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Патент USA US2102518

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Dec. 14, 1937.
F. E. JOHNSON
2,102,518
GRINDING MACHINE
Filed Oct. 12, 1936
'7 Sheets-Sheet l
FRANKLIN E. JOHNSON '
Dec. 14, 1937.
F. E. JOH-NSON
'
2,102,518
GRINDING MACHINE
Filed Oct. 12, 1936
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FRANKLIN E. JOHNSON
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2,102,518;
Patented Dec. 14, ‘1937 _
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE.’
2,102,518
GRINDING
' Franklin E. .lohnson, Worcester, Mass., assignor '
to Norton Company, Worcester, Mass., a corpo
ration of Massachusetts
Application. October is, 1936, Serial No. 105,157
*
8 Claims. Y (0].‘51-165)
"The invention relates to grinding machines and
with regard to its more speci?c features to a
work calipering mechanism therefor.
One object of the invention is to provide a
calipering mechanism which can readily be main
tainedat a given adjustment and is highly accu
rate. One object of the invention is' to provide
a vsensitivecalipering mechanism. Another ob-_
ject of the invention is to provide‘ a calipering
10 mechanism adapted to give excellent results in
actual practical operation. Another object of the
invention is to‘ provide a contact'calipering mech
anism the contact of which shall not mar the
surface of a work piece. Another object of the
‘
Fig. 10 is in electrical diagram,
Fig. 11 is a hydraulic diagram showing the vari
ous parts in the position which they occupy when
the machine is at rest, that is to say at the com
pletion of a grinding operation and also prior to
' 5
starting the machine in operation again,
‘ Fig. 12 is ahydraulic diagram showing the parts
in the position which they occupy after the gauges
have contacted the work. piece and before the
wheel has bee advanced, to grinding position. 10
_ Fig. 13 is a hy raulic diagram showing the parts
in the position which'they occupy as the grind
ing operation starts,
'
v
Fig. 14 is a similar diagram showing the con
invention is to provide a contact calipering device dition after the first sizing gauge has operated, 15
having smooth contact surufaces. Another ob- ' and prior to operation of the instrumentalities re
'
ject of the invention is to provide a combined sponsive to the second gauge, and 5, illustrating
Fig. 15 is a view similar to Fig.
caliper and steadyrest: Other objects will be
in part obvious or in part pointed out hereinafter.
The invention accordingly consists in the fea
20
tures of construction, combinations of elements
and arrangements of parts, as will be exempli?ed
in the structure to be hereinafter described, and
the scope of the application of which will be in
the following claims.
2 dicatedin
In the accompanying drawings, in which is
shown one of various possible‘embodiments of
the mechanical features of this invention,
Fig. 1 is a verticalsectional view of a grinding
30 machine constructed in accordance with the in
vention,
‘
Fig. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary 'view of the
' calipering device shown in contact with the work
piece,
Fig. 3 is a view on an enlarged scale of a por
tion of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1, being a
vertical sectional view through the table and
associated parts and showing the calipering ap
40
paratus vin side elevation,
Fig. 4 is a plan view of the calipering device,
certain hydraulic mechanisms being shown in
' section, and the scale being substantially that of
Fig. 3,
'
a modi?cation of the invention.
' Referring ?rst to Fig. 1, the invention may be
embodied in many different types of grinding
machines, but so far as certain. features thereof
are concerned it is embodied in any type of grind
ing machine for the grinding of convex cylindri
cal surfaces. So far as certain features of the
invention are concerned it may be embodied in .
a center cylindrical grinding machine adapted to I
grind by the so-called “plunge-cut” method; and
the speci?c embodiment will be so described. By
“plunge-cut” I mean grinding in which the wheel 30
and the work piece move relatively to each other
by~a substantially continuous motion without a
wide relative traverse between the wheel and’
work, although a limited reciprocation or traverse '
may be employed in order to eliminate or reduce ‘
grinding lines. In such a machine, increments
of transverse or cutting feed are usually not allo
cated to any particular phase of the reciprocating ,
or traverse motion, if any.
Referring now to Fig. 1, I providea machine ' 40
base 20 of any desired structure on the front part
of which may be ways 21 and 22 for the support
of a work carriage 23." Adjustably fastened to
the carriage 23 is a work table 241 having ways
25 and 26 for the support of a headstock 2V and
Fig. 6 is a view substantially on the scale of . a tailstock, not shown. The headstock 21 has, as
Fig. 4 of the calipering device, looking from the shown in Fig. ‘I, a center 28, and the tailstock
has a center 29; the center 28 is mounted in a
work piece toward the front of themachine,
Fig. '7 is a fragmentary front elevation of’ the work driving spindle upon one end of which is
a driving plate 30 having slots ii to receive the 6.0
front of the machine showing the calipering ap
Fig. 5 is a detail axial sectional view of the
electrode calipering element and its mounting,
paratus,
usual work driving dog. The spindle, not shown,
'
Fig. 8 is a side elevation of one calipering de
vice showing different positions of the wiper,
Fig. 9 is a vertical sectional view taken on the
line 9-—9 of Fig. 3,
'
may be driven by 'a belt and pulley or a motor
or in any other desired manner. It will be ap
preciated that the foregoing represents the usual
elements in a plain cylindrical grinding machine
2
2,102,518
and any variations or changes may be made
therein within the scope of this invention, and
‘I6 of. which is mounted a pinion gear ‘11 which
' meshes with a large gear 18 mounted on shaft ‘I6
any other means for holding and rotating a to which is fastened a pinion gear 86 meshing
work piece 32 may be employed, for example a,
with a rack 8| fastened to the underside ‘of the
work. gripping chuck might be used.‘ The appa-' carriage
23. ~'I'he:carriage 23 and therefore the
ratus shown is capable of supporting long work table 24 may be moved to any position at any 5
pieces and is capable of adjustment for differ
time by rotation of the hand wheel 15.
ent sizes of work pieces in so much as the head
So far as certain aspects of the invention are
stock 21 and the tailstock, not shown, may‘ be
concerned, the sizing mechanism maybe applied
and there securely clamped in place.
ing machines,v but it is particularly applicable in
10 moved along the table 24 to any desired position
Still referring to Fig. 1,lI'provide a grinding
wheel‘35. This wheel 35 may be mounted upon
a spindle 36 which is journaled in bearings, not
15 shown, in a wheel head 31»; to the spindle 36 is
attached a pulley 38 connected to a pulley 39 by
means of one or more belts 46, the pulley 39 being
driven by a motor 4I. Thus the grinding wheel
35 is driven at the desired peripheral velocity, and
so far as this invention is concerned any type of
wheel drive may be employed.
'
The wheel head 31 is mounted upon a feed slide
42 which is mounted upon ways, not shown, on
the machine base 26, and which ways are formed
25 to permit movement of the slide 42 perpendicular
to or combined with many other types of grind
10
connection with andvin combination with a grind
ing machine having some of the elements and
features of that above . described.
Considering
now the sizing apparatus which is ‘more specifi
cally the subject matter of the present invention,
and referring ?rst to Fig.‘ 3, I provide upper and
lower angle calipering plates I66 and IN respec
~tively which together
_
with a central electrode
calipering rod, I 62 constitute a Y-gauge or caliper
ing-device for setting into action certain instru
mentalities when the work piece reaches a de
sired size. Referring now to Fig. 4, so far as cer
tain features of the invention are concerned and
to achieve the control hereinafter speci?ed, I
to the "axis of the work piece 32. Still referring to ' provide similar sets of the Y-gauging instrumen
Fig. 1, on the under side of the slide 42 is a half
talities, there being a second upper angle caliper
ing plate MM, and as shown in Fig. 6 a second
rectilinear movement may begiven for advancing lower angle calipering plate ‘ I6Ia, and a second
30 and retracting the grinding wheel automatically,
electrode calipering rod I62a. Figs. 4 and 6 show
and to which angular movement may be given the relative position of these parts.
for manually moving the grinding wheel and for
Referring now to Figs. 3 and 4, the'upper plates
nut 45 which engages a feed screw 46- to which
compensating for wheel reduction due to normal
Wear or dressing or truing thereof. More speci?
cally, and according to this particular embodi
30
I66 and "I611.v are respectively mounted on verti
cally slidable slide blocks I63 and I 63a. ‘Similarly
the lower angle calipering plates IM and I6Ia. are "
ment of the invention, I may provide a slide block respectively fastened to vertically slidable blocks
41 to which one endof the feed screw 46 is ~c0n- - I64.and I64a. Referring now to Figs. 3. 4, and 9,
nected by journals, not shown, the slide block 41
being Ikeyed by means of a key and spline 46, 49 I provide vertical slidewaysl'65 and I65a on op
40 to .a guide member 56 provided in the machine posite sides of central gauging supporting mem
bers I66 and I66a respectively; these slideways 40
frame, and the slide block 41 being connected by
means of a piston rod 5| to a piston 52 in a ?uid
pressure cylinder 53 which is-closed by cylinder
heads 54 and 55. Movement of the piston 52 in
45 the cylinder 53 carries the grinding wheel 35 to
ward and away from the work piece 32.
are dovetailed slideways cooperating with dove
tailed portions of the respective slides _I63, I64,
I63'a and I64a. The slideway I65 supports the
slides I63 and I64 while the slideway I65a sup
ports the slides I63a and I64a.
