close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2099670

код для вставки
Nov. 23, 1937.
c. H. ALDRICH
2,099,670
STOOL TO BE USED IN THE CASTING OF METAL
Filed (Jet. 22, 1935
15%
FW
km‘
INVENTO‘R
2,099,670
Patented Nov. 23, 1937
UNITED STATES‘ ‘PATENT
.
OFFICE
2,099,670
STOOL TO BE USED IN THE CASTING OF
METAL
Charles H. Aldrich, Elizabeth, N. J., assignor to
The American Metal Company; Limited, New
York, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application October 22, 1935, Serial No. 46,096
.8 Claims. (Cl. 22—139)
to overcome these di?iculties and thereby to
lengthen the useful life of the stool. This gen
erally is done by subdividing the stool into a
This invention relates to stools, or other sup
porting structures, for open-bottomed ingot molds
or the like, and more speci?cally to a composite
stool which is particularly resistant to the cor
'5 rosive and other destroying effects of molten
plurality of component parts which are yieldingly
pressed together so that they may expand and
contract independently one of another whereby
> In the manufacture of ingots, molten metal is opposed expansional stresses are avoided; and by
utilizing different materials in different parts of
poured into a suitable mold and allowed to con
geal therein, whereupon the mold is removed and , the stool to counteract different destroying forces. 10
again used. In carrying out the casting process The latter feature is accomplished by making that
it has been found that the poured metal tends to portion of the stool against which the molten
metal.
1
metal ?rst strikes, termed the “area of direct-im
pingement” from a material which will resist
to a maximum degree the cutting action of the
stream of molten metal and which is of such 16
character as not to become welded to the ingot;
I and by making the remaining portion of the stool,
cut away parts of the mold, and that the tre
mendous amount of heat which is released by the
molten ingot frequently results in a cracking of
l5 the mold surfaces. . Usually it is the bottom of
the mold which gives way ?rst. Consequently, in
the past, it has been the practice to form the bot
tom' of the mold separately from the side por
termed “the area of non-impingemen ” from a
tions thereof, whereby the bottom, or stool as it ' material which will distribute the heat evenly
3 O .as it was poured into the mold.
accompanying drawing, in. which
Figure 1 is a plan view of a stool which incor
no further use.
<
‘
Later it was proposed to build the stool from a
solid block of copper which, having a much greater
coefficient of heat conductivity, would tend to
4 o. distribute the heat of the casting morerapidly
and more evenly. This expedient was relatively
satisfactory, and such stools had a far greater
life than the prior cast iron one.v However, in
time the stream of molten metal would begin to
cut and erode the surface, and further, cracks
and ?ssures eventually appeared. _
9.
In both of the foregoing typesof stool consid
erable trouble was caused by the tendency of
the poured metal to weld itself to the stool. This,
as can readily be understood, resulted in a very
considerable loss of time in separating the ingot
from the stool, and further, it tended to con
taminate the metal of the ingot.
85
porates the principles of my invention;
Fig. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken along
the line 2-—2 of Fig. ,1;
,
The principal object of the present invention is
V ‘
.
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view of
a stool embodying my invention and showing a
modi?ed form thereof;
Now,‘ uneven
heating results in uneven expansion; and where
one part expands more than another then the
‘metal will buckle or crack. Accordingly, after a
relatively short period of time, these cast iron
3 stools became‘ so covered with cracks as to be of
20
Other objects and various features of the in
vention willbe more apparent from the following
description to be read in connection withv the
heat conductivity, and consequently the heat of
the poured metal was unevenly and rather slowly
‘distributed therethrough, and dissipated there
.from. In other words, the heat tended to con
centrate at that point, or in that area, against
which~the stream of molten metal ?rst impinged
2
5
and rapidly therethroughout.
is called, may be replaced when it becomes worn.
In the past several di?’erent types of stools have
been proposed. One of the earliest of these was
made of a solid block of cast iron; This metal, as
is well known, has a relatively low coe?icient of
2 o.
Fig. 4 is a similar view of another modi?ca
tion of the invention;
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary plan view of a stool in
which either of the modi?cations of Fig. 3 ‘or 4 35
>
may be included.
