and a crankshaft projecting from one
rid thereof, clutching means on the projecting
rid of said crankshaft, a housing enclosing said
iutching means and ?xed with respect to said
rankcase, a gear surrounding said projecting end
clutching said gear to said crankshaft. _
9. In a driving mechanism,- in combination, an
engine having a crankcase and a crankshaft pro
jecting therefrom, a plate ?xed to an end of said -
crankcase, a gear rotatably surrounding the pro
jecting end of said crankshaft and rotatably sup 10
ported at least in part by said plate, a second
E said crankshaft and rotatable relative thereto,
leans carried by said’housing and said crank
ase respectively,_for rotatively supporting said
gear in mesh with the ?rst mentioned gear, and a
supporting bearing for said second gear supported -
ear independently of said crankshaft, and a con
ection between said gear and said. clutching
from said plate and lying at least in part within
15
the face widthof said second gear.
leans.
“
I
'
'
3. In a driving mechanism, an internal com
ustion engine having a crankcase and a crank
haft, a plate member closing one end of said
rankcase and ?xed thereto, said crankshaft pro
acting out through said plate, a clutch housing
xed to said plate, a clutch within said housing
onnected to said crankshaft, a gear surrounding
aid crankshaft and rotatable relative thereto,
earings supported by said plate and housing
otatably supporting said gear, and means con
ecting said gear and clutch.
4. In a driving mechanism, an internal com
ustion engine having a crankcase and a crank
haft, a plate member closing one end of said
rankcase and ?xed thereto, said crankshaft pro
10. In a driving mechanism, in combination, an
engine having a crankcase and a crankshaft pro
jecting therefrom, a plate ?xed to an end of said
crankcase, a gear surrounding the projecting end
of said crankshaft and rotatable relative there 20
to, a second gear in mesh with the ?rst mentioned
gear, a supporting bearing for said second gear
supported from said plate and lying at least in
part within the face width of the ?rst mentioned
gear, a driven shaft secured to said second gear 25
and projecting therefrom, and a bearing for said
driven shaft axially spaced from said second
gear whereby to provide an outboard bearing for ‘
. said second gear.
11. In a drive mechanism, in combination, an 30
engine having a crankcase and a crankshaft, a
:cting out through said plate, ‘a clutch housing
transmission mechanism‘ including a driven shaft -
xed to said plate, a clutch within. said housing
mounted on ‘a lateral side wall of said engine,
onnected to said crankshaft, said housing being -' means for driving said transmission from said en
armed to provide a pocket between it and said'_ gine, a ?nal drive pinion-gear supported by engine
late and separatedfrom said clutch, a gear ro- ' supported structure in concentric relationwith _'
atably mounted in said pocket for movement respect‘to said driven shaft and adapted to be
elative to said crankshaft, and means connecting driven therefrom, said driven shaft projecting
aid gear and clutch.
.'
.
through'said gear and being rotatable relative
thereto, means for supporting said ?nal drive 40
5. In a driving mechanism, an internal com
gear independently of said driven shaft selec
ustion engine having a crankcase and a crank
haft, a plate member closing one. end of said - tively operable means for connecting said driven
rankcase and ?xed thereto, means piloting said
late on said crankcase, said crankshaft pro
zcting out through said plate,- a clutch "housing
xed to said ‘plate, means piloting said housing
shaft and gear for equal rotation, and a ?nal axle
driving mechanism driven from said gear.
12.>In a drive mechanism, in combination, an 45
:1 said plate, a clutch within said housing con
ected to said crankshaft, a gear surrounding
transmission mechanism including a driven shaft
aid crankshaft and rotatable relative thereto,
earings supported by said plate, and housing
means for driving said transmission from said
engine, ‘a ?nal drive pinion gear supported by 50’
"said engine in concentric relation with respect
to said driven shaft and adapted to be driven
atatably supporting said gear, and means con
ecting said gear and clutch.‘
6. In a. driving mechanism, in combination, an
ogine'having a crankcase and a crankshaft, a.
late ?xed to an end of said crankcase, a gear
atatably surrounding said crankshaft and rotat
bly supported at least in part by said plate inde
endently of said crankshaft, means for con-
ecting said gear and crankshaft, and a second
ear supported at least in part by said plate and
wing in mesh with the first mentioned gear.