Referring now to Figs. 3 and 9., passing through
nuts “6', III formed on the inside portions of the
slides I63 and I64 respectively is a single adjust
ing screw shaft II2 having a knurled-head I I3.
Considering now the mechanism for manually
moving the slide 42, and still referring to Fig. l,
upstanding from a central horizontal frame mem
50 ber 26a_ is a journal 51 which journals a sleeve 58
- The upper portion of the screw shaft II2 has a
to which is fastened a gear 59-. An extension 46a right-hand screw thread, and the lower portion 50
of the screw shaft 46 is splined by means of a key
thereof has a -left-hand screw thread, whereby
turning of the knurled head II3 adjusts one slide
upwardly and the other slide downwardly. Stat
this in another way, clockwise rotation, Fig. 4,
the machine frame. Fastened to the shaft '62 is ' ing
of the head II3 separates the slides I63 and I64, a gear 65 which meshes with a gear 66 fastened
while counterclockwise rotation of the head II3
to a shaft 61 which is journaled in journals 68 brings
them together. The screw shaft I I2 has a‘
and 69 in the machine frame. I provide a hand bearing portion II 4 between
the right-hand and
60 wheel ‘I6 fastened to the shaft 61 for rotating the
left-hand threads which passes through a journal
66 to the sleeve 58. The gear 59 meshes with a
gear 6| which is fastened to the end of a shaft 62
55 that is mounted in suitable bearings 63 and 64 in
train of gearing described. Rotation of the hand
wheel ‘I6 procures' rotation of the feed screw 46;
and it is noted that the thrust on the feed screw
is taken by the ?uid in the cylinder 53. Fluid
65 pressure actuation of the piston 52 procures trans
lation of the nut 45 by translation of the feed
screw 46, and the portion 46a may move in the
sleeve 58.
>
.
60
H5, and in the bearing H4 is a groove H6 in '
which ?ts the end of a stud I II for awurate loca
tion of the screw shaft II2.
'
Referring now to Fig._ 4, there is a knurled
head II3a of a screw shaft “2;: for similar
adjustment of the slides I 63a and I64a, and the
construction, mounting and arrangement of the
Considering now the control of the carriage 23, parts for the left-hand gauging instrumentalities
70 I may provide any mechanism for this purpose, is the same as that already described for the
such as mechanical power feed or hydraulic feed, right-hand gauging instrumentalities. Once a
but so far as certain features of the invention are desired position of adjustment of the angle cali
concerned a manual adjusting apparatus may be pering plates has been achieved for either gauge,
used. Referring now to Figs. 1 and '7, I show a the parts may be locked in position, for example
table positioning hand wheel 15 upon the shaft by means of wedge clamps I25, I26 (Fig. 7), I25a.
‘ 3
2,102,518
and I26a operated by ‘screw members 121, I28, cult through the terminal I 4|‘ as will be herein
I2‘Ia, and_|20a respectively.
I -
Considering now either set of anglecalipering
' after described. ,
The invention'contemplates certain instrumene
plates, once they have been brought to adjusted,’ talities and safeguards to avoid possible variations
in accurate sizingldue to arcing at the point ofv 5
position and clamped there they constitute a Y
gauge. As will behereinafter described, I prefer contact between the electrode rods I02 and I02a
to provide instrumentalities for the adjustment and also due to possible short circuiting through
of the gauge in a vertical direction so that the the coolant fluid, which is usually water. vIn the
bisector of the angle subtended by the gauge - preferred'embodiment of the invention 'I avoid 10
arcing by utilizing very- weak currents of low
10 plates will pass through the axis of the work
piece. Rather than depend upon an absolute
adjustment, however, I prefer to make the ulti
electromotive force, together with electronic am
plifying. apparatus to'set into operation electricalv
instrumentalities of 'su?icient power to operate
a heavy solenoid. With regard to the water, it
upon the work piece. In order that‘ wear of the ‘ may be mentioned that water not containing .a
substantial amount of ions is not a good conduc
angle calipering plates may be reduced to a mini
tor of electricity.’ Consequently I propose to take
mum I prefer to embody them in separate detach
advantage of the fact that a great increase of
‘abl pieces made of some hard material, for ex
‘the current ?owing through the electrodes I02
amp e hardened tool steel, Stellite, tungsten car
bide, tantalum carbide, or boron carbide. I prefer and I02a respectively will occur upon the contact '
' the latter substance as it is extremely ha'rd'and thereof with the workpiece. But furthermore
'I prefer to keep the stream of water away from
can be formed to the desired shape.
_
the electrodes as much as possible, and to this
As three points determine a circle. the respec
tive electrode calipering rods‘ I02 and I02a will end I have provided the wiping and sealing appa
mate vholding means for the gauges flexible to
‘ such an extent that each gauge will center itself
contact the work piece at some de?nite diameter ‘
ratus now to be described.
-
,
thereof, depending upon their ‘positions of adjust
ment. Furthermore, the gauging instrumentali
As shown in Fig, 2, I provide a rubber sleeve
' be described for the callpering rod I02; and refer
of rubber or other ?exible material. On the end
I 44 fitting the electrode I 02 and secured thereto
ties‘described are independent of expansion and by a ring I45, which sleeve, in contact with the
contraction of supporting parts and independent .work piece 32, operates'as a cup to exclude water 30
from the area enclosed by it. Iv further provide
30 of vibration or spring or other causes of malad
justment. A practical calipering device ‘for a a slot I46 to drain away any moisture which gets
grinding machine ought to caliper .to a size of past the cup M4. The electrode rod I02c has a
the order, of plus or minus .0002" or .0003”. similar member I44a attached to it, see Fig.6.
Referring now to Figs. 8 and 9, mounted‘onv
Therefore, the gauges of the invention which
the gauge supporting. member I06a is a bracket
' vcaliper by the geometric arrangement of instru
I48 supporting a pin I4'I upon which is pivotally
mentalities rigidly clamped in position in a gaug
ing head of small magnitude present marked mounted a. lever I49. At that end of the lever
I49 which is nearest to the work piece 32 is
advantages over certain previous types.
mounted a splash plate I50 on the bottom‘ of
Considering now the adjustment of the elec
40 trode calipering rods' I02 and I02a, which will which is a wiper member I5I, preferably made 40
of the lever I49 opposite the splashplate I50 I
which as described constitutes the base for the , provide a projection I 52 which is positioned to
support of the slides I03 and I04 which support contact, ,an inclined member‘ I53 mounted on a
45 the angle calipering plates, has a horizontal bore cylinder head I54. When, as will be hereinafter 45
I30 of considerably larger diameter than that of ‘described, the gauging member i06a moves for
the calipering rod I02, and inwhich bore I30 wardly relative to the cylinder head I54, the lever
I49 is rocked by engagement .of the projection
the calipering rod I 02 is located. The rod I02
is supported spaced from and insulated from I52. with the inclined member ' I53, and this not
50 the metal of the base I06 by means of an insu- ' only moves the wiper I5I forwardly, but also
lating bushing I3I at one end of the bore7 I30, swings it downwardly to engage the work piece
the bore being slightly enlarged at that point, 32. The plate I50 and wiper I5I are of su?icient
and by an insulating bushing I32 at the other width in the direction of the work piece axis to ‘
shield both rod terminals I02 and "Ma.
end thereof, the bore I30 being also and sub
Referring now to Figs. 3, 4, and '7, mounted 55
55 stantially more enlarged at the other end. Be
ring more particularly to Fig. 5, the member I06
tween the insulating bushing I3I and the rod - upon the machine base 20 is a bracket I55 which ,
I 02 is a metal supporting sleeve I33 to reduce
wearing of the parts, and in the bushing I32 is
a nut I34 through which passes "a screw threaded
50 portion I35 of the electrode I02.
I provide a
‘knurled insulating head I36 for the screw portion
has horizontal guideways I56. ‘I provide a slide
I5I mounted in the guideways‘ I56, which slide‘
I5I has an upwardly and rearwardly extending
support I5‘Ia. Secured to the under side of the 60.
slide I51, as better shown in Fig. 3, is a nut I56. '
I35 and a check nut I31 with a knurled insu~ ‘ On the front of bracket I55 I provide a split jour
lated head I38 in order to lock the rod I02 in'
any desired position of adjustment after it has
been adjusted by. turning the head I36.
