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Sept. 7, 1937. c. B. PIERCE ' 2,092,015 CARBURE'I‘OR Original Filed April 7, 1953 r-/ .J, I. I.’ ' g , 1| _ J0 J6‘ 6 g] ‘ 26 1.9 §2 !2 § a lu.\-\- a v 6 4' Patented Sept. 7, 1937 ‘f '‘ ‘2,092,015 PATENT OFFICE UNITED STATES ‘2,092,015 CARBURETOR Clayton B. Pierce, Boston, Mass. Application April '7, 1933, Serial No. 665,003 Renewed December 30, 1936 . 8 Claims. This invention relates to carburetors and more particularly to a carburetor having a nozzle so constructed that the fuel drawn therefrom will be thoroughly atomized by creating a-turbulence of the air passing by said nozzle so as to atomize the fuel instead of allowing the stream of gas to be drawn into the carbureting passage from the nozzle in a solid stream. . Another object. of my invention is to provide a carburetor having- a nozzle provided with a 10 ripper edge which distorts the air stream passing thereby and creates a turbulence so that the fuel being drawn from the nozzle by the suction of the engine will ?ow laterally over the top of the nozzle by a capillary action in order to allow Q1. the ?lm of fuel to be picked up by the, air and thoroughly vaporized. . . A still further object of my invention is to'pro~ vide a nozzle which is capable ofbeing used with 20 either what is known in the art as a plain tube carburetor or what is known in the art as an air valve carburetor, the construction being such that nozzle 9 is adapted to be screwed in the ordinary manner. I The nozzle extends upwardly into a Venturi tube ID and while I‘ have shown my improved construction of nozzle disposed in a plaintube carburetor of this kind, I wish it' to be clearly understood that the form of nozzle herein shown and described can be used in connection with any form of charge forming device and placed in said charge forming device in any position de sired and thereforeI do not wish to limit myself to the use of a Venturi tube or to any other par ticular construction of carbureting passage as I am fully aware that my form of nozzle can be placed in the carbureting passage in any posi-' tion desired so long as it is arranged with the 20 head disposed in the path of travel of air passing through said carburetor whereby the peculiar atomizing effect obtained by my nozzle will be ' to out the ?lm of fuel ?owing over the top of the nozzle in order to thoroughly vaporize the obtained. In a companion application executed evendate 25 same. herewith I show the embodiment of my inven tion in connection with what is known» as an air claims. , . , In the drawing: ~. tion, through‘ a plain tube type of carburetor showing a nozzle constructed in accordance with my invention arranged therein; a Figure 2 is a vertical section of the upper por tion of a nozzle constructed in accordance with vmy invention; ~ , » ' valve type of carburetor of the Marvel type and the nozzle is arranged within a particular con struction of atomizing tube wherein there is a 30 cooperation between the particularconstruction ~ Figure 1 is a vertical section, partly in eleva 1 I V . Figure 3 is atop planlview of the same; I 4.0 5. The body, carries a constant level reservoir 6 from which extends a fuel passage 1 which ter minates in an upwardly extending threaded‘por tion 8 into which my improved construction of the air passing therebycreates a turbulence so as Other and further objects and advantages of the invention will be hereinafter set forth and the novel features thereof de?ned in the appended 35 (01. 261—41) Figure 4 is a vertical section through an upper portion of- a slightlyv modi?ed form of nozzle; Figure 5 is a top plan view of the'same; \ vFigure 6 is a vertical section through a nozzle constructed in accordance..with my invention 45 showing the head formed detachable and screwed within the stern of the nozzle; and of atomizing tube and the particular construc tion of nozzle, but I have foundin practice that my nozzle will function to thoroughly atomize fuel when arranged in a carbureting passage ir 35 respective of the particular formation of. said passage. - - ‘ - The nozzle 9 is provided with a_ threaded poré tion II which is adapted to be screwed into the threaded portion of the upwardly-extending fuel 40 passage, the same ‘being provided with a wrench receiving face as clearly shown. The stem l2 of the nozzle is provided with-an enlarged head l3 having a central conical depression id in com munication with the fuel bore [5 formed therein, which communicates with the fuel passage it. Figure 7 is a detail section through .a modi?ed While I have shown the particular construction form of nozzle with a single ripping edge by form of forming the fuel passage l6 and the fuel bore ing the-head with an annular enlargement. I l5, it is, of course, understood that the particu 50 In the drawing I have illustrated my inven lar construction of bore l5 and fuel passage 16 tion as applied to a plain tube carburetor of the conventional type comprising a body I having. a is immaterial so long as the fuel from the con carbureting passage 2 provided with an air inlet stant level reservoir is maintained at a predeter mined level within the head which is herein shown 3 controlled by a valve 4. The-outlet ofthe'car .55 bursting passage is provided with a throttle valve on the dotted lines A-A of Figure 2 which is sub_ 55 2 2,092,015 stantially on the line of the termination of the bore I5. The head is provided with an annular ?at portion IT surrounding the conical recess l4 which is surrounded by a conical or beveled por tion l8 terminating in a vertical Wall l9 under cut at 20 to form a ?at face which intersects a vertical wall 2| which is also undercut at 22 which intersects a vertical wall 23 which is also 10 undercut to form a horizontal face 24 in order to form a series of annular shoulders gradually accordance with my invention wherein a fuel nozzle is disposed in a carbureting passage hav ing an enlarged head with one or more ripping edges, the fuel is maintained at a predetermined level within the fuel nozzle which is at substan tially the bottom of the recess formed in the top of the head. When the fuel flows or is drawn by 10 increasing from the stem to the top of the head, these faces forming ripping edges for distorting being drawn out of the nozzle in a slug or a solid 20 straight lines. . It will be noted that the undercut portions of the annular shoulders are substantially at right angles to the circumferential faces of these an nular shoulders in order to form a plurality of 25 ripping edges and while in the preferred em bodiment of my invention I show a plurality of ripping edges, a single ripping edge as shown in Figure '7 will create a turbulence so as to atomize the fuel passing thereby .and therefore I 30 do not wish to limit myself to the use of any number of ripping edges so long as the nozzle is constructed with an enlarged annular head pro vided with a ?at upper surface over which the fuel flows by capillary action so as to be picked up by the turbulence created by the ripping edge. In the modi?cation shown in Figures 4 and 5 the stem 25 of the nozzle is provided with a fuel passage 26 which registers with a bore 2'! ex tending through an enlarged head , which is 40 formed by a series of annular shoulders 28 grad ually decreasing in size from the top of the head towards the stem in order to form a plurality of ripping edges, the fuel bore 2i registering with a conical recess 29 formed in the top of the head 4:5 which is surrounded by an annular ?at portion 3i} and in this construction the outer circumferen tial face 3| intersects the horizontal ?at face 30 at substantially right angles while in the pre ferred embodiment of ,my invention, the circum ferential face l9 intersects the beveled face at an obtuse angle, but in practice I have found that in both forms the fuel is thoroughly,atom— ized by the turbulence created by the ripping edges. v V . In the modi?cation shown in Figure 6 the stem is formed of a bottom section 32 and a top sec tion 33 having a head 34 constructed substan tially as shown in the modi?cation shown in Fig ures 4 and 5 wherein the head is formed of a series of annular shoulders which gradually de crease in size from the top of the head towards the stem in order to form a plurality of ripping edges for creating a turbulence of the air passing thereby. 65 atomize the fuel being drawn therefrom. In the operation of a carburetor constructed in suction through the nozzle, it ?rst ?lls the re cess formed in the top thereof and instead of the air in its passage thereby whereby turbu 15 lence is set up in order to atomize the fuelwhich is being drawn out of the nozzleas will beherein after fully set forth. These annularly disposed faces form a head formed of Walls, the intersections of which form 55 turbulence of the air passing the nozzle so as to , . In the modi?cation shown in Figure 7 I show a nozzle 35 with an annular enlarged head 36 which is provided with a conical recess 3'8 in its top communicating with the fuel bore 38 and I wish it to be clearly understood that I do not wish to limit myself to the number of ripping edges employed on the nozzle so long as the noz zle is provided with an enlarged head forming an obstruction to the passage of air passing thereby 75 so that the ripping edge of the head creates a stream, it flows by capillary attraction over the horizontal or upper face of the nozzle and is then picked up by the turbulence created by the ripping edge of the nozzle and thoroughly atomized so that it is delivered into the mixing chamber or carbureting passage of the charge forming device in a thoroughly atomized condi 20 tion as all of the heavy particles are broken up by the turbulence created. It will be apparent to one skilled in the art that the enlarged head of the nozzle forms an ob struction to the air so that the velocity of the 25 air passing thereby is increased and as it is de~ ?ected laterally by the under face or faces of the head, as the case may be, a turbulence is created which picks up the ?lm of fuel ?owing over the upper surface of the nozzle and thor 30 oughly atomizes the same. Applicant is not able to state positively what actually takes place in the operation of a car buretor as herein shown and described so far as the flow of fuel from the nozzle and the im 35 pingement of the air on the flow of fuel over the edge of the nozzle but has assumed that by attraction fuel flows over the nozzle instead of being drawn out of the same in a stream and is picked up by the eddies of air created. by the 40 ripping edge and he therefore reserves the right to have any interpretation placed on the terms used in describing the action of the nozzle after further experiments have been made, but from the experiments so far made has found that, cer 45 tain phenomenal results are obtained as when a carburetor constructed in accordance with his invention is substituted for other makes of car buretors on an internal combustion engine, the horse power is increased as well as the mileage 50 per gallon and that the flexibility of the engine with a carburetor constructed in accordance with his,,invention is greatly increased and applicant is able‘ to use low test gasoline and yet obtain better results than obtained when a high grade 55 gasoline is used which leads one to believe that the turbulence created breaks up, the particles of fuel and thoroughly atomizes the same so that they are discharged into the air stream in a thoroughly atomized condition. 60 While I have shown certain details of con struction, I wish it to be clearly understood that I reserve the right to make such modi?cations as will come under the scope and claims of my patent without departing from the spirit of my 65 invention as I am aware that a carburetor can be formed of various designs and a nozzle used constructed in accordance with my invention which will thoroughly atomize the fuel drawn therefrom and therefore I do not wish to limit myself to the use of my nozzle in any particular type of carburetor. What I claim is: 1. A fuel nozzle for carburetors comprising a_ stem having an enlarged head formed by a series 3 2,092,015 of annular projections gradually increasing in size from the stem to the top of the head, the walls of said projections being arranged at an angle to one another. 2. A carburetor comprising a carbureting pas 10 flat portion surrounding the annular depression, the greatest diameter of said head being at the upper end thereof, the outer walls of said head being arranged at substantially right angles to the flat portion of said head and the under faces sage having a venturi arranged therein, a nozzle extending into said venturi and terminating at the most restricted portion thereof, said nozzle bulence for the fuel ?owing over the upper face being formed of a head provided with a plurality of said nozzle. of annular projections gradually decreasing in 6. A carburetor comprising a casing having a 10 carbureting passage provided with an air inlet and a fuel mixture outlet, a constant level fuel reservoir in which fuel is maintained at a prede termined level, a fuel nozzle disposed in said car~ bureting passage in communication with said constant level reservoir, said nozzle having an size from the upper end towards the lower end thereof, the walls of said projections being ar ranged at an angle to one another to provide sharp ripping edges. 3. A carburetor comprising a casing having a carbureting passage provided with an air inlet and a fuel mixture outlet, a constant level fuel reservoir in which fuel is maintained at a prede termined level, a fuel nozzle in communication 20 with said constant level reservoir having an en larged head terminating slightly above the level of fuel in said constant level reservoir, said head having a vertical bore terminating in‘ an en larged conical portion surrounded by a hori~ 25 zontally disposed ?at portion, the outer vertical face of said head being arranged substantially at right angles to the substantially horizontally disposed ?at portion to provide a sharp ripping edge for the air passing thereby. ' v 4. A carburetor having a carbureting passage provided with an air inlet and a fuel mixture outlet, a constant level reservoir in which fuel is adapted to be maintained at a predetermined level, a fuel nozzle disposed in said carbureting 35 passage comprising a stem having an enlarged head terminating slightly above the level of fuel in said reservoir, said nozzle having a fuel pas sage extending longitudinally therethrough in communication at one end with said constant 40 level reservoir and at its other end with a recess formed in the top of said head, the head of said nozzle being stepped and formed of Walls ar ranged at right angles to one another to provide sharp ripping edges, said head gradually decreas ing in size from the top downwardly. 5. A carburetor having a fuel nozzle disposed therein provided with an enlarged stepped head having an annular depression surrounding the ‘ fuel passage thereof having a marginal annular of said head to form sharp ripping edges for causing the air passing thereby to create a tur " enlarged head terminating slightly above the level of fuel in said constant level reservoir, said enlarged head being formed by a series of an nular projections gradually increasing in size from the stem to the top of the head, the walls of said projections being arranged at substan tially right angles to one another to form a plu rality of ripping edges for the air passing thereby. 7. A carburetor having a constant level fuel 25 reservoir in which fuel is maintained at a pre determined level, a fuel nozzle for said carburetor comprising a stem having an enlarged head ter minating in a plane slightly above the fuel level in said reservoir, said nozzle having a fuel pas 30 sage extending longitudinally therethrough in commmunication with said constant level reser voir at one end and terminating at its other end in an enlarged conical portion in the top of said head surrounded by an annular ?at portion, the or C4 outer face of said head being formed at right an gles to the under face of said head and the fuel outlet of said nozzle terminating in a plane be low the upper face of said head. \ 8. A carburetor having a constant level reser 40 voir, a fuel nozzle in communication with said reservoir, nating in arranged reservoir, said nozzle comprising a stem termi an enlarged head having its upper end above the enormal level of fuel in said said head having its outer wall stepped 45 to form abrupt projections gradually decreasing in size from the top downwardly forming ob structions to the air passing said nozzle. CLAYTON B. PIERCE.