'
Y
~
vOne embodiment of the invention, as'shown in
Fig. 1, comprises a plurality of relatively narrow
bars II and I2 which are disposed in side by
side relation and mounted upon a suitable bed 40
l3. As can be seen, the bars are of a length
somewhat less than the width of the bed. Con
sequently, any expansion lengthwise of the bar
will not be opposed by the sides of the bed; that I.
is, the bars are free to move in that direction. 45
Further, the bars are yieldingly pressed together
in such manner that any expansion crosswise
thereof may be absorbed by the yielding means.
Accordingly, each bar may expand in this ~di
rection independently of every other bar. Thus, 50
as will be apparent from the foregoing, the com
ponent parts of the stool are free to adjust them
selves in any direction whereby opposed expan
sional and contractional forces are completely
avoided.
-
'
55
2
2,099,670
The. yielding means above referred to may
take any desired form, as for example, it may
comprise springs M which are held in compres
sion between a suitable header l5 and the spring
seats I6. The tension of the springs may be
adjusted by means of bolts I‘! which are threaded
into thelend section I 8 of the bed with one end
abutting against the spring seats I6 whereby
any rotation of the bolts will increase or de
10 crease the spring tension dependent upon the
direction of rotation.
-
When molten metal is poured into a mold’
mounted upon such a stool it will usually strike
the latter at one point or within a relatively small
15 area and then ?ow over the remaining portions
thereof. After the stool has been used a number
of times it will be found that this area of direct
impingement has become corroded to a very
marked extent; and that the ingot tends to weld
20 itself to this area. In other words, the stream
of molten metal tends to cut away the part of
the stool against which it strikes, and then tov
weld itself thereto. ' The extent of these effects
‘will be found to differ with the character of metal
25 which is being cast. Thus, in general, high car
bon steel and certain alloys have a greater tend
ency to cut the stool and to become welded there
to than do low carbon steels and other alloys.
Accordingly, _the bars II which constitute the
30 area of direct inpingement are preferably made
of amaterial which will oppose these tendencies
to a maximum degree. In practice, it has been
found that cast iron and certain alloys will re
sist these destructive effects when certain types
35 of metal are being cast, while in other cases such
' refractory materials as carbon, graphite, carbo-_
rundum, ?re clay, magnesite, chromite and the
like, must be used. Thus, the material which
is to constitute the area .of direct impingement
40 will be selected in accordance with the character
of the metal which is to be cast. The remaining
bars I2 constituting the area of non-impinge
ment are preferably made from copper, or other
material having a comparatively high coefficient
of heat conductivity.
'
"
Inindividual cases it will be found that the
area of direct impingement may constitute a
greater, or lesser, proportion of the total area
‘ of the stool; and a greater, or lesser, proportion
50 of the total depth thereof; and the arrangement"
of this area may be varied in several ways. In
Fig. 3, for example, the direct impingement bars
Ila are only approximately half as deep as the
adjoining bars l2, and they are underlaid by an
equal number of bars [211‘ which preferably are
formed of the same metal as the bars l2. Fur
ther, these bars may extend the total width of
the stool, as is illustrated in Fig. 1, or they may
be fore-shortened, as is shown in Fig. 5. In the
60 latter case the area of direct impingement will
be substantially surrounded by the bars consti
tuting the area of non-impingement; that is, it
will be adjoined on both sides by bars l2, on the
ends by bars I25, and it will be underlaid by
5.5
65
bars
I211;
‘
1
'
'
-
Another variation is shown in Fig. 4, in which
the area of direct impingement may constitute a
solid block of the desired material; and this
block may extend the full depth of the stool, or
70 it may be in a lesser proportion. Further, it may
extend the full width of the stool or it may be
foreshortened in a manner similar to that illus
trated in Fig. 5.
Considering the advantages of the stool as a
75 whole it will be seen that the composite character
permits a selection of those materials which will
best counteract the destructive effects of the
molten metal. Thus, the‘ bars II which are in
tended to resist cutting and welding may be
chosen in accordance with the character of the
metal which is to be cast; and the bars l2 may
be made from a metal which will evenly and
rapidly distribute the heat of casting. The lami
nated character of the stool not only avoids
cracking, as hereinbefore described, but it per 10
mits an easy and rapid change of the character
of the area of direct impingement.
Each of the foregoing features tends to lengthen -
the effective life of the stool. Accordingly, in
practice, it will be found that this composite type 15
stool has a considerably longer normal life than
anything heretofore proposed. Further, such a
stool may be very readily and inexpensively re
paired. Thus, the laminated construction makes
replacement of worn bars a relatively simple 20
matter; and the inexpensive character of the
area of direct impingement, wherein most wear
occurs, permits replacement of this area at a
very small cost.
Since certain changes may be made in the em 25
bodiment of the invention without in any way
departing from the true scope thereof, it is in
tended that the foregoing shall be construed in a
descriptive rather than in a limiting sense.
30
What I claim is:
1. A composite‘ stool for an open bottomed ingot
mold having an area of direct impingement
formed from a material which is highly resistant
to the corrosive action of a stream of poured
molten metal, and an area of non-impingement 35
formed from metal having a high coefficient of
heat transfer whereby it may rapidly and evenly
distribute heatthroughout the entire stool, both
the area of direct impingement and the area of
non-impingement being formed from bars which
are disposed in side by side relation, and the stool
being further characterized in that the area of
direct impingement is underlaid by a portion of
the area of non-impingement.
2. A composite stool for an open bottomed in 45
got mold having an area of direct impingement
formed from a plurality of relatively narrow bars
of cast iron which is adapted to resist the corro
sive action of a stream of poured molten metal,
and an area of non-impingement adjoining the 50'
area of direct impingement, the area of non
impingement comprising a plurality of relatively
narrow copper bars disposed in side by side rela
tion and adapted to distribute the heat of the cast
ingot rapidly and evenly throughout the entire 55
stool.
_-
-
-
3. A composite stool for an open bottomed ingot
mold comprising a plurality ‘of relatively narrow
bars disposed in side by side relation with the side
surface of one bar in contact with the side surface 80
of the adjacent bar so that their tops form sub
stantially a continuous surface upon which an
ingot may be cast, certain of the bars constituting
that portion of the stool against which a stream
of poured metal would be most likely to strike 65
being formed from a material which is adapted to
resist the corrosive action of such a stream, the
remaining bars being .formed of copper whereby
they are adapted to distribute the heat of the cast
metal rapidly and evenly throughout the stool.
70
4. A stool according to claim 3 in which the bars
constituting that portion of the stool against
which a stream of molten metal would be most
likely to strike are made of a refractory material.
5. A stool according to claim 3 in which the bars
$099,670
constituting that portion of the stool against
which a stream of molten metal would be most
likely to strike are made of cast iron.
6. A composite stool for an open-bottomed ingot
mold having an area of direct impingement com
prising a plurality of bars of metal highly resist
ant to the corrosive action of a stream of poured
molten metal, and an area of non-impingement
comprising a plurality of bars of metal having a
high heat transfer coei?cient whereby it may rap
idly and evenly distribute heat throughout the
entire stool, the stool being further characterized
in that all of the bars are disposed in side by side
relation, and that the bars comprising the area of
direct impingement are underlaid and adjoined
on two sides by the bars constituting the area of
non-impingement.
7. A composite stool for an open-bottomed ingot
mold having an area of direct impingement com
20 prising a plurality of bars of metal highly resist—
ant to the corrosive action of a stream of poured
molten metal, and an area of non-impingement
comprising a plurality of bars of metal having a
high heat transfer coefficient whereby it may
3
rapidly and evenly distribute heat throughout the
entire stool, the stool being further characterized
in that all of the bars are disposed in side by side
relation, and that the bars comprising the area of
direct impingement are underlaid and surrounded
by the bars constituting the area of non-impinge
ment.
8. A composite stool for an open-bottomed ingot
mold, comprising a plurality of relatively narrow
bars of substantially identical size and shape dis 10
posed in side by side relation with the side surface
of one bar in contact with the side surface of an
adjacent one, so that their tops form substantially
a continuous surface upon which an ingot may be
cast, the middle bars constituting that surface
against which a stream of poured molten metal
will ?rst impinge being formed from cast iron so
as to resist the corrosive action of such molten
stream, and the remaining bars constituting the
end surfaces being formed of copper so as to dis
tribute the heat of ‘casting rapidly and evenly
throughout the stool, the ‘cast iron bars being of
substantially the same depth as the copper ones.
CHARLES H. ALDRICH.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
447 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа