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Aug. 17, 1937. 2,090,123 R. c. HOFFMAN MOTOR VEHICLE Filed D80. 1, 1932 7 Sheets-Sheet l I / / ' INVENTOR Roscoe C Hoffman _ 'BY M44, M51, qzzzm‘“ ATTORNEYS. Aug- 17, 1937- R. c. HOFFMAN 2,090,123 MOTOR VEHICLE Filed Dec. 1, 1932 7 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR ?’ascoe C. #0199770” ATTORNEYS Aug” 17, 1937. 2,090,123 R. C. HOFFMAN MOTOR VEHICLE Filed Dec. 1, 1932 7 Sheets-Sheet 3 _ QW . INVENTOR Fosroe C‘. /7’offm0n, ‘BY _ ' . ATTORNEY5~ Aug. 17, 1937. R. c. HOFFMAN 2,090,123 MOTOR VEHICLE Filed Dec. 1, 1952 7 Sheets-Sheet 4 I INVENTOR Zi’ostoe 6‘. Hoffman BY” , @9074”, TTORNEYS Aug- 17, 1937- v v R. c. HOFFMAN 2,090,123 MOTOR VEHICLE Filed Dec. 1, 1932 '7 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR. Foams C. ?of?na?. ATTORNEYS. Aug. 17; 1937. R, c, HOFFMAN 2,090,123 MOTOR VEHICLE Filed Dec. 1, 1932 7 Sheets-Sheet 6 F __E_ _1_ 3_ INVENTOR ~ ATTORNEYS . Aug. 17, 1937. R. c. HOFFMAN 2,090,123 MOTOR VEHICLE Filed Dec. 1, 1932 7 Sheets-Sheet 7 WWWI INVENTOR Roscoe C. dofr’man ‘ A‘ITORNEY5 Patented Aug. 17, 1937 ' 2,090,123 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,090,123x MOTOR VEHICLE Roscoe O. Hoffman, Detroit, Mich. Application December 1, 1932, Serial No. 645,218 '19 ‘Claims. (01, n-azn' This invention relates to motor vehicles and particularly to motor vehicles of the rear engine, rear drive type, the principal objects being the provision of a vehicle of this type of improved an construction together with a power plant there- _ for of improved and simpli?ed design. An object of the invention is the provision of a ' lo mission shaft; to provide a power plant for a. mo tor vehicle having a’ simple and advantageous construction permitting an overrunning oi’ the axle shaft‘with respect to the crank shaft of the engine, and/or the provision of a two speed ?nal drive mechanism therefor; to provide a power plant unit in which the speed change mechanism rear engine rear drive motor vehicle so construct acts as a spacer between the engine drive gear ed and arranged as to permit a maximum-amount housing and the axle reduction housing; to pro vide an_internal combustion engine of the type 10 having a single ‘row of aligned or approximately aligned cylinders and so mounted that the plane of passenger carrying capacity with respect to the wheel base thereof. , j , Other objects are:—.the provision of a power plant design for a rear engine, rear drive-motor vehicle that permits of a minimum amount of of cylinder axes is normally disposed at an angle = with respect to‘ both the horizontal and vertical; ' space to be utilized therefor, thereby permitting‘ -,to provide. a driving unit having a novel means 15 for taking the reactiveload on the gearing con a maximum amount of passenger carrying vQapac ity to be realized in the body of the motor vehicle; to provide a power plant design for a rear engine, rear drive motor vehicle in which a minimum amount of changes in ‘the parts of conventional necting the crank shaft of the'engine thereof withthe transmission shaft of the transmission thereof; to provide a power plant for a motor vehicle including a_ plurality of aligned cylinders _ disposed with their axes in a plane transverse to types of motor vehicles is required-in order to produce the same; to provide a ,power plant for the longitudinal axis of the vehicle and a trans rear engine, rear drive motor vyehicles permitting '_mission and ?nal drive gear unit unitarily asso- ready assembly and disassembly of- the various ciated therewith on the forward side thereof; and parts thereof; to provide a power plant for a rear generally to provide an internal combustion en- 25 engine, rear drive motor vehicle in which a maxi gine form and unit having various novel features , mum amount of accessibility to the various parts of the power plant is permitted; and to provide of construction. '- ~ Other objects are:—to provide an axle struc a power plant for a rear engine, rear drive vehicle ture of novel construction for motor‘vehicles; to provide an axle structure largely formed of sheet of generally improved and simpli?ed construc _m'eta1; and to provide a novel method of form tion: . s ' ' Otherlobjects of the present invention are: ;ing an axle structure. . Other objects are:—to ‘provide a novel method _ to provide a power plant for a rear engine, rear ' drive vehicle in which the power plant comprises a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine ar ranged with'the axis of the crank shaft trans versely with respect to the length of the motor vehicle, and having the transmission and ?nal drive unit thereof- formed as a unitary part of 40 the powerplant unit; to provide a power‘ plant unit in which the transmission and ?nal drive gear unit is arranged as a unitary part thereof at one lateral side thereof; "to provide a power plant unit in which the transmission and?nal 45 drive gear unit is arranged within ‘the longitudi nal con?nes of the power plant; to provide a power plant unit in which the ‘transmission and ?nal drive gear unit is arranged within the ion. gitudinal con?nes of the engine and with their 50 axes substantially parallel to the axis of theven gine crank shaft; to provide a power plant of the type described having an improved ‘means for maintaining the center distances between parts of the mechanism employed for transmitting the 55 power from the engine crank shaft to the trans of suspending a power plant unit in a motor ve hicle; to provide a construction in which means are provided for resiliently mounting the motor unit in the frame of the motor vehicle and which cooperates directly or indirectly to modify the action of the primary means provided fortrans mitting the load of the vehicle to the driving 40 wheels thereof; to'provide a construction where by movement of the wheels of the vehicle with‘ respect to the 'frame thereof is modi?ed in ac cordance with-movement of the vehicle engine with respect to the frame; and generallyto pro- 45 vide improved means and‘method of supporting a power plant unit in a motor vehicle. ' The- above being among the objects of the pres ent invention; the same consists in certain novel features of- construction and combinations of 50 parts tojb‘elhereinafter described with reference to the accompanying drawings and then claimed, having the above and other objects in view; In the accompanying drawings which show suitable embodiments of thefpresent invention 55 2 2,090,123 and in which like numerals referv to like parts throughout the several different views: senger carrying compartment 28 as by means of _ ' a wall 36, and the deck 30 is preferably provided Figure 1 is a partially broken side elevational with a hinged or removable lid 38 permitting view of a motor vehicle. ready access to the compartment 34. Air for 5‘ Fig. 2 is an enlarged, fragmentary plan view engine cooling purposes may be drawn into the of a portion of the rear corner of the chassis of compartment 34 either upwardly through the the vehicle shown in Fig. 1. space between the power plant unit 32 and the wall 36 or may be drawn in from the sides . .Fig. 3 is an enlarged end elevational view of the power plant unit employed in the motor 10 vehicle illustrated‘ in Fig. 1 and taken from the left hand side of the vehicle, viewed from the driver’s seat. through suitable louvres 40 provided therein, the air passing around and/or over the engine 10 and being discharged downwardly from the tail end of the compartment 34. ~ Fig. 4 is a partially broken and elevational Where the driving unit.32 is of the water cooled type a radiator view of the power plant unit shown in Fig. 3, such as 42 may be.located between the engine and the rear wall of the deck 38, as indicated, in 15 the path of air ?owing out of the compartment 15 but looking from the opposite end thereof._ Fig. 5 is a partially broken and partially sec tioned view taken in a horizontal plane centrally through the power transmission mechanism of the power plant unit disclosed in Figs. 3 and 4, .34. The engine element of the driving unit 32 is of the multi-cylinder internal combustion engine 20 as on the line 5—5 of Fig. 3 and illustrating the type and, being of entirely conventional con v20 struction except as to certain features of the mechanism provided for transmitting the power from the engine to the driving axles of the ve driving mechanism provided between it and the hicle. ?nal gear reduction mechanism is concerned, is Fig. 6 is an enlarged sectional view taken on, shown in outline only with exception of the par iii :v1 the line 6—-6 of Fig. 5 and disclosing the con tially broken view shown in Figs. '7 and 8 which 25 ‘struction of the overrunning clutch employed "indicate that it is provided with a combined cyl in connection therewith. inder block and crank case upper half 44, cylin Fig. 7 is an enlarged fragmentary vertical sec der head 46, oil pan 48, crank shaft 50, cam tional view taken on the line 'l--'l of Fig. 3 and shaft 52 and connecting rods 54. The crank 30 illustrating the drive from the engine through shaft 50 is shown in Fig. 8, as being provided 30 the clutch of the power plant unit. with a sprocket 56 and the cam shaft 52 with Fig. 8 is an enlarged fragmentary vertical sec a sprocket 58 which may be connected to tional view taken on the line 8-8 of Fig. 4 illus- ’ _ gether by means of a suitable belt chain (not trating the cam shaft drive for the motor unit 33 and further bringing out the drive between the axle shaft and the wheels of the vehicle. Fig. 9 is a transverse sectional view taken> through one of the axles as on the line 9_—-~9 of Fig. 7. 40 Fig. 10 (Sheet 1) is a transverse sectional view ‘ taken through the rear axle as on the line l0—l0 of Fig. .2 and illustrating by. the use of dotted lines the method employed in forming the cen tral portion of the axle. ’ 45, ‘ Fig. 11 is a view similar to Fig. 2 and illus-' trating a modi?ed form of drive between the ?nal reduction gearing and‘ the wheel and modi . ?ed form of suspension means between the ve 50 hicle frame and the wheels. Fig. 12 is a side elevational view of the parts shown in Fig. 11. ‘ ' shown). The sprockets 55 and 58 are provided with the usual housing 60 and the outwardly 35 projecting end of the crank shaft 55 is shown , as being provided with a vibration damper as sembly 62 the ‘driving member of which is formed to provide a pulley 64 for driving purposes'in connection with an electric generator and/or 40 vcooling fan. The only other material modi ?cation of the engine structure itself is best'il lustrated in Fig. 3 in which it will be observed that, because of the tiltingof the engine itself ‘or reasons which will hereinafter be more fully 45 pointed out, the oil pan 48 is somewhat modi?ed so that the screened intake 66 for the oil pump 68 will be suitably located at the lowest eleva tion in the oil pan 48. The engine, as illustrated in the various ?g 50 - ures, is arranged within the compartment 34 Fig. 13 is an enlarged fragmentary view taken with the axis of its crank shaft horizontally as on the line l3-—|3 of Fig. 12 and disclosing disposed and perpendicular to the longitudinal ' an end view of the connection between the ve ‘axis of the motor vehicle, and with the plane of the cylinder axes tipped forwardly about 55 hicle frame and the s'uspensionispring. _ . Fig. 14 is a. view somewhat similar to Fig. 5 but showing the ‘modi?edform of construction the axis of the engine crank shaft which, as il lustrated best in Fig.1, permits the rear face of the engine to be brought into approximate par allelism with the rear deck 30 and thus permits illustrated in Figs. 11 and 12. Fig. 15 is a fragmentary, horizontal sectional 60 view taken centrally through the axle of the ,a shorter and smaller and, therefore, a. more un mechanism shown in Fig. 14 and illustrating the obtrusive appearing deck or tail to be employed. 60 construction at the outer end of the axle struc This feature, particularly when employed‘ in ture shown in Fig. 14. combination with the particular arrangement of Referring to the drawings and particularly to - driving parts, to'be hereinafter more speci?cal 65 Fig. 1, a motor vehicle is shown therein including ly described, and in which the crank shaft of 65 wheels 2|! secured by springs 22 to a'vehicle the cylinder is rearwardly disposed relative to chassis frame 24 in arconventional manner.- The i the axle shafts, permits a relatively greater proé frame 24 receives a vehicle body including a portion of body space to be employed for pas hood section 26, a passenger carrying compart senger carrying purposes as compared to similar 70 ment 28 and a tail or deck section 30, the latter constructions heretofore proposed and of a. com 70 adapted to enclose a driving unit including an mensurate overall length. Furthermore, and engine, clutch, transmission and ?nal drive . particularly where the internal combustionen mechanism, indicated in Fig. 1 generally as at 32. The engine compartment 34 under the rear 7;, deck 30 is preferably separated from the pas glue is of the L-head type and the valve side of the engine is arranged to the rear, as indi cated, for instance by the presence of the in 75 3 2,090,123 ' take manifold v‘I8 in Figs. 3 and 4, unusually ready access tothose parts of the motor requir ing the most attention from a service stand tional type of clutch throw out collar II2 axially Yslidable' upon the sleeve I82, clutch-throw out arms H4, clutch throw out shaft vII6v and yoke member II8 ?xed thereto. All these last men is realized. . v I — " As best illustratedin Figs. 5 and 7., the end of tioned parts may be of any conventional con the crank shaft 58 opposite to that shown in Fig. ' struction and need not be described in detail 8 is rotatably received by a plain bearing ‘I2, here. The clutch shaft II6 has bearings in suit formed in part integrally with the corresponding » able bosses I28 formed integrally with the clutch _ point 5 end wall of the cylinder block 44, and projects 10 outwardly therebeyond Where it terminates inv a tapered portion 14 which serves to support, ‘through the medium of a ?anged hub ‘I6, a ?y wheel ‘I8 forming part of a clutch mechanism, including a conventional type of spring pressed l5 pressure plate 88 and driving element 82. The corresponding end of the cylinder block 44 is closed by a ?at metal plate member 84 secured thereto by means of cap screws 86. The plate 84 is de?nitely and accurately located rela 20 tive to the axis of the crank shaft 58rby means of an annular bearing support 88 piloted within the central opening 98 in the plate 84 and in turn piloted within the recess 92 formed in the vcor responding end wall of the cylinder block'con 25 centric with the'bearing ‘I2. The lower half of the support 88 is piloted in‘ an extension of the housing member 96 and, as illustrated, is'pref erably positioned with its axis vertically arranged so thatitsrotatable position may be more easily ' and ‘simply controlled through connections such as I22 (see Fig. 1) extending to a clutch pedal such as I24 suitably positioned within the pas senger compartment 28 for operation by the 15 driver of the vehicle. ‘,1 In accordance with the present invention the transmission and ?nal drive unit is positioned adjacent the front side face of the engine, and power from the engine is transmitted thereto through the gear I86. In order to effect a drive between the transmission and the gear I86, the plate 84 is extended forwardly beyond the cor responding side face of the engine and beyond such side face is' provided, as best indicated in Fig. 5, with an opening I26 in which is closely received, and preferably ?xed thereto as by weld recess 92 formed in the end wall of the bearing ing, a tubular bearing support I28 which serves cap 93. v s The plate 84 on its outer surface is provided -to support a roller bearing assembly I38. The 30 with an outwardly projecting ring 94, suitably bearing assembly I38 in turn receives therein 30 ?xed thereto as by welding, and the outer surface the hub of a gear I32 which meshes with the ( of which is located in-true concentricv relation gear I86. The bearing assembly I38 is main with respect to the axis of the crank shaft 58. A tained against axial movement by being clamped clutch housing member 96 of cast construction between the inturned ?ange I34 formed on the 35 and of generally cup-shaped conformation is left hand end of the support I28, as viewed in Fig. 5, and the tubular pilot I36 formed on the provided in the bottom end thereof with a circu lar recess 98 which is‘ piloted over the ‘ring .94 spacer bracket I38 secured to the right, hand face and which thus de?nitely locates the housing 96 of the plate 84 by means of bolts I48. The cas centrally with respect to the axis of the'crank. ing. I42 of a transmission mechanism indicated generally at I“ is secured at its left hand end 40 40 shaft 58. The clutch housing member 96 is se cured to the end of the engine by a portion of by cap screws such as I46 to the right hand end the same screws 86 which secure the plate 84 of the spacer bracket I38. The transmission thereto, as illustrated in Fig. 5. - Thev bottom end of the cup-shaped housing member 96 within 45 the recess 98 is inwardly recessed as at I88 to form a chamber and centrally thereof is pro vided with an axially-‘outwardly projecting sleeve like portion I82. . _ l ' . The hub portion of the clutch driven member 50 '82 is splined to the end of a sleeve I84 which has bearings on the outer surface of the ‘hub member 16. This end of the clutchfmechanism is en closed by a cup-shaped sheet metal housing mem mechanism I44 may be made in substantial ac cordance with any conventional transmission mechanism now being employed in motor ve 45 hicles and consequently is not shown in full de tail, it being understood that it includes the usual counter-shaft and counter-shaft gears (not shown) adapted for engagement with the gears I48 and I58. -. . A ball bearing assembly I52 is secured between the "left hand end of the transmission casing I42 and the spacer bracket I38 in concentric re lation with the bearing assembly I38. The stub 55.ber 96. The opposite end of the sleeve member shaft I54 is received ‘within the bearing assembly 55 ‘I52 and its left hand end is splined for reception I84 is formed to provide a gear~I86 located with in the chamber I88. Concentricity of the gear within the splined bore of the gear I32. The right hand end of the bore of the gear I32 is‘not splined I86 with the crank shaft 58 is "insured by provid ing bevel shoulder portions I88 at opposite ends and is adapted to closely receive the correspond ing portion of the stub shaft I54 so as to aid, in 60 60 thereof to serye as the inner race of bearingsas sembly II8 therefor. The outer race of the outer conjunction with the bearing I52, to provide an bearing assembly H8 is received in a suitable‘ outboard bearing for the gear I32. It might be recess formed in the outer wall of~ the chamber noted at this point that the bearing assembly I38 is located substantially centrally of the width I88 while the outer race of the inner bearing H8 65 is received within the annular bearing support 88. of the face of the gear I32, thus permitting it to 65 previously described. By the \aforementioned take the torque from the gear I86 without being means concentriclty of the gear I861with ‘the subject to a tendency toward de?ection from its . crank shaft 58 is positively assured. From the , true position. Again referring to Fig. 5, it will be noted that above it will be observed that the gear I86 is re 70 leasably secured to the'érank shaft 58 through the right hand end of the stub shaft I54 is recessed the medium of the above described clutch, and concentrically with respect to its- axis as at I56, is positively and amply supported in concentric and rotatably received therein with the aid of vneedle bearings I58 is the pilot portion I68 of relation with respect to the crank shaft. Control of the ‘clutch illustrated in Fig. '7 is the main transmission shaft I62. At the right hand end of the transmission casing I42 a?nai 75 75 accomplished through employment of a conven ber I85 secured at its rim to the rim of the mem 4 ' - 2,090,123 » ,drive housiwng I64 is rigidly secured to the front side of the cylinder block by means of bolts I66 (see Fig. 4) and the left hand end of the main transmission shaft I62 projects through and be 5 yond the same. A ball bearing assembly I68 is clamped between the right hand end of the trans-1 mission casing I42 and‘ the differential casing I64 to serve to support the main transmission shaft . I62 at this point. ‘Bolts I18 extending through 288, and, accordingly, will lock the ‘member I82 to the‘ member I96 for equal rotation therewith. When, however, the member I82 attempts to over run the member I96 when turning in the above described direction, the rollers 282 will tend to roll towards the deep end of< their corresponding recesses I98 and will permit the member I82 to run free of, or overrun the member I96. Accordingly, with this mechanism as in con 10 the width of the rear portion of the ?nal ‘drive ventional constructions, when the free wheeling housing I64 and threading into the transmission _ clutch just described is effective, if the engine - ' casing I42 serve to secure the right hand end of _ the transmission casing to the differential hous tends to rotate faster than the corresponding speed of rotation of the wheels the free wheeling ing and, at the same time, serve to secure the clutch is effective to transmit torque from the engine to the wheels, but if the wheels tend to 'll overrun the corresponding speed of the engine, then the free wheeling clutch is effective to per; mit such overrunning. Obviously, an additional 15 locating ring I12 of the bearing-assembly I14 in place within the ?nal drive housing I 64. A second bearing assembly I16 suitably sup ported within the ?nal drive housing I64 in spaced and concentric relation with respect to ‘ 28 the bearing assembly I14 serves, together with the bearing assembly I14, to rotatably receive gear reduction may be‘inserted with, orgin place of the'free wheeling clutch indicated. It may also be noted at this point that a suitable bell ‘ the opposite ends of a pinion gear I18 rotatably , housing 288 is sealed to the final drive housing surrounding the extended end of the main trans mission shaft I62. The right hand end of the 25 pinion gear I18, as viewed invFig. 5, is extended as at I88 to a position,beyond the corresponding side face of the final drive housing I64 and is I64 over the mechanism just described. Another. feature that it is desired to call attention to at this time is the fact that the transmission casing I42 is preferably entirely free of contact with the forward face of the crank case 44 and with the there splined to the hub of a dog or dental clutch ' spacer bracket I38 serves as a spacer between member I82 having internal teeth I84 formed 30 in its outer end. the final drive housing I64 and the plate 84. The corresponding end portion a Thismethod of forming the transmission casing of the main transmission “shaft I62 is also splined I42 serves to simplify the construction and aids and non-rotatably but slidably received thereon in ease of production.' is the other member I86 of the dental clutch having teeth I88 formed on its periphery for Forwardly of the main transmission shaft I 62 the ?nal drive housing I64 is provided ‘with a pair . ~35 selective engagement with the teeth I84. The‘ of ' spaced roller bearing assemblies 2I8 which ro hub of the clutch member I86 is peripherally tatably receive between them the extended tu grooved as at I98 for engagement with the fork bular ends of the differential housing 2I2 to the of a suitable shifting lever (not shown). The extreme right hand end of the main transmission 40 shaft I62, as viewed in (Fig. 5, may be provided with a gear member I92 adapted ‘to mesh with a second gear I94 suitably connected in a conven tional-manner to a speedometer in accordance with conventional practice. It will be observed that if the clutch member I86 is shifted .to the left’ as viewed in Fig. 5 to bring the teeth I88 into meshwith the teeth I84, the main transmission shaft I62 will be positively locked to the pinion gear I18 for equal move ,50 ment therewith but that when the clutch member I86 is- in" the position indicated in Fig. 5. no such 45 periphery of which is suitably secured a ring gear 2| 4 which lies in mesh with the pinion gear I18.’ The differential housing 2I2 is interiorly provided 40 with the usual spider 2I6 which supports the dif ferential pinions 2I8 which lie in mesh with the differential side gears 228 in accordance with conventional practice. The hubs of the side gears 228 have suitable bearings within the differential housing 2 I 2 and are internally splined for engage ment with the splined ends ‘of the stub-shafts 222 which project outwardly from each end thereof 'and'each of which has an additional bearing 224 outwardly of the corresponding roller bearing 218. 50 The forward end of the differential housing I64 positive engagement is provided. The purpose . is enclosed by an oil tight sheet metal housing of such construction is to permit the employment member 226 suitably secured thereto in a con of a so-called “free wheeling” clutch between the 55 main transmission shaft I62 and the, pinion gear |18._'-In the particular illustration shown, this free wheeling clutch takes the form of a driving “ventional manner.» . Each of the stub shafts 222 immediately out wardly of the housing I64 is secured to a universal joint 228. Each universal joint 228 has secured member I96 splined on the right hand end of thereto the’ inner end of an'outwardly extending axle shaft 238, the outer end of each of which 60 member I82. The periphery of the member I96, is provided with a second universal joint 232 ad as illustrated in Fig. 6, is recessed as at I98, the . jacent its point of connection with its correspond 60 . bottoms of the recesses being formed spirally with ' ing rear wheel 28. respect to the axis of the shaft I62. The clutch From the foregoing it will be apparent that in i member I82 is formed to provide a circular track the above described mechanism power from the 65 288 about the periphery of the member I96 and engine crank shaft 58 is transmitted through the received between the bottom of each recess I98 clutch mechanism back to‘ the gear I86 where it 65 and the track 288 is a roller 282 constantly urged is transferred through the gear I32 to the trans towards the shallow end of the recess by means mission mechanism and from the?’ti‘ansmission of a follower 284 constantly urged in that direc mechanism to/a free wheeling device, if desired‘; 70 tion by means of a spring 286. As is well known I and thence through the pinion gear I18 and ring‘ to those skilled in the art, such'a construction gear 2| 4 to the differential mechanism and thence 70 when the shaft I62 is turned in a counter-clock through the universal joints 228, drive shafts 238 wise direction, asviewed in Fig. 6, will cause the and universal joints 232 to the driving wheels of a the ,main transmission shaft I62 within the clutch roller 282 to be wedged between the bottoms of 75 corresponding recesses I98 and the circular track the vehicle. ' ' As best illustrated in Figs. 2, 3 and 4, the entire 75 5 2,090,123 - :-;. driving unit including the engine, clutch, trans mission and differential mechanisms, is mounted is disposed with its crank shaft perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the motor vehicle and in the chassisframe in a novel manner, and al the support is positioned in approximately paral though, as 'far. as the broad aspect of this engine lel relation with respect to the axis of the crank ' 5 mounting is concerned, the invention involved .shaft, any vibratoryfmovement of the engine therein‘ forms the subject-matter of a separate - about the ‘axis of the shaft 242 will be apparent _ patent application, it will be described in detail _here particularly in view of certain speci?c ap plications ‘of the same forming a part of the pres 10 ent invention. Referring now\to‘the above men tioned ?gures. it will be noted that the upper por tion of the plate 84 projects forwardly into the angle formed between the cylinder block“ and‘ the transmission‘ housing I42 and '?nal drive 15 unit housing I64. As best illustrated in Fig. 8, a . plate member 234 secured to the right hand end of the engine immediately inwardly of the chain housing cover plate 60 also projects'forwardly into the angle formed between the cylinder block 20 44 and ?nal drive housing I64. In each of these projecting portions of the plates 84 and 234 is to a considerably less degree if at all in the frame . 24 than would be the case were the axis of the en gine crank shaft and of the supporting tube 242 located in parallelism with the longitudinal axis, 10 of the motor vehicle. - Referring now‘ to the axle construction, it will . be noted, as perhaps best shown in Figs. 1 and 2, , that the rear axle 260 is a dead type of axle, is located in_the same horizontal plane as the ?nal drive unit housing I64 and its central portion is bowed forwardly relative to the ends in order to clear the ?nal drive casing I64. The central 15v portion of the axle 260, which is preferably formed from sheet or plate metal into‘ tubular 20 formation, is enlarged in diameter at its ends and rigidly secured as by means of bolts 236 a bracket each enlarged end closely receives therein a com 238, and projecting between the brackets 238 ' plemental tubular reinforcing member 262, see and beyond each of them and ?xed relative there Fig. 8, which is welded as at 263 to the abutting 25 to is a tube 240.' A shaft 242 positioned within end of the corresponding tubular wheel spindle 25 the tube 240 and in. generally. spaced‘ relation member 264. The hub 266 of the corresponding with‘ respect to the interior wall thereof projects wheel 20 is rotatably mounted by means of roller through the ,entire length of the tube 240 and < bearings ‘such as 268 upon each spindle 264. The beyond the end thereof. The space between the enlarged outer end‘ portions of the axle 260 are 30 shaft 242 and the tube 240 is?lled with rubber as each provided with a triangular shaped opening 30 at244 which is preferably vulcanized to the op 210 therein and, as best illustrated in Figs. 2 posed faces of each member thereby resiliently and 5, the corresponding axle-shaft section 230 projects into the corresponding hollow outer end of the axle 266 through thecorresponding open 35 ably received in two-part brackets 246, one part. ing 210, and the enlarged outer ends _of the axle 35 of which is' secured to the corresponding side 2611 are of a su?icient internal diameter to re frame members of the frame 24 as by means of -ceive therein the corresponding universal vjoint . connecting them together. The outer ends of the ‘ shaft 242 are splined as at 245 and are non-rotat rivets 248, and the other or inner part of ,which is axially slidable relative thereto. Nuts 25!! 40 threaded on the splined ends 245 cooperate with the inner ‘part of each bracket 246 to hold such part in place and to control the axial position of the shaft 242 and consequently the driving unit 32 with respect to the fame 24. Upon backing 45 off the nuts 250 the corresponding inner bracket parts maybe shifted in that direction until the bracket parts are disengaged and then the driving unit 32 moved‘bodily out of engagement with‘ the frame. This bracket mechanism forms‘part of 50 the subject matter of my copending application for Letters Patent of the United States for im provements in motor vehicles, ?led on even date herewith and serially numbered 645,219, and ref erence to such application will more clearly.il-' 55 lustrate this phase’of the construction. By tipping the engine unit, as previously de scribed, forwardly about the axis of the crank shaft, and by locating the transmissionand ?nal 232. - As illustrated'in Fig. 8, each universaljoint 232 is provided with an outwardly extending 4.0 stub shaft 212 which is non-rotatably secured to . the outer end of the corresponding hub 266 by means of acap member 214 splined to theouter - end of the corresponding stub shaft 212. As also illustrated'in Fig. 8,.each spindle member 45 264 is provided with a radially outwardly ex tending ?ange 216 to which the backing plate member 218 of any conventional type of braking mechanism may be secured as by means of rivets 280. As perhaps best illustrated in Figs. 5 and 8, each rear spring 22 which is shown as of the semi-elliptical type, is connected to the corre ‘sponding end of the axle- 260 by means of U bolts such as ,282 which cooperatewith spring pad members 284 suitably welded‘ or otherwise 55 ?xed to the axle 266. . ' As best illustrated in Fig. 10, the main portion of the~ axle 260 is preferably formed from a ?at drive unit forwardly of the engine crank case, strip of sheet metal such as is illustrated in 00 and by positioning the supporting shaft 242 as dotted'linés at 286,.by ?rst being bent into a U far rearwardly as is possible in the angle between shape as at 288, and then the free edges of the the cylinder block 44 and the ~-?nal drive unit, it sheet brought together and welded as at 290. is possible to locate the shaft 242 close to the ‘During this operation the outer extremities of center of mass of the driving unit 32 and, due the axle 260 are formed to space their free edges 65 to the fact that the rubber 244 resiliently con ’ . apart to form the openings 210. Now referring 65 nects the tube 240 with the shaft 242, the driving to Figs. 8 and 9, it will be noted'that the rein unit is ?oated upon the‘ rubber 244 for oscillatory forcing member 264 has a portion thereof cut movement about the axis of the shaft 242. This away in conformance with the size of the open permits a limited oscillation of the driving unit ing 210 in the axle 260, and the number 262 70 32 about the axis of the shaft 242 to compensate preferably projects into the corresponding end 70 for variations in the torque being transmitted be of the central portion of the axle 260 a distance Y tween the engine and the driving wheels, and also at least as far as the inner end of the corre serves to absorb engine vibrations and insulate sponding opening 210, and the free edges of the them from transmission to the frame 24. Fur member 262 forming its vportion of the corre 75 thermore, in view of the fact that the engine ' spending opening 210 is preferably welded to the 2,090,123 6 . mating edges of the sheet metal portion of thev leaf spring 328, as by means of U-bolts 330. As perhaps best indicated in Figs. 12 and 14, each axle 260. The line of junction between the ex treme end portion of the sheet metal portion of tubular axle housing member 306-is provided the axle 260 is also preferably welded to the adjacent its outer end with a pair of spaced parallel plate members 332 suitably ?xed there 5 spindle member 264 as at 2!“. The above con to as by welding, and a bolt 334 extending be tween the lower ends of the plate 332 is rotatably noted that the forward curvature of the central ‘ received in the corresponding eye 336 formed on portion of the axle may be effected either during . the forward end of the corresponding spring 328. 10 the forming thereof from the ?at sheet, or after A single leaf spring 340 is clamped by the U-bolts 10 330 between each spring 328 and its correspond the tubular structure is completed, the latter be ing bracket 326 and its forward end is formed ing preferable. » With the above described axle structure it will to provide an eye 342 which is journaled on a bolt 344 extending between the corresponding be apparent that upon disconnecting the sup 15 porting shaft 242 from the brackets 246 in the members 332 at a point spaced upwardly from stitutes an economical method of forming a strong and efficient axle structure. It may be the corresponding bolt 334/ The single leaf manner previously described, and by removing the caps 214 from the stub shafts 212, the entire ?nal drive mechanism, including the engine, clutch, transmission, ?nal drive gear unit, drive 20 shafts 230 and universal joints 232, may be lifted spring 340 serves more or less as a radius rod ‘ which, in conjunction with the corresponding spring 328, takes the driving and braking torque on the rear axle structure and prevents rotation as a unit free and clear from the chassis of the thereof. vehicle where it may be readily and easily oper— ated upon. Obviously, this mechanism may be initially assembled in this manner, during the With this modi?ed structure, it'will be apparent that the point of contact of the wheels 20’ with the road surface are spaced outwardly, relative ' to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle with re 25 manufacture of a vehicle, and applied to the ve h1cle by reversing the above operations. _ Referring now to Figs. 11 to 15 inclusive, a modi?cation of the previously described con struction is illustrated.‘ This modi?cation deals spect to the points of application of the springs 328 to the axle housing members 306. As a re sult of this relation of these parts, the upward reaction on the wheels 20’ and the downward reaction. of the vehicle weight transmitted through the springs 328 to the tubular axle mem bers 306 tends to move the inner ends of the mem bers 306 downwardly or towards the road surface. 30 mainly with the spring suspension at the ‘rear end of the vehicle and in this modi?ed construc— tion the previously described mounting of the ?nal drive unit affects such spring suspension. This tendency towards downward movement of the inner ends of the tubes 306 tends to rock the ?nal drive unit 32 in a counter-clockwise direc ‘ As indicated in Fig. 14, the ‘?nal drive unit in 35 cluding the engine, clutch, transmission and drive to the differential mechanism is identical tion as viewed in'Fig. 12,. about the supporting to that previously described, the whole unit be ing, supported through the medium of the tube 240 andtelescoped shaft 244 connected thereto shaft 244 as an axis, and this, tendency is re sisted by distortion of the rubber interposed be 40 by rubber as in the previously described con- ’ tween the tube 240 and the shaft 244. In addi tion it is to be noted. that any such movement ‘ In this particular ‘construction the formation of the ?nal drive unit 32v about the shaft 244 as of the ?nal drive housing I64’ is slightly different a result of road shock or other forces transmitted tojthe rear axle structure is also resisted by the from that previously described in order to ac 45 commodate at each end thereof universal joints , force necessary to move the mass of the ?nal 300 connected to the differential side ‘gears 220 drive unit 32 about its pivotal axis on the shaft by means of stub shafts 302. In the present case 244. Consequently,‘ with this construction, the each of the axle shafts 304 which are connected > action of the springs 328 is modi?ed not only by the resistance to deformation or by the rubber to their corresponding universal joint 300 is en 50 closed in a tubular axle housing member 306 the between the shaft 244 and on the tube-‘240 but . inner end of which is formed into a partially also by the force necessary to move the mass of the ?nal drive unit 32 about theaxis of the shaft spherical shape as at 308 and is secured for uni versal movement, ‘but against axial movement, 244. Such an arrangement offers many pos with respect'to the ?nal drive housing I64’ by sibilities towards bene?cial control'of the spring action and riding qualities of the vehicle. 55 means of the cooperating inner and outer par While only two modi?cations of the present tially spherical members 3l0 and M2 suitably secured to the side face of the ?nal drive housing invention, have been shown and described in the struction. . . foregoing speci?cation, it will _be apparent to I64. As indicated in Fig. 15, in this modi?ca those'skilled in the art that the broad invention involved is capable of a wide variety» of changes and modi?cations, and accordingly it will be ap 60 parent that formal changes may be made in the ‘speci?c embodiments of the invention disclosed without departing from the spirit or substance of the broad invention, the ‘scope of which is com tion no. universal joints such as 2132 in the pre 60 viously described construction are" employed ad jacent the wheels, but instead each tubular hous ing member 306 is ?anged at itsf‘outer end as at 3“ and has secured thereto the backing plate 3l6 of a suitable type of brake mechanism. The 65 outer end of each tubular housing 306 is pro vided internally thereof with a pair of bearing assemblies 3“! which serve to rotatably support the outer end of the corresponding shaft 304 to which the hub 320 of the corresponding wheel‘ is 70 looked as by means of 'akey 322 and nut 324. Now referringto Figs. 11', '12 and 13, it will be noted that the rear end of each side member of the frame 24'-is provided with a bracket 326, . and toythe lower face of each of which is se 75 cured. the‘ forwardly extending ‘quarter-elliptic mensurate with the appended claims. ‘ “ , I claim: 65 - 1. In a driving mechanism, an engine having a crank-case, the crankshaft of said engine pro jecting through one end of said crankcase, a gear surrounding the projecting end of said crank shaft, means ?xed w'ith respect to said crankcase rotatably supporting said gear independently of said crankshaft and manually controllable means 4 for releasably clutching said gear to said crank- ' ,Y . shaft for driving movement therefrom including ' 2,090,123 7 /.. clutch driving member secured to said crank vone end of said crankcase and ?xed thereto, said engine having a crankshaft projecting through antric with said crankshaft connecting said gear said plate, a gear rotatably supported at least in part by said plate, and means for releasably nd said clutch driven member. iaft, a clutch driven member, and means con 2. In a driving mechanism, an engine having a rankcase and a crankshaft projecting from one rid thereof, clutching means on the projecting rid of said crankshaft, a housing enclosing said iutching means and ?xed with respect to said rankcase, a gear surrounding said projecting end clutching said gear to said crankshaft. _ 9. In a driving mechanism,- in combination, an engine having a crankcase and a crankshaft pro jecting therefrom, a plate ?xed to an end of said - crankcase, a gear rotatably surrounding the pro jecting end of said crankshaft and rotatably sup 10 ported at least in part by said plate, a second E said crankshaft and rotatable relative thereto, leans carried by said’housing and said crank ase respectively,_for rotatively supporting said gear in mesh with the ?rst mentioned gear, and a supporting bearing for said second gear supported - ear independently of said crankshaft, and a con ection between said gear and said. clutching from said plate and lying at least in part within 15 the face widthof said second gear. leans. “ I ' ' 3. In a driving mechanism, an internal com ustion engine having a crankcase and a crank haft, a plate member closing one end of said rankcase and ?xed thereto, said crankshaft pro acting out through said plate, a clutch housing xed to said plate, a clutch within said housing onnected to said crankshaft, a gear surrounding aid crankshaft and rotatable relative thereto, earings supported by said plate and housing otatably supporting said gear, and means con ecting said gear and clutch. 4. In a driving mechanism, an internal com ustion engine having a crankcase and a crank haft, a plate member closing one end of said rankcase and ?xed thereto, said crankshaft pro 10. In a driving mechanism, in combination, an engine having a crankcase and a crankshaft pro jecting therefrom, a plate ?xed to an end of said crankcase, a gear surrounding the projecting end of said crankshaft and rotatable relative there 20 to, a second gear in mesh with the ?rst mentioned gear, a supporting bearing for said second gear supported from said plate and lying at least in part within the face width of the ?rst mentioned gear, a driven shaft secured to said second gear 25 and projecting therefrom, and a bearing for said driven shaft axially spaced from said second gear whereby to provide an outboard bearing for ‘ . said second gear. 11. In a drive mechanism, in combination, an 30 engine having a crankcase and a crankshaft, a :cting out through said plate, ‘a clutch housing transmission mechanism‘ including a driven shaft - xed to said plate, a clutch within. said housing mounted on ‘a lateral side wall of said engine, onnected to said crankshaft, said housing being -' means for driving said transmission from said en armed to provide a pocket between it and said'_ gine, a ?nal drive pinion-gear supported by engine late and separatedfrom said clutch, a gear ro- ' supported structure in concentric relationwith _' atably mounted in said pocket for movement respect‘to said driven shaft and adapted to be elative to said crankshaft, and means connecting driven therefrom, said driven shaft projecting aid gear and clutch. .' . through'said gear and being rotatable relative thereto, means for supporting said ?nal drive 40 5. In a driving mechanism, an internal com gear independently of said driven shaft selec ustion engine having a crankcase and a crank haft, a plate member closing one. end of said - tively operable means for connecting said driven rankcase and ?xed thereto, means piloting said late on said crankcase, said crankshaft pro zcting out through said plate,- a clutch "housing xed to said ‘plate, means piloting said housing shaft and gear for equal rotation, and a ?nal axle driving mechanism driven from said gear. 12.>In a drive mechanism, in combination, an 45 :1 said plate, a clutch within said housing con ected to said crankshaft, a gear surrounding transmission mechanism including a driven shaft aid crankshaft and rotatable relative thereto, earings supported by said plate, and housing means for driving said transmission from said engine, ‘a ?nal drive pinion gear supported by 50’ "said engine in concentric relation with respect to said driven shaft and adapted to be driven atatably supporting said gear, and means con ecting said gear and clutch.‘ 6. In a. driving mechanism, in combination, an ogine'having a crankcase and a crankshaft, a. late ?xed to an end of said crankcase, a gear atatably surrounding said crankshaft and rotat bly supported at least in part by said plate inde endently of said crankshaft, means for con- ecting said gear and crankshaft, and a second ear supported at least in part by said plate and wing in mesh with the first mentioned gear. '7. In a driving mechanism, in combination, an ngine having a crankcase and a crankshaft, a late ?xed to an end of said crankcase, said plate engine having a crankcase and a crankshaft, a mounted on a- lateral side wall of said engine, therefrom, said driven shaft projecting through said gear and being rotatable relative thereto, a one-way clutch mounted on the opposite side of 55, I said gear from said transmission, said, clutch . connecting said driven shaft and gear, and a ?nal axle driving mechanism driven from said gear. v - - 13. In a drive mechanism, in combination, an so engine having a crankcase and a crankshaft, a transmission mechanism including a driven shaft mounted on a. ‘lateral side wall of said ‘engine’, means for driving said transmission from said aving a pair of openings .therein,v bearings ‘engine, a ?nal drive pinion 'gear supported by soured in said openings, a gear rotatably sup- _ said engine independently. of said driven shaft 6.5. >orted by one of said hearings in concentric rela - in concentric relation, with respect thereto andv ion with‘ respect to said crankshaft and inde adapted to be driven therefrom, said driven-shaft endently thereof, means for connecting said projecting through said gear and being. rotatable ear and said crankshaft, and a second gear, relative thereto, a one wayclutch connecting said otatably supported by the other of said bear-~ driven shaft and gear, a two-way clutch operable igs, said gears lying in meshing relationship. ‘to lock said gear and driven shaft together for _ 8. In a~ driving .mechanism, in combination, a equal'rotation, and a ?nal axle driving mecha iulti-cylinder engine having a, crankcase .part ommon to‘all of said cylinders, a plate piloted on nism driven from said gear. , ' 14.‘ In combination, an internal combustion 75 8 - ' 2,090,123 engine having a crankcase and. a crankshaft, a housing secured to a lateral face of said crank case, a gear rotatably supported by said housing, a differential mechanism supported by said hous 5 ing, a gear for driving said differential mecha nism supported by said housing in mesh with the ?rst mentioned gear, a support projecting later ally beyond said crankcase in spaced relation with respect to said housing, a third gear rotat~ l0 ably carried by said support, means for driving said third gear from said crankshaft, a transmis sion mechanism connecting said third gear with the ?rst mentioned gear, and a housing for said transmission mechanism supported independent engine having a~crankcase and a crankshaft, a transmission mechanism including a driven shaft secured in parallelism to a lateral side wall of said engine, a plate secured to a longitudinal end surface of said engine, said crankshaft project ing through said plate, a gear surrounding said crankshaft and rotatable relative thereto, releas able means for securing said gear and crankshaft together for equal rotation, said driven shaft pro jecting through said plate, and a gear secured to said driven shaft in driven relation with respect to the ?rst mentioned gear. 18. In combination, an internal combustion engine having a crankcase and a crankshaft, a housing secured to a lateral side face of said crankcase, a gear rotatably supported in said housing, a differential mechanism supported'by 15 ly of said crankcase between said support and the ?rst mentioned housing. 15. In a driving mechanism, in combination, ‘an engine having a crankcase, a plate member ‘said housing, a gear for driving said differential secured ‘to an end of said crankcase and disposed mechanism supported by said housing in mesh 20 generally- in a planeextending transversely of the with the ?rst mentioned gear, a support project longitudinal axis of said crankcase, a crankshaft . ing laterally beyond said crankcase, a third gear within said crankcase projecting through said rotatably supported by said support, means for plate member, a clutch housing secured relative driving said third gear from said crankshaft, and to said plate member and having its open side . a transmission mechanism connecting the ?rst 25 closed thereby, a clutch within said housing oper atively associated with smd crankshaft, a gear element surrounding said crankshaft between said clutch and plate member and rotatable rela mentioned gear with said third gear. 19. In combination, an engine having a crank case and a crank-shaft therein, a driven shaft positioned in parallel relation with respect to tive to said crankshaft, and means operatively ~ said crank shaft outwardly beyond a lateral side 30 connecting said clutch and gear element. 16. In a driving mechanism, in combination, an engine having a crankcase, and a crankshaft, a plate ?xed to an. end of said crankcase, a gear surrounding said crankshaft and rotatable rela 35 tive thereto, releasable means for securing said gear in driving relation , with respect to said crankshaft, and asecond gear supported at least in part by said plate and lying in mesh with the ?rst mentioned gear. 40 17. In a drive mechanism, in. combination, an wall of said crank-case, a support ?xed to said engine in axially intersecting relation with re spect to said shaft, a gear jour'nalled in said sup port and having a driving connection with said shaft, said shaft being disconnectible from said gear without affecting the journalled relation thereof in said support, and means including a clutch positioned at one end of said engine con necting said crank-shaft and gear for interre lated movements. ' , ROSCOE C. HOFFMAN.