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Патент USA US2098574

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Nov. 9, 1937.
E. D. DOYLE
2,098,5 74
ELECTRICAL MEASURING SYSTEM
Filed Feb. 1, 1955
2 Sheets-Sheet l
INVENTOR.
ATTORNEY.
Nov. 9, 1937.
2,098,574
E. D. DOYLE
ELECTRICAL MEASURING SYSTEM
Filed Feb. 1, 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Patented Nov. 9, 1937
2,098,574
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,098,574
ELECTRICAL MEASURING SYSTEM
Edgar D. Doyle, Philadelphia, Pa., assignor to
Leeds and Northrup Company, Philadelphia,
Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania‘
Application February 1, 1935, Serial No. 4,587
18 Claims.
My invention relates to systems for measuring,
recording, or indicating the varying magnitude
of a physical, electrical, or other condition, and
particularly the rate of flow of a ?uid.
In accordance with my invention, a force
whose magnitude varies with change in magni
tude of the condition under measurement, in ac
cordance with a definite law, is brought in oppo
sition to an electrical force whose magnitude
10 varies with the speed of a rotating body in ac
cordance with substantially the same law, and
the speed of the body is controlled to maintain
balance of these forces.
More particularly, a di?erential pressure pro
15 duced by the ?ow of a fluid is balanced against
the force produced by an electromagnetic device
energized from a small motor-generator whose
speed is controlled by unbalance of the two forces
to restore balance so that the speed of the motor
20 is a linear function of the rate of flow of the
?uid.
My invention further resides in the systems
and features of combination hereinafter de
scribed and claimed.
25
30
to the stationary coil 9. Both coils are con
nected to a generator Ill driven by motor 90.‘
As the force tending to e?ect relative movement
of the coils 8 and 9 of the electromagnetic device
M is substantially proportional to the product
of the current in each of the coils, and since the
current in each of the coils is a substantial
linear function of the speed of the generator III,
which is of a type having constant ?eld excita
tion, as a magneto, it follows that the force pro 10
duced by the electromagnetic device on the rod
‘I varies as the square of the speed of the gen
erator II). The coils are so poled that the mag
netic effect moves, or tends to move, the rod
upwardly in opposition to the force produced by 15
the pressure-diiferential device 3.
The speed of the motor 90, which may be en
ergized from any suitable source of current, as
a commercial power line supplying alternating or
direct current, is controlled by a switching device,
including the contacts I I and I2, one of which
is stationary and the other of which is carried
by the member Ila movable with rod ‘I.
For any given rate of flow through the con
‘
For an understanding of my invention, refer
ence is to be had to the accompanying drawings
in which—
Figs. 1 to 4 diagrammatically illustrate various
modi?cations for measuring flow;
duit I, the contact I I intermittently engages con
tact I2 to maintain speed of the motor 90 at
the value for which the force developed by the
electromagnetic device 8, 9 balances the force
produced by the pressure-responsive device 3.
Fig. 4a is a detail view of a weirplate used
The contacts may make and break the motor
'
in the system of Fig. 4;
>
circuit or, as indicated may make and break a
Fig. 5 illustrates another modi?cation for
measurement of temperature;
Figs. 6 and 7 illustrate further modi?cations
of the invention.
Referring to Fig. 1, in the pipe or conduit I
is included an orifice plate 2, or equivalent, to
produce a drop in pressure which is a function of
the rate of ?ow of the ?uid. The pressure-re
sponsive device 3 comprises a bellows 4 whose in
terior is in communication with the conduit I on
the upstream side of the ori?ce plate 2, and a
bellows 5 whose interior is in communication
with conduit I on the downstream side of the
' ori?ce plate. 'I‘lfe two pressures on opposite sides
of the ori?ce p ate are thusvbrought into oppo
sition and the resultant differential pressure is
effective to move, or to tend to move, down
wardly the plate 6 and the rod ‘I connected
thereto. Speci?cally, the force moving, or tend
ing to move, the rod ‘I downwardly varies as
the square of the rate of ?ow of fluid through
conduit I.
n
(Cl. 73-206)
'
The lower end of rod ‘I is mechanically con
‘U" nected to a coil 8 disposed in inductive relation
/
circuit of low resistance in shunt to a suitably
high resistance R. .
Assuming that the rate of flow increases, the
periods, during which the contacts II and I2
remain in engagement, are of longer duration, and
the speed of motor 90 increases until it attains
the higher value necessary to restore balance
between the opposing forces developed by the
electromagnetic device 8, 9 and the pressure
responsive device 3. Conversely, if the rate of
flow decreases, the periods of engagement of the
contacts I I and I! are shortened and the speed
of motor 90 decreases until the opposing forces
on rod 1, or equivalent, again balance.
45
Since the force produced by the device 3 is
proportional to the square of the rate of flow
of ?uid, and the opposing force produced by the
electromagnetic device 8, 9 is proportional to the
square of the speed of generator III, maintenance 50
of balance of these forces establishes a linear
relation between the rate of flow and the speed
of the generator Ill. Thus, it is possible, by
simple mechanism responsive to the speed of the
motor 90 directly to integrate the flow of ?uid
(.5,
-
aoaasra
unbalance between the pressure-responsive device
through conduit i; for example a simple revo
lution counter it, calibrated in units of ?ow, may and the electromagnetic device. The ?eld exci
be driven from motor it, as through a gear train ‘' tation of the alternator is constant and its voltage
is, therefore, a linear function of the speed of the
it.
Instantaneous values and rate of flow can be motor lid, and also of the frequency. The current
read from'a, tachometer, of any suitable construc~= applied to the coil lid, being dependent both upon
tion, driven from the shaft of motor it, or, since the generator voltage and frequency, therefore
' the current supplied by generator it isa linear varies as the square of the speed of the motor at;
more specifically, as the speed of the generator
' function of its speed, by an indicating or recording
increases
its output voltage increases, and to the
ammeter
it,
calibrated
in
terms
of
rate
of
?ow.
it
If the meter it is an ampere-hour meter, it can ' higher frequency current the condenser 2d o?ers
be calibrated in terms of flow to give a reading of less reactance. Instead of or in addition to the
series condenser it there may be utilized a shunt
integrated ?ow. Particularly for procuring read
ings of the-rate of How at a more or less remote inductance L whose shunting effect decreases as
thefrequency increases, and vice-versa. Accord
15 point, there may be included in the output cir
cuit of the generator it a resistance it. Since ingly, as in the system of Fig. 1,‘ since the two
the speed of generator it is a linear function of opposing forces are maintained in balance, the
speed of the motor it is a linear function of the
the rate of ?ow, the current through this re
sistance, and therefore the voltage drop across it, rate of ?ow, and simple indicating, recording, or
varies linearly with ?ow. This voltage may be integrating mechanisms may be used, as explained
measured by a potentiometer, preferably one of in connection with Fig. l or, as indicated in Fig. 2,
a speedometer
such as used on automobiles,
the self-balancing type, as shown in Squibb Pat
ent No. 1,935,732. Speci?cally, one terminal of may be driven from motor at as by gears W, W,
directly to indicate instantaneous and integrated
resistor it is connected to a potentiometer resist
25 ance ill, and the other terminal of resistance it ?ow.
Referring to Fig. 3, the pressure-responsive de
is ‘connected through a galvanometer it, or equiv
alent, to the potentiometer slidewire contact is. vice db is of the diaphragm type, and a Pitot tube
As usual, in potentiometer practice, the contact arrangement is utilized to provide a di?erential
it is moved until there is no de?ection of the
30 galvanometer iii. ' A linear scale ldcalibrated in
units of flow, may be provided for .a vdirect indi
cation of the rate of ?ow. In addition, or alter
natlvely, the rebalancing movement of the slide
wire contact may, as in theaforesaid Squibb Pat
35 ent No. 1,935,732, edect movement of a recorder
pen or marker.
>
pressure which follows the variations in rate of
flow of ?uid in pipe i.
>
\
iii
15
.
20
25
30
The upstream tube it is connected to the
chamber on the upper side of the diaphragm it,
and the downstream tube it is connected to the
chamber of the pressure-responsive device db
below the diaphragm if. The force varying 36
with flow which moves, or tends to move the rod
I
Although-responsive device d produces a force
l downwardly, is opposed by an electromagnetic
which is a non-linear function of the rate of flow
device M, such as shown ‘and described in the
of ?uid, the recording, indicating or integrating
system of Fig. 2.
devices may be of simple type whose construction
does not include rectifying cams, non-linear
direct current generator lilo whose ?eld, instead
scales, or the like.
‘The current to the coil to is supplied from a ‘
of being constant as in the prior modi?cations,
'
- - Substantially to eliminate the efdect of tem
is a function of the speed of motor iii and, spe
cifically, is supplied by generator lib driven by
motor it and having constant ?eld excitation.
In order that the ‘?eld excitation for generator
that shall be directly‘ proportional to the excit
of the other circuit» components, and which is of ing current, the ?eld structure may be of mag
material having low or negligible resistance-temj netic materials having di?erent saturation points;
perature, there is preferably included in series
45 between the generator iii and the coils d, d, a re
sistance ii whose magnitude is high relative to
any changes in resistance, due to temperature,
50
perature coe?iclent'.
‘
'
.
Referring to Fig. ‘2, the pressure-responsive d vice to is a tilting manometer of usual type whose
low-pressure side is connected'asby the ?exible
‘tube lid, to the throat of the Venturi it. The high
55 pressure side is connected by the ?exible tube 25
to conduit i’ on the upstream side of the throat 2d.
The di?erential pressure varying as the square
of the rate of, iiow of ?uid through pipe i and
acting upon the manometer tends to effect its
60 movement in clockwise direction about the pivot
it. This movement is resisted by the force pro
duced by the magnetic device M comprising a ‘coil
to on a movable form ‘connected to rod ‘i and dis
posed in the magnetic ?eld of a constant strength,
65 such as produced, for example, by the permanent
magnet to cram electromagnet energized from a
source of'substantially constant direct current.
The coil to is connected to the output terminals
of a recti?er bridge 21? whose input terminals
70 are connect% to the condenser 28 and the alter
nator if in series. Preferably, the recti?er ele
ments are of the copper oxide, or other dry type.
The'motor id for driving the alternator is con
trolled, as in the system of Fig. l‘, by contacts ii
75 and it, one of which is movable in response to
speci?cally, the‘laminations may be of di?erent 50
materials so that, in the assembly core structure,
the proportions are about:
Per cent
Magnetic iron55
45-55
permalloy _________________________ __ 2b
55
78% permalloy __________________________ .._ iii
Silicon steel-
iii
The output voltage of the generator that is de
pendent upon its armature speed which is a sub
stantially linear function of the speed of motor
slit and also upon its held excitation which is also
substantially a linear function of the speed of
motor dd. The current supplied thereby to the
coil ta‘ therefore ‘varies as the square of the‘ speed
of motor iii. As in the preceding modi?cations,
a differential pressure varying as the square of
the rate of flow is‘ balanced against a force, pro—
duced by an electromagnetic device,‘ which varies
as the square of the speed of a motive device, to 70
establish a linear relation between the speed of
the device and the rate of ?ow.
Resistances Sid and it may be used to minimize
or substantially eliminate errors due to tempera
ture changes, and correspond in magnitude and 75
3
2,098,574
function to the resistance 2! of Fig. 1. As the
current in the output circuit in the generator lllb
linear function of the temperature of the body
is a linear function of ?ow, any of the current
but varies in accordance with a fourth power
law.
The motor 90 drives an alternator 29 to supply
current to the ?eld F of a second alternator ill
responsive devices for indicating, integrating or
recording flow, mentioned in connection with Fig.
1, may be included in this circuit.
'
It is, of course, understood that the ori?ce plate
2 of Fig. 1, the Venturi of Fig. 2, and the Pitot
also driven by motor 90, through a circuit includ
tube of Fig. 3 are interchangeable; in fact, other
citation of generator Illa therefore varies as the square of the speed of motor 90. The generator 10
10 suitable devices, such as a flow nozzle, may be
The ?eld ex
used; similarly, the several pressure-responsive
Illa supplies current to the potentiometer resist
ance P through a circuit including condenser 28a
and recti?er 210.. With constant ?eld excitation,
the current to resistance P would vary as the
square of the speed but since the field excitation 15
also varies as the square of the speed, the current
in the art.
.
,
While preferably the control of the speed of
motor 90 is automatic, it is feasible, particularly
for obtaining readings of the instantaneous rate
of flow, to vary the speed of motor 90 manually,
as by a rheostat MR, Fig. 1a, to obtain the speed
for which the two opposing forces acting on rod ‘I
or equivalent are in equilibrium as indicated, for
example, by a pointer l lb movable by or with rod
1 with respect to a stationary scale 20a.
In the system shown in Fig. 4, a weirplate 40
disposed in the channel box In is provided with
through resistance P varies as the fourth power ~
of the speed of the generator.
The voltage across all or part of resistance P
is opposed to the thermocouple voltage, the con 20
tacting galvanometer G or equivalent responding
to unbalance of these voltages to control the
speed of motor 90, as by contacts H and I2, to
maintain balance.
Thus there is established a
stream side of the plate with its upper end at
substantially the level of the bottom of the open
linear relation between the temperature of the 25
body B and the speed of motor 90, and any simple
speed responsive devices, such as illustrated and
described in connection with the preceding modi
ing or notch N.
?cations may be used to indicate, record or in
an opening N and a tube ll is disposed on the up
The tube 4| is connected to one
30 side of a pressure-di?erential device of any suit
able type whose other side is at atmospheric
pressure. As shown, the diaphragm type of Fig.
3 may be used, the high pressure chamber con~
nects to pipe ll, and the low pressure chamber
‘ is connected to atmosphere as by pipe 43.
‘
The relation between the flow or quantity of '
?uid passing over the weir and the'head or dif
ferential pressure is expressed by the formula
Q=Ki (with
40
Where 1 is length of weir‘ at height h above the
. bottom of the notch (Fig. 4a).
By making
1J7!‘ : K2
the formula becomes
QzKlKZh
that is: Q, the rate of flow, is directly propor~
50 tional to the head or differential pressure.
The force tending to move the rod 1 down
tegrate.
'
The modi?cation shown in Fig. 6 is similar to
the arrangement of Fig. 1 except that the cur
rent to the coils 8 and 9 of the electromagnetic
device ‘M is supplied from any suitable source S
of constant or direct current instead of from a
generator driven by the motor 90. Between the
source S and the coils 8, 9 is interposed a con
denser K and a reversing switch SW driven by
the motor 80.
In this arrangement, the current ?owing
through the coils is substantially proportional to
40
the motor speed and the electromagnetic reac
tionvbetween them is substantially proportional
to the squareof the motor speed. The motor
speed is controlled as in prior modi?cations to
maintain balance of the opposing forces so that
the motor speed is a linear function of the rate
of flow and may be integrated by a simple revo
lution countercalibrated in units of ?ow, or, as
indicated, both integrated and instantaneous rate
of flow may be shown by a speedometer 30 driven
wardly is opposed by the reaction between the
by motor 90.
magnetic ?eld of coil 8a and the constant mag—
netic ?eld of magnet 9a, or an equivalent electro
In the modification shown in Fig. 7, the elec
trical device for opposing the force produced by
the pressure-differential device 3b, or equivalent,
is of the electrostatic type instead of the electro
magnetic type. The movable plate 8b is me
chanically connected to rod 1, and is disposed
adjacent but spaced from the ?xed plate 912. The
two plates are connected to the opposite termi 60
nals of the generator 10 which may be either an
magnet. The current of coil 8a supplied by the
generator l0 driven by motor 90 is directly pro
portional to the speed of the motor, and there
fore the upwardly acting force on member ‘I is
directly proportional to the generator speed.
60
ing condenser 28 and a recti?er 21.
devices shown may be used interchangeably in
- the several systems, as apparent to those skilled
45
voltage developed by the thermocouple is not a
As in the prior modi?cations, the speed of the
motor 90 is controlled as by the contacts II, II,
to maintain the two forces in equilibrium for the
different rates of flow so that the speed of motor
90 is a linear function of the rate of ?ow, and
can be integrated by simple mechanisms, for
example, a speedometer 30 driven from the shaft
of motor 90 by a suitable gear train ll. Though
in the modi?cation there is no recti?cation of a
non-linear law necessary, the translation of a
differential pressure into speed by the combina
tion of the generator l0 and magnetic device M
facilitates at least the integration of ?ow.
In the system shown in Fig. 5, the thermo
couple T receives heat by radiation from a body
75 B whose temperature is to be measured. The
_
alternator or a direct current generator.
If it is
the latter, it should be a high voltage machine;
if it is an alternator, it should be a high voltage
machine if directly connected to the plates, or it
may be a low voltage machine and a step-up
transformer introduced between the alternator
and the plates 81), 9b.
In all cases, the attraction between the two
plates varies substantially as the square of the
speed of motor 90. As the speed of motor 90 is
controlled to maintain balance between this force
and the force due to the pressure-differential de
vice, the motor speed varies linearly with the
rate of flow of fluid through pipe I. The speed
ometer Lit driven from motor Qt can be calibrated
ing an electric current whose magnitude with re
to indicate instantaneous and/or integrated ?ow,
spect to the speed of a rotating body substantially
follows said non-linear law, means for producing
by said current a force varying linearly with re
spect thereto, means for e?ecting opposition of
said forces, means for controlling the speed of
said body to edect balance of said forces for the
diderent magnitudes of said condition and ex
hibiting means responsive to the speed of rota
or any of the other devices shown in prior modi
ilcations may be used to indicate, integrate or
record.
While I have illustrated and described various
speci?c arrangements, it is to be understood my
invention is not limited thereto, but is co-ex
tensive in scope with the appended claims.
For brevity and convenience in the claims, the
10
term “exhibiting means” is used to comprehend
an indicating, recording and/or integrating
means.
~
I claim:
1. A system for determining the magnitude of
a condition which comprises means for produc
ing a force Whose magnitude with respect to the
magnitude of a condition under measurement
follows a predetermined law of response, means
for producing an electrical force whose magnitude
with respect to the speed of rotation of a body
substantially follows said law, means for edecting
opposition of said forces, means for controlling
the speed of rotation of said body to effect balance
25 of said forces for the different magnitudes of said
condition, and exhibiting means responsive to
speed of rotation of said body.
2. A system for determining the magnitude of
a condition which comprises means for producing
a force varying with changes in magnitude of a
condition in accordance with a law of response
higher than the first power law, means for pro
ducing an electrical force whose magnitude with
respect to the speed of rotation of‘ abody sub
35 stantially follows said law, means for edecting op
position of said forces, means for controlling the .
speed of said body to edect balance of said forces
for different magnitudes of said condition, and
exhibiting means responsive to speed of rotation
40 of said body.
‘
3. A system for determining the magnitude of
a condition which comprises means for produc
ing a force varying as the second power of the
magnitude of a condition under measurement,
means for producing an electrical force whose
magnitude varies as the second power of the
speed of a rotating body, means for e?‘ecting op
position of said forces, means for controlling the
speed of said body to eifect balance of said forces
50 for the di?'erent magnitudes of said condition,
and exhibiting means responsive to the speed
rotation of said body.
4. A system for determining the magnitude oi
tion of said body.
10
‘
6. A system for measuring the rate of ?ow of
a fluid which comprises means for producing a
force proportional to a diderential pressure whose
magnitude varies as the second power of the rate
of ?ow, means for producing an electrical force 15
H
tude varies as the second power of
the speed of a rotating body, means for e?ecting
opposition of said forces, means for controlling
the speed of said body to e?ect balance of said
forces, and means for measuring the speed of 20
said body.
-
7. A measuring system comprising a generator,
an electrical device energized from said generator
and including a movable element, a device having
a movable element responsive to the changes in 25
magnitude of a condition, means for connecting
said movable elements'in opposition to form a
balanceable system, means responsive to the con
dition of said balanceable system for controlling
the speed of said generator to maintain balance 30
of said movable elements for the different mag
nitudes of said ?rst-named condition, and means
for determining the magnitude of said ?rst
named condition responsive to the speed of said
generator.
35
'
8. A measuring system comprising a generator,
an electromagnetic device energized from said
generator and including a movable element, a
device having a movable element responsive to
the changes in magnitude of a condition, means 40
for connecting said movable elements in opposi
tion to form a normally balanced system, means
for controlling the speed of said generator in
cluding means responsive to unbalance of said
system, andexhibiting means responsive to the
speed of said generator.
9. A measuring system comprising a generator,
an electromagnetic device having inductively
related fixed and movable coils energized from
said generator, a device having a movable ele
50
ment responsive to changes in magnitude of a
condition, means for mechanically connecting
said movable element in opposition to said mov
a condition which comprises means for produc
able coil to form a bal‘anceable system, means
ing a force whose magnitude with respect to the
responsive to the condition of said balanceable 55
system for controlling the speed of said generator
to e?’ect equilibrium of said movable element and
said movable coil, and means for determining the
magnitude of said ?rst-named condition respon
magnitude of a condition under measurement
follows a non-linear law of response, means for
producing an electric current whose magnitude is
a linear function of the speed of a rotating body,
means for producing by said current an electrical
force whose magnitude with respect to the speed
of said body substantially follows said non-linear
law, means for effecting opposition of said forces,
means for controlling the speed of said body to
sive to the speed of said generator.
‘
60
10. A measuring system comprising an alter
nator, an electromagnetic device energized from
said alternator and having a movable element,
a reactance in circuit with said alternator where
by the current in said electromagnetic device 65
varies non-linearly with respect to the speed of
tude of said current varies as the ?rst power of ‘said alternator, a device having a movable ele
the magnitude of said condition, and exhibiting ment non-linearly responsive to changes in
effect balance of - said forces for the different
magnitudes of said condition whereby the magni
70
means responsive to the speed of rotation of said
magnitude of a condition, means for mechani
body.
cally connecting said movable elements to form 70
‘a baianceable system, means responsive to the
condition of said balanceable system for control
'
5. A system for determining the magnitude of
a condition which comprises means for producing
a force whose magnitude with respect to the mag . ling the speed of said alternator to effect equilib
nitude of a condition under measurement follows rium of said elements, and exhibiting means re
sponsive to the speed of said alternator.
75 a non-linear law of response, means for produc
75
5
2,098,574
11. A measuring system comprising an alter
?xed and movable coils energized from said gen
magnetic device energized by the recti?ed alter
erator, a device having a movable element re
nator current and having a movable element, a
sponsive to changes in rate of ?ow of a ?uid,
means for connecting said movable element and
said movable coil in opposition, means for con
trolling the speed of said generator to maintain
said movable element and said movable coil in
equilibrium for di?erent rates of ?ow, and ?ow
reactance for varying the current to said device
for different irequencies'oi the alternator cur
rent, a device having a movable element non
linearly responsive to changes in magnitude or a
condition, means for mechanically connecting
10 said movable elements to form a balanceable sys
tem, means responsive to the condition of said
balanceable system for controlling the speed or
said alternator to effect equilibrium of said ele
ments, and means for determining the magnitude
15' oi said ?rst-named condition responsive to the
speed of said alternator.
'
12. A measuring system comprising two gen
erators, a common driving means therefor, an
electrical device energized from one of said gen
erators, means for exciting the ?eld of said one
of said generators by the other oi’ said generators,
a device non-linearly responsive to changes in
magnitude of a condition, means Jointly respon
sive to said devices for controlling the speed of
said common driving means, and means for de
termining the magnitude or said condition re
sponsive to the speed of said driving means.
13. A ?ow, measuring system comprising a
generator, an electromagnetic device energized
from said generator and including a movable
element, a device having a movable element re
sponsive to changes in the rate oi’ ?ow of a ?uid,
means for connecting said movable elements in
opposition, means for controlling the speed of
said generator to maintain said movable elements
in equilibrium for diil'erent rates of ?ow, and
?ow-exhibiting means responsive to the speed of
said generator.
_
14. A ?ow measuring system comprising a gen
40 erator, an electro-magnetic device energized from
said generator and including a movable element.
45
tromagnetic device having inductively-related
nator, a recti?er in circuit therewith, an electro
exhibiting means responsive to the speed of said 10
generator.
16. A ?ow measuring system comprising a gen
erator whose ?eld excitation is a function oi the
generator speed, an electromagnetic device hav—
ing a coil energized from said generator and mov 15
able in a substantially constant magnetic ?eld, a
device having a movable element responsive to
changes in rate of ?ow of a ?uid, means for con
necting said element and said movable coil in
opposition, means for controlling the speed of
said generator to maintain said movable element
and said movable coil in equilibrium for different
rates of ?ow, and ?ow-exhibiting means respon
sive to the speed of said generator.
17. A ?ow measuring system comprising an 25
alternator, an electromagnetic device having a
movable element, means energizing said element
from said alternator by current whose magnitude
varies substantially as the square or the speed of
said alternator, a di?erential pressure device
having a movable element responsive to changes
in rate 0! ?ow of a ?uid, means for connecting
said elements in oppodtion to form a balanceable
system, means responsive to the condition oi’ said
balanceable system for controlling the speed of
said alternator to maintain said movable ele
ments in equilibrium, and ?ow-exhibiting means
responsive to the speed of said alternator.
18. A system for integrating themagnitudes of
a condition which comprises mans for producing 40
a force whose magnitude with ‘respect to said con
a device having a movable element responsive to - dition follows a predetermined law of response,
changes in the rate of ?ow 01’ a ?uid, means for means for generating an electrical force whose
connecting said movable elements in opposition, magnitude with respect to the speed of rotation
of a body substantially follows said law, means
means for controlling the speed of said gener
ator to maintain said movable elements in equi
librium for diiierent rates of ?ow, and inte
grating means calibrated in units oi ?ow driven
from said generator.
15. A ?ow measuring system comprising a gen
erator having constant ?eld excitation, an dec
for eiiecting opposition of said iorces, means for
controlling the speed of rotation of said body to
maintain balance of said forces tor the di?erent
magnitudes of said condition, and means for in
tegrating the revolutions of said body.
'
EDGAR D. DOYLE.
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