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Патент USA US2094204

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Sept 28,_1937-
' Filed March 7, less‘
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
Sept; 28, 1937- v
4 2,094,204
Filed March 7, 1956
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Sept. 28, 1937. .
‘ 2,094,204
Filed March '7, 1956
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
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Patented Sept; 28, 1937
Haskell C. Carter and Albert L. Wallace, Port
land, Oreg., assignors to Iron Fireman Manu
facturing Company, Portland, Oreg.
Application March 7, 1936, Serial No. 67,696
4 Claims.
(Cl. 153-645)
from which the ?ight is formed prior to the'
This invention relates generally to the manu
facture of conveyor worms such as are used in
coal burning stokers and particularly to a method
of and apparatus for manufacturing rolled steel
5 worms.
The main object of this invention is the evolu
in Fig. 6.
a casting process.
in Fig. 6.
Fig. '7 is a section taken along the line "|-—‘|
Fig. 8 is a section taken along the line 8-8 10
Fig. 9 is a plan showing a modi?ed form of the
device by means of which the worms can be
formed in an ordinary winding machine con- '
detract from its finish and to do so at a material
structed after the fashion of an engine lathe.
Fig. 10 is a section taken along the line Ill-J0
in Fig. 9.
Fig. 11 is a section taken along the line lie-ll
saving in cost.
in Fig. 9.
The third object-‘of this invention is the de
velopment of_ an apparatus and method whereby
, full depth ?ights may be successfully and ac
curately wound upon a supporting arbor or core.
The fourth object is the development of an'
2a apparatus whereby a continuous ?ight can be‘
wound upon a core or arbor in a manner that it
Fig. 12 is a fragmentary elevation showing the 20
graduated scale ‘on the adjustment for the bar
holding mechanism.
Fig. 13 is a section taken along the line 13-43
in Fig. 10.
. Fig. 14 is a section taken along the line “~14 25
will be formed to the desired pitch by imparting
in Fig. 9, showing the bar being twisted to the
left of a plane which is normal to the conveyor
to the bar as it is wound upon the arbor a con
trollable holding action whereby a twisting action
3° may be imparted to the bar in ‘either direction
and also the angle at which the bar mounts the
arbor can‘ be varied with relation to the helix
The ?fth object is the provision of a means
' 35 for accurately guiding a worm ?ight upon an
arbor in a manner to overcome any tendency for
Fig. 15 is similar to Fig. 14, but showing the
bar being twisted to the right of the plane which 30
is normal to the conveyor axis.
Fig. .16 is a fragmentary plan of a section of
the worm at its winding point showing a twisting
motion being imparted to the bar as shown in 35
Fig. 15.
the ?ight to lie over on its side during the coil-7
Fig. 17 is a view similar to Fig. 16 but showing
a twist being imparted in the direction shown in
ing operation.
Fig. 14.
vThe sixth object is to so construct the appara
'tus that it can successfully form the worms al
though the relations between the depth and
thickness of the ?ight, the helix angle, the di
ameter of the core, and the character of the steel
may vary through a relatively large range;
We accomplish these and other objects in the
manner set forth in the following speci?cation
as illustrated in the'accompanying drawings, in
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the worm form
ing machine.
Fig. 2 is a section taken along the line 2--2 in
Fig. 1.
Fig. 6 is a section taken along the line 6-6 in
Fig. 3.
heat during its forming operation which would
paratus for manufacturing worms from rolled
steel and to produce these worms in dimensions
hitherto regarded as practical only by the use of
manufacturing conveyor worms of cold rolled
15 steel for the purpose of changing a straight bar
to a. helix and to avoid the necessity of applying
Fig. 5 is a “view similar to Fig. 4 but showing
the cross section of the ?ight after the winding
tion of a process and the productionof an ap
The second object of this invention is the de
velopment ofv a method of and apparatus for
winding operation.
Fig. 3 is a section taken along the line 3-—3
in Fig. 6.
Fig. 4 is a transverse section through a bar
Fig. 18 is a fragmentary plan of a worm at its
winding point showing the bar being held to the:
left of the helix angle.
-- -
Fig. 19 is similar to Fig. 18 but showing the bar
being held to the right of the helix angle.
Similar numbers of reference refer to similar 45
parts throughout the several views.
Before entering into a detailed explanation of
this invention, it must be understood that the
a success of the apparatus herein described as well
as the method of winding the worms is dependent 50
largely upon the, ability to easily and accurately
control the helical and radial angles of the bar
as it mounts the-worm.
It must also be understood that numerous
methods have been employed in the formation of 55
lglltd. Steel worms, the commonest method being
that of rolling a straight bar in a manner to
elongate one side thereof, and thereby convert
same into a helix. A typical example of this is
illustrated in Patent No. 368,569.
Others have formed circular perforated discs
which are split and the split ends of eachsection
joined to the split ends of adjacent sections, after
which the united sections would be stretched to
the desired pitch. This type is illustrated in Pat- ,
10 ent No. 1 738,994.
The third and very common form of conveyor
?ight is known as the sectional type illustrated
in Patent No. 643,636.
A fourth type is‘ illustrated in the patent of
15 Green, Patent No. 361,998, in which a bar A is
closely wound upon an arbor on edge and ‘then
stretched to the desired pitch. In this patent,
the bar from which the helix is made is actually
wound upon the arbor and is prevented from lying
20 over on its side by closely winding the helix.
This is objectionable in that it sets up a stress in
the metal during the ?nal stretching operation
necessary to obtain the desired helix angle,.arid
that in a worm so formed it is di?lcult to main
25 tain a true pitch along the length of the worm.
In spite of the fact that car springs have long
been made by winding ?at bars on edge into heli
cal form, and it would seem to be a short step
from the formation of a car spring to the inser
tion of an arbor therethrough for the purpose of
forming a worm, there has been until the present
time a relatively sharp limitation to the size of
.the worm, the radial depth of its ?ights, the rela
tive thickness thereof, and the character of the
steel employed therein.
With the method which we are about to de
scribe and the apparatus which we employ there
in, the objections to the known methods as illus
trated in the foregoing statements are overcome,
and we are able to easily produce a smooth and
accurately woundworm with a minimum of in
ternal stresses and having its ?ight tapering in
thickness with the thin edge outermost.
In the form of the device shown in Figs. 1 to 8
inclusive, there is shown a bed 20 which includes
the guides 2i. At one end of the bed 25 is dis
posed a head 22 which is in the form of a housing
containing the gears 23 and 24 which are con
.nected by means of an interposed idler 25. At
the other end of the bed 26 is mounted the tail
stock 25 in which journals the arbor or core 21
of the worm to be formed.
On the guides 21 is mounted a carriage 35
through which slidably extends and in which
Journals the arbor 21 and the shaft 29.
The car
riage 33 is provided with the transverse walls 3|,
32, and 33. In the walls 32 and 33 is mounted a
die 34 in which is formed a helical slot 35 which
extends from the exterior 35 to the interior 31
within which journals the worm core 21. The die '
65 34 is held against rotation by means of the
here 33.
The wall 32 is provided ‘with a slot 33 which is ‘
vtangent to the slot 35 in the die 34. It is desirable '
to provide a roller 45 in the slot 35 on. the side
thereof against which. the bar-'4 l bears in its pas
sage through. the slot 33.
the roller drive gears 50 which are secured on the _
reduced ends 48 of the respective rollers 41.
Journaling in the walls 3| and 32 is a shaft 51
on which is secured a pinion 52 which meshes
with and drives the gear 45. Alsosecured to the
shaft 5| is a gear 53 which meshes with the pin 10
ion 54_of the drive motor 55. '
Journaling in the wall 32 is a cylindrical nut
56. On the nut '56 is formed a gear 51 which is
driven through an idler gear 58 from the gear
45. The gear 51 is held between the walls 3| and 15
32 and prevents the longitudinal movement of
the nut 56 with relation to the carriage 30. Se
cured to the bed 2|! is a stationary screw 59 which
passes through the nut 56.
V The operation of this form of the device is 20
as follows:
> A section of worm ?ight 60 is permitted to re
main within the die 34 at all times, and the ?ight
portion is made continuous by merely welding
the bars end to end. Assuming that the worm
core 21 is in place and that the carriage 30 is
adjacent to the head 22 and that a section of
the worm ?ight 60 has been secured to the core
'21 at the end 6|, the-operation of the motor 55
causes the rollers 41 to be rotated and thereby
cause a driving action to be imparted to the
worm ?ight 65 and also to cause the core 21 to
be rotated through the driving action of the shaft
29 and in addition thereto to cause the carriage
35 to be moved along the bed 20 at a speed
which would be equal to that at which it would
be driven if the worm flight 50 itself provided the
propelling action for the carriage 30.
As the worm ?ight is formed, it is secured up
on the arbor 21 by means of a welding operation, 40
and there is indicated a welding rod 62 which is
held at the junction of the worm ?ight 65 and the
core 21 by means of the holder 53. The ?ight
65 may be propelled through the die 34 by the
separate or joint action of the rollers 41 or the 45
turning movement supplied by the gear 24.
The worm thus formed is very correct as to
pitch along its entire ?ight and ?ts smoothly
upon the‘core 21 and is in perfect axial align
ment throughout so that the vcore itself is not 50
The arbor '21 is se- , needed to hold the worm to a true axis.
The mechanism thus far‘ described is a some- '
cured to the gear 24.
Journaling in the end 23 of the bed 25 is a re
volvable splined shaft 29‘ which is keyed to the
gear 23.
Disposed around the. axis of the die 34 are the
four rollers 41, each of which has its reduced end
48 joumaling in the eccentric bushing 49 in the
walls 32 and 33. Meshing with- the pinion 45 are
Extending through the wall 31' and into the die
.34 is a tubular sleeve 42 whose ?anged end 43 is
secured to the wall 31 by means of the screws 44.
what general description of the machine em
ployedin our process; but the details of con
struction which contribute most to the success of 55
the method are illustrated in Figs. 6 and 9 to 19
inclusive. Fig. 6 shows‘ the means for positively
holding the ?ight to a true helix during the
winding operation while Figs. 9 to 19 inclusive
illustrate the means for accurately guiding a 60
night as it mounts the arbor in a manner to
overcome any tendency for the ?ight to lie over
on its side.
It will be noted that in Figs. 4 and 5 are shown 65
cross sectional views of the worm ?ight before
and after the winding operation in which the
completed ?ight is of reduced thickness at its
outer edge and increased thickness at its inner
edge, which is the one bearing upon the core 21. 70
Refen‘ing now to the second form of them
vention, there is shown a lathe chuck 54 by means
of which is held the core 21 which is supported
On the sleeve 42 is mounted a gear 45 which is ' in a guide bushing 35 which is mounted on the
5 integral with the pinion 40.
lathe carriage 33 to which movement is imparted 75
, by means of a lead screw 61 through the change
gear 68 such as are in common use.
Mounted on the carriage 66 is a head 59 which
is v‘mounted on the vertical pivot 10. To the piv
5 0t ‘Ill is secured a worm wheel ‘II which meshes
with a worm 12 which is capable of being ro
tated manually by means of the hand wheel ‘H3.
The worm ‘I2 is connected to the handwheel "it
by means of a shaft 14 which journals in the
10 carriage 56. The head 69 can be clamped in any
desired position by means of the bolts ‘iii which
occupy the arcuate slot 16 in the head 59, mak
ing it possible-to clamp the head t9 rigidly to the
carriage St. The head 69 is provided with a
15 cylindrical opening ‘ii in which is placed a cylin
drical slotted guide ‘it, which is adapted to re
ceive the bar M. The head he is provided with
a slot 79 across which extends the bolts Bil. The
guide it is provided with a space key iii which
20 prevents the tightening of the bolts 80 from clos
ing the slot 82 in the guide ‘I8.
Rotary adjustment of the guide ‘it is accom
plished by means of a worm wheel 83 which
meshes with a worm 84 which in turn may be
25 manually rotated by means of a hand wheel 85.
Obviously, the wheel 85 may not be turned un
> less the bolts 80 are ?rst released.
It is desirable to provide graduations 81 on the
face 88 and an indicator point 89 on the car
30 riage 66 for the purpose of facilitating the mak
ing of settings. Corresponding graduations 90
should be provided for the guide 18 with relation
to the head 69. A clamping screw M is also pro
vided for the worm wheel 83 which bears the
35 graduations 90 and which is attached directly to
the guide .18.
plete balance of the stress set up within as mani
fested in the perfect axial alignment of the worm
produced by our process.
Throughout this speci?cation, we have referred
‘to rolled steel in order to distinguish our process
from those employed in the manufacture of cast
metal worms. It must be distinctly understood
that we are especially interested in the forma- ‘ f
tion of worms from cold rolled stock. having a
smooth ?nish and that this ?nish is not marred 10
in any way in the coiling or winding process itself.
No heat whatsoever is employed except for the
purpose of welding the ?ight to the core.
It will be understood that we are fully aware
that rolled steel worms have been constructed in 15
sections and that worm ?ights have been made
of discs which were split and subsequently joined
and that worm ?ights have been constructed by
rolling a flat bar into a helical form by stretch
ing one side thereof and that in at least one 20
instance, helical worms havebeen made by wind
ing a bar on edge in close fashion and later
stretching the wound bar to the desired pitch.
Our method is distinguished from those referred
to by the precise control of the twist imparted to 25
the bar and the angle at which said bar is guided
bears to the helical angle of the worm beingv
formed. It is this advancement in the art which
we intend to cover in the following claims:
1. A method of forming rolled steel worms at 30
the desired helical angle consisting of coiling a
bar on edge directly upon a worm core while de
?ecting it away from its true helical and radial
angles prior to its mounting said core.
2. A method of forming rolled steel worms con 35
sisting of progressively moving one end of a ?at
bar around a supporting core holding said bar
approximately at a tangent to the helix to be
formed, then imparting a twisting action to said
It will be noted that in Figs. 14 to 1'7 inclusive
are shown conditions in which the bar ii is
‘caused to mount the arbor 21 in a manner which bar in a manner to urge same away from a plane
is not radial with the axis of the core 21 but which is radial to the worm axis near a point
inclined to the right or left of the axial plane where said bar leads upon said supporting core.
at the point where the guiding takes place, name
3. An apparatus for forming rolled steel worms
ly, while the bar 4| is within the guide 18. The ' consisting of a means for holding a worm core,
purpose of this is to offset the tendency possessed
means for holding one end of a ?at bar with one
45 by the particular specimen of bar 4| to lie over edge tangent to said core, means for rotating the
on its side while being wound. However, the held end of said bar around said core, means for
ability to twist the bar radially for the purpose of . holding said bar at substantially the helical angle
overcoming this tendency is not sui’?cient in most of said worm and adjustable means for accurately
cases and it is commonly found necessary to ac
controlling and applying a twisting action to
50 curately adjust the helical angle at which the
said bar as it mounts upon said core.
bar 4| passes‘ through the guide ‘I8. Two ex
4. An apparatus for forming rolled steel worms
amples of such adjustments are shown in Figs. 18 consisting of a ?ight coiling machine having
and 19 in which the straight portion of the bar 4|
for carrying one end of a ?at bar about the
is held to the left and right of the helicalangle 1 means
axis of a worm core, a guide for holding said bar 55
55 93 as indicated in dotted lines in these ?gures.
at approximately the helical angle of the worm
In the form of the device illustrated in Figs. 9 to be formed, means for adjustably de?ecting said
to 19 inclusive, the force. necessary to wind the
worm ?ight 60 is imparted by the chuck 64
directly to- the core 21 itself and to the end 94
60 which is secured to the chuck 64 by means of the
bolt 95.
Previous attempts to wind worms by a similar
method have found it necessary to support the
?ight at one or more points along the core where
65 the forming was taking place. With our method
such supports are unnecessary since the test of
the proper winding of the worm resides in a com
guide away from said helical angle and means for
imparting a twisting action to said bar in a man
nerto urge same away from a radial position 60
prior to the point at which it mounts upon said
worm for the purpose of holding said ?ight» radial
at the point of bending during , the coiling
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