close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2097064

код для вставки
Patented Oct. 26, 1937
2,097,064
UNITED STATES PATENT oFF-ics
PROCESS FOR THE MANUFACTURE .OF
HYDRQCYANIC ACID
Emil Hene, London, England
No Drawing. Application June 19, 1934, Serial
No. 731,289. In Germany June 10, 1933
5 Claims.
The invention relates. to the manufacture of
hydrocyanic acid. It is known to produce alkali
(Cl. 23—151)
heated at a temperature of about 350° 0., where
upon the temperature is raised to about 500° 0.
cyanide compounds by heating potassium sulpho
cyanide with zinc powder. But this process is
5 slow and the output of the acid is very insuf?
cient. The process must be also conducted at
a high temperature of over 900° C.
These disadvantages are obviated by the in
vention, which comprises subjecting a mixture
10 of one of the class of reversibly convertible com
pounds consisting of thiourea or its derivatives,
for instance, ammonium sulphocyanide with
?nely divided copper to a two staged heating
treatment. In the ?rst stage of the process
15 the mixture is rapidly heated to a temperature
of about 200-400° C. preferably to about 360° C.
and in the second stage of the process the tem
perature is increased to about 600° C. Instead
of copper also copper alloys may be used.
If thiourea is employed the conversion takes
place essentially according to the following
equation:
Example
1.5 parts thiourea are mixed with 2.6 parts
?nely divided copper bronze; 0.5 part infusorial
silica are added; the mixture is preferably under
introduction of air heated to about 360° C. for
about 45 minutes; the temperature is then slowly
raised to about 600° C.
10
The gases escaping from the reaction contain
HCN, NH3 and a small quantity of CS2.
To obtain pure I-ICN the gases are passed
through a rotary drum which is charged with
a mixture of ammonium sulfate and concentrated 15
sulphuric acid and heated to a temperature of
80-100" C. If this process is conducted accord
ing to the counter-current system, at one end
of the drum the dry ammonium sulfate and at
the other end the ammonium-free hydrocyanic‘ 20
acid are discharged.
The CS2 may be removed in the usual manner
through lead carbonate, ammonium sulphite or
bisulphite.
If ammonium sulphocyanide is used, the fol
lowing reaction takes place:
The quicker the temperature range of between
200-300" C. is reached in the ?rst stage of the
process, the better is the yield of HCN. The tem
perature should, therefore, be raised at a rate
of at least 50° C. per minute.
The output of HCN may be further improved
by the addition of paraffin or substances con
taining the same, for instance, bitumen, petro
leum, etc. to the initial mixture.
If the metals or alloys melt at the reaction
temperature, they may be employed in an atom
40 ized condition; or the thiourea or ammonium
sulphocyanide may be sprayed upon the surface
of the molten charge, whereby excellent condi
tions of reaction are obtained. As in the process
essentially CuzS is formed the copper can be
45 easily recovered in the ?nely divided state by
The invention allows a very economical pro
duction of I-ICN from nitrogenous lime as simple
methods are known to convert the same into
35
thiourea.
A further particular advantage is gained there
by insofar as the thiourea, which is produced in
this manner, contains nitrogenous substances,
which are made use of in the production of the
HCN. As the HON resulting from this process
can be easily converted into ferrocyanic corn~
pounds or sodiumcyanide, the invention affords
a simple way, to obtain highly valuable nitrogen
containing compounds from cheap nitrogenous,
lime.
The dry ammonium sulfate obtained at
roasting and reducing the residues of the process.
the same time forms a cheap basis for the manu
The copper or the copper alloys may be also
precipitated in the known manner on inert car
facture of other ammonium salts.
Copper and aluminum have been found to be
suitable materials for the apparatus to be used
for carrying out this process.
What I claim is:—
riers, for instance, silica gel.
50
The initial mixture may be employed in the‘ 25
shape of briquettes or tablets.
The residues of this process consist essentially
of CuzS, which by roasting and reduction is
converted into ?nely divided copper. This con
version may take place in the same apparatus, 30
where the production of the HON was carried out.
The invention can be put into practise in the
following manner:—
Thiourea or ammonium sulphocyanide is
sprayed on ?nely divided copper; paraf?n, pe
troleum or bitumen are added and the mixture
5 01 is charged into a rotary furnace.
It is then
45
1. The process for manufacturing hydrocyanic
acid, which consists in rapidly heating in a ?rst
phase of the process a mixture of one of the
class of reversibly convertible compounds con
55
2
2,097,064
sisting of thiourea and ammonium sulphocyanide
with ?nely divided copper up to a temperature
ranging between 200° C. and 400° C. and‘ slowly
4. The process for manufacturing hydrocyanic
acid, which consists in rapidly heating in the
increasing in the second phase of the process
the temperature to about 600° C.
2. The process for manufacturing hydrocyanic
acid, according to claim 1, which consists in
?rst phase of the process a mixture of thiourea
with ?nely divided copper up to a temperature
of about 350° C., slowly increasing in a second
phase the temperature up to about 600° 0., and
regenerating the copper, which is contained in
heating the mixture in the ?rst phase of the
the residue of the reaction by roasting and re
process to a temperature of about 350° C.
3. The process for manufacturing hydrocyanic
10
acid, which consists in rapidly heating in a ?rst
phase of the process a mixture of one of ‘the
class of reversibly convertible compounds con
sisting of thiourea and ammonium sulphocyanide
15 with ?nely distributed copper deposited on an
inert carrier up to a temperature between 200° C.
and 400° C. and slowly increasing in the second
phase of the process the temperature up to about
600° C.
duction.
,
5. The process for manufacturing hydrocyanic
acid, which consists in rapidly heating in the
?rst phase of the process a mixture of ammonium
sulphocyanide with ?nely divided copper up to
_a temperature of about 350° C., slowly increas
ing in a second phase the temperature up to 15
about 600° C., and regenerating the copper, which
is contained in the residue of the reaction by
roasting and reduction.
EMIL HENE.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
187 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа