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Патент USA US2101467

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ec. 7, 1937.
v
T_ w_ cARRAwAY
2,101,467
AIR CONDITIONING UNIT
Filed March 21, 1955
'
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
1 Dec. 7, 1937.
T. w. CARRAWAY
.
.
2,101,467
AIR CONDITIONING UNIT
Filed March 21, 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
@1541
I
I
.//O
2,101,467
Patented Dec. 7, 1937
‘_ UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,101,467
AIR CONDITIONING UNIT
Thomas W. Carraway, Dallas, Tex., assignor to
Cari-away Engineering Company, Inc., Dallas,
Team, a corporation of Delaware
Application March 21‘, 1935, Serial No. 12,153
7 Claims. (Cl. 62—129)
This invention relates to new and useful im
i.)
provements in air conditioning units.
One object of the invention is to provide an
improved air conditioning unit which will effi
ciently lower the temperature of the air passing
therethrough, as well as extract moisture there
from in a single operation.
An important object of the invention is to pro
vide an improved cooling unit including a plu
10 rality of coils, through which refrigerant is cir
culated, the coils being individually and automati
cally controlled according to the loads imposed
thereon, whereby a balance may be obtained
between the coils to extract a certain amount of
15 moisture without lowering the temperature be
low a desired degree, thereby eliminating the ne
cessity for re-heating the air after the moisture
has been extracted and before discharging it into
the area to be conditioned.
'
>
Another object of the invention is to provide
a plurality of coils through which refrigerant is
circulated. each coil having a thermostatic valve
for controlling the refrigerant ?owing there
through and each valve being controlled by a
ii $1 thermosensitive element connected with, and ac
20
tuated by, the discharge line of its coil, wherein
such valve is connected, whereby the heat of the
outgoing refrigerant controls the flow through the
valve, which results in the valve being controlled
30 by the load imposed on its coil.
‘ -
A further object of the invention is to provide
a cooling unit which is operated at its highest
rated e?lciency under normal conditions, but
which will be forced, to take care of abnormal
conditions, the control being automatic and gov
Figure 5 is an isometric view of a portion of the
cooling coils together with the supporting ?ns.
In the drawings, the numeral I0 designates a
vertical casing which may be constructed of sheet
metal, or other suitable material, and is pref-' 5
erably provided with insulated walls II. An air
v impeller or blower l2, having an air intake ?ue
I3 is mounted within the lower end of the cabi
net.‘ The ?ue I3 is connected with the outside of
the room or area to be conditioned, whereby fresh
air is supplied to the blower. A discharge ?ue
l4 extends from the top of the casing l0 and this
?ue has its other end (not shown) leading into
the area to be conditioned, and it is‘ obvious that
air discharged from the casing will be introduced
into the conditioned area.
In the cooling of air it is necessary, in order to
obtain maximum comfort in the conditioned area,
to remove a certain amount of moisture from the
outside air as well as to lower the temperature
thereof. In other words to properly condition
the air, latent heat, as well as sensible heat, must
be removed from said air. Heretofore, it has
been a problem to extract the exact amount of
‘moisture while lowering the temperature of the 25
air to such a degree that the desired amount of
moisture is extracted. This method necessitates
lowering the temperature to such an extent that‘
it should not be delivered into the conditioned
area in this condition, so it has been the custom
ary practice to heat the air after it has passed
through the cooling medium to raise the tempera
ture in order that maximum comfort in the con
ditioned area is had. This requires two complete
operations and necessitates the use of a heater
erned by the temperature of the air outside the
in combination with the cooling unit, which adds
vention will be hereinafter described, together
the correct temperature becausev of the variation
40
of the temperature of the incoming air.
much to the operating expense. ‘Also it is di?i
area to be conditioned.
cult to operate the heater accurately to obtain
A construction designed to carry out the in- ‘
40 with other features of the ‘invention.
The invention will be more readily understood
from a reading of the following speci?cation and
by reference to the accompanying drawings in
which an example of the invention is shown, and
45
wherein:
'
.
Figure 1 is a view partly in elevation and partly
in section of a conditioning unit constructed in'
accordance with the invention. '
Figure 2 is a horizontal cross-sectional view
In some cases,- the heater has been eliminated
and outside air introduced into the cooled air,
which has had a. proper amount of moisture re
moved therefrom. This outside air, being of a
higher temperature serves to raise the tempera 45
ture of the cooled air, so that comfort may be
maintained in the conditioned area.
However,
this method requiresintricate control and expen
sive apparatus.
'
The cooling unit‘ l5 shown in the drawings
taken on the line 2-2 of Figure 1, '
lowers the temperature a desired degree and
Figure 3 is a transverse vertical sectional view
taken on the line 3-—3 of Figure 2;
operation, whereby the air passing to the condi
Figure 4 is a transverse vertical sectional View
55 taken on the line 4—4 of Figure 2, and
removes a certain amount of~moisture in a single.
tioned area is such as will make for maximum
comfort. The cooling unit as shown includes
0
2
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2,101,467
controlled in a similar way, the valve 3| being
connected with a thermostatic bulb 34 by a capil
two vindividual coils i6 and I‘! which are disposed
one above the other and are supported in ?ns i8
which extend transversely across the interior of
the casing above the blower. The coils are pref
erably located in staggered relation, as clearly
shown in Figures 1, 2, 4 and 5, whereby they
lary tube 35, whereby the temperature of the out
going refrigerant controls the valve, thereby con
trolling the refrigerant entering the upper coil.
It is pointed out that each coil is independent
substantially cover the entire interior area of
said casing. In this connection, it is to be under
of the other, there being no connection there
between. Each coil individually controls its valve
automatically to regulate the incoming refrig
stood that, obviously, while two separate coils
10 i6 and IT, as shown, are sufficient for some in
stallations, a greater number of coils may be
employed in other installations.
The lower coil 16 has an inlet pipe I9 connected
at one end thereto with its other end connected
to a reservoir or tank 20 of a condensing unit 2|.
The upper coil has a similar inlet pipe 22 con
meeting said coil with the tank 20. Outlet pipes
23 and 24 lead from the other ends of the lower
and upper coils, respectively, and are connected
An electric
motor 26, or other suitable means, is provided
20 with the compressor 25 of the unit.
for operating the compressor.
'
A refrigerant, such as freon, is introduced into
the coils and it is obvious that said refrigerant
is circulated from the tank 20 through the coils
and then back. to the compressor 25. From the
compressor, the refrigerant is conducted to con
densing coils 21, where the heat is extracted, and
then back to the tank 20. Thus, it will be seen
30 that a constant circulation of the refrigerant
through the coils is had. It is pointed out that
the various parts of the condensing unit 2| are
subject to variation. In this connection, it is
noted that the refrigerant is maintained at the
to Q1 same temperature in the several coils of the cool
ing unit l5, it being supplied from one and same
source 20.
.
When the condensing unit is operating, the
liquid refrigerant which is under pressure flows
40 from the tank through the pipes l9 and 22 to'the
coils. The pipe I9 is provided with a thermo
static expansion valve 30, while the pipe 22 is
provided with a similar valve 3|, said valves be
ing positioned as shown in Figure 1, so that just
45 before the refrigerant enters the coils, the pres
sure of said refrigerant is reduced due to the
sudden expansion. As the air within the casing is‘
forced upwardly by the blower i2, said air will
,
10
erant.
In operation, assuming the normal or average
temperature where the unit is installed to be 85
degrees, the coils and condensing unit are con
structed to operate at their highest rated ef
?ciency to extract the desired amount of moisture 15
and to lower the temperature to a desired degree.
Therefore, if the temperature of the refrigerant
is 40 degrees, under normal operating conditions,
then when air of a temperature of 85 degrees,
which is above the dewpoint, normally strikes the
coil, the refrigerant ?rst extracts sensible heat
to lower the temperature before extracting any
latent heat. For purposes of illustration, assum
ing it is‘desired to extract 7 grains of moisture
and to lower the temperature 10 degrees, or in
other words, to 75 degrees, the maximum capacity
of the lower coil when its valve 30 is open, is
only sufficient to extract 5 grains of moisture,
and lower the temperature 6 degrees. Then the
upper‘ coil need only extract 2 grains of moisture 30
and further lower the temperature 4 degrees. In
other words, it'is unnecessary to operate one,
or both coils, at a maximum capacity at all times
because of the variation, not only in the tempera
ture of the air, but also in the moisture content. "
The valves 30 and 3| control the coils according
to the varying loads.
Air, at a temperature of 85 degrees, discharging
against the lower coil will cause a rapid heating
of the refrigerant in this coil. The heat of the 40
refrigerant acts upon the thermostatic bulb 33
to move the valve 30 to a wide open position,
whereby the coil is operating to handle its maxi
mum capacity. So long as the temperature of
the air, as well as the moisture content thereof,
remains the same, the valve remains open.
Since the lower coil
l6 removes a certain
amount of moisture and lowers the temperature
of the air to a certain degree, it is obvious that
move in contact with the coils, and the refriger
ant will extract the latent and sensible heat the air striking the upper coil is at a different
therefrom, thereby lowering the temperature, as temperature than it was upon contacting the low
er coil. Therefore, because the temperature of
well as condensing a certain amount of moisture
from the ‘air. The refrigerant, which is heated the refrigerant within both coils is the same, the
by the heat exchange occurring through contact air striking the upper will not. heat the refrig
erant within said upper to as high a degree as the
with the warm air, then flows through the out
let pipes 23 and 24 to the compressor 25,‘as has " refrigerant in the lower coil was heated. Thus,
just been explained. The operation of the valves the temperature of the outgoing refrigerant in the
30 and 3| is entirely automatic, being actuated
by the load imposed on the coils.
The thermo
6.0 static valve 30 controlling the refrigerant ?owing
to the coil I6 is connected by a capillary tube
32 with a thermostatic bulb 33. The bulb is se
cured to the outlet pipe 23 of the coil 16. When
the gas within the bulb becomes heate'd, it will
open the valve 30. When the gas cools, it will
close said ,valve. Therefore, it is-obvious that
the operation of said valve is directly controlled
by the heat of the refrigerant which is leaving
the coil L6 through the outlet pipe 23. Since the
70 temperature resulting from the‘heat of the re
frigerant depends on the load imposed on the
coil, that is, the temperature and humidity of
the air striking the coil, it will be seen that the
valve is controlled by the load imposed on the
75 coil. The refrigerant in the upper coil 11 is
upper- coil passing through the outlet pipe 24,
which acts upon the bulb 3‘, will cause said bulb
to keep the valve 3| operating with regularity, 00
whereby only sufficient refrigerant to do the nec
essary work is admitted to the upper coil l1.
With this, a balance is obtained between the up
per and lower coils, the upper coil completing the‘
conditioning of the air to the desired degree.
Assuming that the temperature of the air strik- '
ing the lower coil should drop to 75 degrees, then
it is obvious it would be unnecessary for the low
er coil I‘ to be operated to handle its maximum
capacity. Therefore, the refrigerant passing
from this coil under this condition would not be
heated as much as it would when 85 degree air
was passing thereth‘rough. As a result, its inlet
valve 3| would be actuated accordingly.
The up
2,101,467
per coil I‘l would be similarly controlled by its
valve 3|.
Should an extreme condition arise, such as an
increased moisture content to be present in air of
85 degrees, then the lower coil would extract only
part of the latent heat or moisture. Its capacity
would be insu?icient to extract this increase°d lat
ent heat and lower the temperature suf?ciently.
Therefore, the upper coil would then come into
10 operation, the valve 3| would be opened and the
upper ‘coil would do the remaining work to prop
erly condition the air.
/
3
supply of refrigerant to each cooling element
according to the load imposed on each element.
2. An air conditioning unit comprising, a cas
ing, means for passing air to be conditioned up
wardly through said casing, a multiplicity of indi
Ul
vidual cooling coils disposed horizontally and the
one above the other within said casing in the path
of the passing air, the refrigerant being main
tained at substantially the same temperature in
the several cooling coils, individual control means
for the supply of refrigerant to each cooling coil
separately, and means for automatically operat
ing each individual control means according to
the load imposed upon each cooling coil.
.
3. An air conditioning unit comprising, a cas
15 unit may be provided with two speeds. Under
the low speed, maximum ef?ciency of the coils and ' ing, means for passing air to be conditioned
condenser is had. But in cases where the outside through said casing from outside the area’ to be
To take care of abnormal conditions, in some
cases, the electrical motor 26 of the condensing
temperature rises appreciably above normal, the
capacity of the coils would be insu?icient to take
20 care of this abnormal condition. In such event,
the motor may be automatically operated at the
higher speed which speeds up the compressor.
This results in a lowering of the temperature of
the refrigerant from ‘40 degrees, if, for example,
25 this be the normal operating temperature, to 32
degrees, whereby the given amount of refrigerant
con extract more heat units both sensible and
latent.
However, when the motor is speeded up,
the coils and compressor operate inefficiently, that
30 is, because the coils have been adjusted to handle
a normal temperature. Therefore, to condition
air of an abnormal temperature, they must be
forced, which results in a sacri?ce in ei?ciency.
However, this abnormal condition is unusual and
very seldom lasts for any length of time.
There
fore, the greater percentage of time, the entire
unit is operating at its highest rated e?iciency.
For automatically speeding up the motor. an
outer temperature control 35’ is provided. -This
40 control is electrically connected with a two speed
typeof motor control 36 for the condensing unit
motor 26. The control 35’v may obviously com
prise a globule of mercury which is actuated by
an abnormal temperature change.
This globule
is arranged to engage either a contact 31 or a
contact 38, each of which is electrically connected
in one of the motor speed circuits. Under nor
mal outside temperature, the motor operates at a
low speed {to actuate the condenser at its highest
ei?ciency. Under abnormal conditions, the con
denser must be forced to take care of such con
dition. In either event, the control valves 30 and
3|, which are individually controlled by the loads
imposed on their respective coils l6 and H, are
operated in the same manner. It is again pointed
out that the coils l6 and I ‘I are independent of
each other and are not connected in series. So,
to
too, it is again stressed that the provision for operating the motor 26 at different speeds is not
made in all installations, because it is preferable
to provide coils of the character of the herein
described coils l6 and H of a capacity to take
care of predetermined maximum degrees of tem
perature and humidity.
I
' What I claim and desire to secure by Letters
Patent, is:
1, An air conditioning unit comprising a cas
ing, means' for passing air to be conditioned
through said casing, a plurality of separate cool
ing elements within the casing successively
through which the air is passed, the refrigerant
being maintained at substantially the same tem
perature in the several cooling elements, and in
dividual means for independently controlling the
air conditioned, a multiplicity of individual cool
ing elements within the casing in the path of the‘
passing air, the refrigerating medium being
maintained at substantially the same tempera
ture in the séveral cooling elements, means for
circulating a refrigerating medium through said
cooling elements separately, and individual ther
mal control means attached externally to the re
frigerant return fromeach cooling element in its
particular refrigerant circulating system for auto
matically controlling the admittance of the re
frigerating medium individually to each cooling
30
element.
4. An air conditioning unit comprising, 9. cas
ing, means for passing air to be conditioned
through said casing from outside the area to be
air conditioned, a multiplicity of cooling coils ar
ranged in said casing transversely of _the path of
the passing air, the respective coils being ar
ranged in staggered relation to each other but
spaced apart for the passage of the air there
between, the refrigerating medium being main
35
tained at substantially the same temperature in
the several coils, means for supplying a refriger
40
ating medium separately to each individual coil, a
separate expansion valve for regulating the re
frigerant supply to each coil, and separate ther
mal control meansattached to refrigerant return 45
conductor of each cooling coil for automatically
controlling the correlated individual expansion
valve of the refrigerant supply to the coil.
5. An air conditioning unit comprising, a cas
ing, a blower at one end of the casing for dis
charging ‘air through the casing, a plurality of
fins disposed in the casing transversely thereof in
the path of the air passing through the casing, a
plurality of separated cooling coils supported on
50
the fins and disposed the one ahead of the other 55
in the path-of the air passing through, the refrig
erant being maintained at substantially the same
temperature in the several coils, a valve con
nected individually to the inlet of each coil for
controlling the supply of refrigerant separately
thereto, and means for automatically controlling
each refrigerant supply valve according to the
load imposed on its individually correlated coil.
6. In an air conditioning unit, a casing, means
for passing air to be conditioned through the cas 05
ing from outside the area to be air conditioned,
said casing containing a plurality of separate
cooling elements through which air in the casing
is passed successively, the refrigerant being main
tained at substantially the same temperature in 70
the several cooling elements and said cooling ele
ments operating normally with highest efficiency
at a proportionate predetermined capacity for a
given degree of temperature of outside air taken
into the casing and/or humidity but abnormally 75
2,101,487
l 4
below its intended high degree of ef?ciency when
the temperature of the outside air rises appre~
ciably above the given normal.
‘
‘
7. In an air conditioning unit, a casing, means
for passing air to be conditioned through the cas
ing from outside thearea to be air conditioned,
said casing containing a plurality of separate
cooling elements through which air in the casing
is passed successively, the refrigerant being
10 maintained at substantially the same tempera
ture in the several cooling elements and said cool
ing elements operating normally with highest
ef?ciency at a proportionate predetermined ca
pacity for a given degree of temperature of out
side air taken into the casing and/or humidity
but abnormally below its intended high degree of
efficiency when the temperature of the outside
air rises appreciably above ‘the given normal,
means for supplying a refrigerant from a com
mon source to each individual cooling element
separately, said source‘ including a mulit-speed
motor operating at a given speed for normal
operating e?iciency of the air conditioning unit,
means for controlling the supply of refrigerant
from the source individually to each cooling ele
ment, thermal control means for each cooling ele
ment for automatically controlling the refriger
ant supply means of each individual cooling ele 10
ment for normal operation of the air condition
ing unit, and separate thermal control means for
increasing the speed of said motor to accord
ingly increase the supply of refrigerant from the
source upon an appreciable rise in the tempera
ture of the outside air.
>
THOMAS W. CARRAWAY.
15
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