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Патент USA US2090560

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Patented Aug. 17, 1937
Leo Ubbelohde, Berlin-Charlottenburg, Germany
No Drawing. Application April 25, 1935, Serial
No. 18,212. In Germany February 10, 1931
5 Claims. (CI. 18—54)
This application is a continuation in part of or 11 microns in ?bers of 10 deniers are effective.
my application Ser. No. 590,779 of February 3rd
The size Varies up and down according to the
1932, now Patent No. 2,054,208.
denier of the single ?ber. Certain variations are
This invention concerns staple ?ber, that is also necessary according to the shape of the sec
5 a textile ?ber which is obtained from arti?cial tion of the fiber. A regular circular section re- 5
silk by cutting it into short pieces which may be quires a somewhat larger and an irregular ser
combed and spun like natural ?bers. Ordinarily rated section requires a smaller size. The above
staple ?ber was mixed with natural ?bers since indicated numbers are calculated for a normal
staple ?ber alone cannot be spun without great viscose silk which is precipitated by an ordinary
10 difficulties. Its surface is perfectly smooth so precipitating bath and shows about a circular 10
that the single ?bers do not adhere to each other. section.
They have no “textile properties”.
The effect consists in that the particles pene
The present invention relates to a process for trate through the surface of the ?ber while such
improving the textile properties of ‘staple ?ber. is precipitated and shrinks in section, or that a
15 More especially the invention refers to improve great number of protuberances or lumps are
the surface of the ?bers and to give them substan
tially the characteristics of ordinary textile ?bers
during combing and spinning operations.
According to the invention, ordinary spinning
arti?cial silk, for instance viscose, copper oxide,
combed and spun like cotton or wool Without any
waste and produces a yarn of ordinary tensile
strength for the spun ?bers adhere ?rmly to
ammonia cellulose or a solution of cellulose esters
gether by reason of their roughness.
20 solutions which are used in the manufacture of
within organic solvents, are used. These solu
tions are thoroughly mixed with irregular shaped
25 sharp edged substances. This mixture repre
sents a dispersion of such substances within the
spinning solution. Of course, such substances
must be insoluble within the spinning solution
and should have a size not larger than the ori?ces
in extruding the solution into the precipi
tating medium.
I prefer infusorial earth which is of a very
irregular shape and has sharp edges and points
and which therefore has proved very suitable in
35 my process. Moreover infusorial earth is a very
cheap material which is found in large quantities
in nearly every country. Besides thisv material,
powder of glass, carborundum, ground brick or
porcelain and other brittle materials which show
40 sharp edges and an irregular shape when divided
to powder can be used.
As to the size of the particles of the powder, it
depends from the titre or from the section area
of the single ?ber. Individual particles of a pig
45 ment size as hitherto used for delustring arti?
cial silk are ineffective for producing roughness
and improving staple ?ber. Such pigments are
of submicroscopical individual size and much
smaller than one micron.
caused in the surface which shows therefore
rough properties. The behaviour of the ?ber is
like a natural ?ber. It maybe treated viz.,'
Generally, the individual size of the particles
should be at least one micron. In ?bers of 2
deniers a size of 4 microns has been proved very
suitable, in ?bers of 3 deniers 6 microns, in ?bers
of 4 deniers a size of 7 microns, in ?bers of 5
55 deniers 8 microns, 9 microns in ?bers of 7 deniers
The effect may be graduated by varying the
quantity of the admixed powder.
A certain roughem'ng effect can be stated in
using 112% of powder calculated on the cellulose
weight. Ordinarily a medium percentage of 5%,
calculated on the weight of the dissolved cellu
lose, has a very good result. In the production of
course ?bers say of 8-12 deniers I prefer'a per 30
centage of 10%. The maximal content should
be 20%.
The process may be illustrated by the following
examples without limiting the scope of my in
Example 1
For the production of a ?ber of 5 deniers
from viscose a'solution of 6% cellulose and 5%
sodium hydroxide is well mixed and stirred up
with 4% infusorial earth. The single particles
have a maximal size of 8 microns. The mixture
is extruded by a suitable ori?ce into an ordinary
precipitating bath consisting of a mixture of
sulphuric acid and sodium bisulphate.
The 45
thread bundles are ?nished in the usual way
and ?nally cut to- short pieces. The obtained
?bers show a roughness of medium degree, which
can be easily spun like cotton.
Emwmple 2
To obtain ?bers of four deniers from a
cuprammonium solution of 8% cellulose, the solu
tion is mixed with 5% of infusorial earth cal
culated on the weight of the cellulose. The par- 55
' ' 2,090,560
ticles have a maximal size of seven microns.
‘The mixture is spun into an ordinary precipi
tating bath of soda lye. The freshly spun threads
" are acidi?ed with diluted sulphuric acid' to re
move the copper, Washed, soaped, dried and ?nal
ly cut into short ?bers. The ?bers show an ex
treme roughness like ‘natural wool.
from a group consisting of infusorial earth,
ground glass, carborundum, brick and porcelain,
said substances being of a particle size andin.
such an amount as to produce protuberances
and lumps on the surface of the extruded ?bers.
2.,In a'process forthe manufacture of staple
?bers, the step of extruding a cellulose solution
; containing irregular ‘sharp edged particles of in
Example 3
fusorial, earth, said particles being of. a size and
For some purposes of the textile industry
.in such a quantity as' to form protuberances 10
course titers are used. Fibers of 12 deniers are ; and lumps on the surface of said ?bers.
' 3. In a process for the manufacture of staple
obtained byimixing an ordinary. viscose solution
of 9%' cellulose with 10% :powdered porcelain‘ '?bers, the step of 'extrudingra' cellulose solution
calculated on the weight of the cellulose.
single ‘particles have a maximal, size of 12 mi
' crons. Instead of. porcelain, powdered glass, car
borundum, brick or the like may be used. The
containing irregular sharp edged particles of .
ground glass; said particles being of a size and 15
in such a quantity as to form'protuberances and
lumps on the surface of said ?bers.
4. In a process ‘for the manufacture of staple
solution is precipitated and the threads ?nished
and out according to Example 1. The obtained - ?bers, the-step of extruding’ a cellulose solution
?bers can be spun like ordinary natural ?bers
whilst hitherto coarse staple ?bers of such a
denier could not be spun without a relativel
high admixture of natural ?bers.‘
containing irregular sharp edged particles ,of
brick, said particles being'of a size and in such
a quantity as to form protuberances and lumps
on the surface of said ?bers.
'5. An varti?cial ?ber comprising a mixture of '
Example’ 4
cellulosic material and insoluble sharp edged
To obtain a ?ber of 3 deniers from a solution particles, said particles being substantially equal- _
of 'acetylcellulose 2%1 infusorial earth of a max
1y: dispersed within said ‘material, said particles
imal individual size of 6 microns is admixed. The being of such a size and such an amount as' to
solution 'is' extruded and precipitated by a "cur 'form protuberances and lumps on the surface
rent of hot air and ?nished in the usual way. ' of the ?ber, said particles beingrseiected from a‘ 30
What I claim 'iszr
1. A process for'the manufacture of staple
?bers consistingof extruding a cellulose solu-'
‘7 tion. containing sharp edged substances selected
group consisting‘of infusorial earth, ground glass,
oarborundum, brick ‘and porcelain.
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