'7. In a driving mechanism, in combination, an
ngine having a crankcase and a crankshaft, a
late ?xed to an end of said crankcase, said plate
engine having a crankcase and a crankshaft, a
mounted on a- lateral side wall of said engine,
therefrom, said driven shaft projecting through
said gear and being rotatable relative thereto, a
one-way clutch mounted on the opposite side of
55, I
said gear from said transmission, said, clutch
. connecting said driven shaft and gear, and a
?nal axle driving mechanism driven from said
gear.
v
-
-
13. In a drive mechanism, in combination, an so
engine having a crankcase and a crankshaft, a
transmission mechanism including a driven shaft
mounted on a. ‘lateral side wall of said ‘engine’,
means for driving said transmission from said
aving a pair of openings .therein,v bearings ‘engine, a ?nal drive pinion 'gear supported by
soured in said openings, a gear rotatably sup- _ said engine independently. of said driven shaft
6.5.
>orted by one of said hearings in concentric rela - in concentric relation, with respect thereto andv
ion with‘ respect to said crankshaft and inde
adapted to be driven therefrom, said driven-shaft
endently thereof, means for connecting said projecting through said gear and being. rotatable
ear and said crankshaft, and a second gear, relative thereto, a one wayclutch connecting said
otatably supported by the other of said bear-~ driven shaft and gear, a two-way clutch operable
igs, said gears lying in meshing relationship.
‘to lock said gear and driven shaft together for _
8. In a~ driving .mechanism, in combination, a equal'rotation, and a ?nal axle driving mecha
iulti-cylinder engine having a, crankcase .part
ommon to‘all of said cylinders, a plate piloted on
nism driven from said gear.
,
'
14.‘ In combination, an internal combustion 75
8
-
'
2,090,123
engine having a crankcase and. a crankshaft, a
housing secured to a lateral face of said crank
case, a gear rotatably supported by said housing,
a differential mechanism supported by said hous
5 ing, a gear for driving said differential mecha
nism supported by said housing in mesh with the
?rst mentioned gear, a support projecting later
ally beyond said crankcase in spaced relation
with respect to said housing, a third gear rotat~
l0 ably carried by said support, means for driving
said third gear from said crankshaft, a transmis
sion mechanism connecting said third gear with
the ?rst mentioned gear, and a housing for said
transmission mechanism supported independent
engine having a~crankcase and a crankshaft, a
transmission mechanism including a driven shaft
secured in parallelism to a lateral side wall of
said engine, a plate secured to a longitudinal end
surface of said engine, said crankshaft project
ing through said plate, a gear surrounding said
crankshaft and rotatable relative thereto, releas
able means for securing said gear and crankshaft
together for equal rotation, said driven shaft pro
jecting through said plate, and a gear secured to
said driven shaft in driven relation with respect
to the ?rst mentioned gear.
18. In combination, an internal combustion
engine having a crankcase and a crankshaft, a
housing secured to a lateral side face of said
crankcase, a gear rotatably supported in said
housing, a differential mechanism supported'by
15 ly of said crankcase between said support and
the ?rst mentioned housing.
15. In a driving mechanism, in combination,
‘an engine having a crankcase, a plate member ‘said housing, a gear for driving said differential
secured ‘to an end of said crankcase and disposed mechanism supported by said housing in mesh
20 generally- in a planeextending transversely of the with the ?rst mentioned gear, a support project
longitudinal axis of said crankcase, a crankshaft . ing laterally beyond said crankcase, a third gear
within said crankcase projecting through said rotatably supported by said support, means for
plate member, a clutch housing secured relative driving said third gear from said crankshaft, and
to said plate member and having its open side . a transmission mechanism connecting the ?rst
25 closed thereby, a clutch within said housing oper
atively associated with smd crankshaft, a gear
element surrounding said crankshaft between
said clutch and plate member and rotatable rela
mentioned gear with said third gear.
19. In combination, an engine having a crank
case and a crank-shaft therein, a driven shaft
positioned in parallel relation with respect to
tive to said crankshaft, and means operatively ~ said crank shaft outwardly beyond a lateral side
30 connecting said clutch and gear element.
16. In a driving mechanism, in combination, an
engine having a crankcase, and a crankshaft, a
plate ?xed to an. end of said crankcase, a gear
surrounding said crankshaft and rotatable rela
35 tive thereto, releasable means for securing said
gear in driving relation , with respect to said
crankshaft, and asecond gear supported at least
in part by said plate and lying in mesh with the
?rst mentioned gear.
40
17. In a drive mechanism, in. combination, an
wall of said crank-case, a support ?xed to said
engine in axially intersecting relation with re
spect to said shaft, a gear jour'nalled in said sup
port and having a driving connection with said
shaft, said shaft being disconnectible from said
gear without affecting the journalled relation
thereof in said support, and means including a
clutch positioned at one end of said engine con
necting said crank-shaft and gear for interre
lated movements.
'
,
ROSCOE C. HOFFMAN.
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