As hereinafter more fully described in connec
tion with the electrical actuating apparatus, the
nal I59,v I60, supporting‘an adjusting screw I6I
the screw threaded part of which is engaged by
the nut I50, and axial motion of the screw shaft 65
I6I relative to the bracket I55 is-prevented by
collars I62 and I62a. By turning the square end
gauges ‘of ‘the invention operate by closing an of' the shaft I6i, as with a wrench or the like,
electric circuit through contact with the work the slide I57 may be adjusted forwardly or rear
piece, and accordingly I provide a contactor I40 - wardly of the machine, and when the desired po 70
having a terminal IIII, the contactor being ' sition of adjustment is achieved the parts may
mounted in an insulating holder I42 and spring be securely clamped in position by means of a
vhand screw I63, see Figs. 3 and '7. Referring to
pressed by means of a spring I43 into engage
Figs. 3 and 4, secured to the upper end of the up
ment with the rod I02. Thus the rod I02 is insu
wardly extending portion I5'Ia is a cylinder I60
lated from the machine but is connected in cir
2,102,51a
the purpose of which will be presently explained.
This cylinder has cylinder heads I54 and I65'on
therein cylinders 2 I3 and 2 I4, and the portion 2“
supportinga cylinder block 2 I5 having therein a
either/end thereof.
>
cylindrical bore 2I6. In the cylinder 2I3 is a pis
Considering now the ?uid pressure actuation’ ton 2I1v and in the cylinder 2“ is a piston2l8
of the cross slide 42, as well as other ?uid pressure connected by piston rods 2I9 and 228 ‘respectively
‘apparatus, and referring more particularly to ‘to a cross piece‘ 228a which is rigidly attached
Figs. 1 and 11, integrally formed with the base 28 to the central gauging supporting member I86.
is a ?uid reservoir I 68 for the collection and sup
In the cylinder 2| 6 is'a piston 22I connected by
ply of oil or other ?uid used in the ?uid pressure
10 operating apparatus. I ‘provide a pump I89
which may be of any suitable type and driven
from any source of power, not shown. ' A main
means of a piston rod 222 to the central gauging
supporting member I86a. Referring to Fig. 11, 10
pressure ?uid may at all times ?ow from the main
supply line I18 into a pipe 223 and through .a
pressure line I18 receives ?uid from the pump restricted ori?ce valve 224 to piping 225 leading
I69, and shunted into the line I18 is a pressure to the front end of each of- the cylinders 2“ and
15 ‘relief valve I1I of any usual or desired type.‘ I
2I6. Thus at all times the central gauging sup 15
provide a valve casing I12 having an internal cyl
porting members I86 and I86a are urged rear
indrical bore, the ends of which are blocked by wardly of thernachine, that is toward the work
valve heads I13 and I14,’ the head I14 being in piece, but- with the piston 285 in the position
the form of a cover plate and the valve casing I12 ‘shown in Fig. 11. The gauges are nevertheless
20 being supported by it. I provide a valve rod I15
not in contact with the work. The ?uid pressure 20
having spaced piston portions I15a, I'I5b, I150, means embodied in the cylinders 2I4 and 2 I6 and
- and I15d.1 The valve rod I15 extends through the
pistons 2I8 and 22I are provided in order to effect
cylinder heads I13 and I14 and is connected to a pressure contact of the gauges against the work
a hand operating lever I16, as shown in Fig. 1. piece and to allow the gauging instrumentalities
25 That partof the valve rod I15 which is outside of to follow up the work as vit is reduced in diameter. 25
the_valve head I13 has a plurality .of notches I11, Furthermore, by means of the cylinder 2I3 and
‘I18, and I19 for‘engagement by a detent I88
which is pressed into engagement with one of the
notches by a spring I8I in a detent casing I82.
30 Connected to the valve rod I15 at its rear end is
a lever I83 pivotally mounted on a pin I84 sup
ported by a bracket I85 projecting’ upwardly from
the machine base 28, and this lever is automati
cally operated during a cycle of machine opera
35 tion, as will be hereinafter described. '
Still referring to Figs. 1 and 11, on the rear of
the machinekI provide another valve casing I86
having heaQsJN and.|88. In the casing I86,
piston 2I1_I am enabled to withdraw the right
hand gauging instrumentalities prior to with
drawal of the left-hand gauging instrumen
talities, by ?uid pressure actuation, in so much as 30
'the diameter of the piston 2 I 1 is greater than that .
of the pistoii 2I8. But with the parts in the con—
dition shown in Fig. 11, the front end of cylinder
2I3 is opened to the exhaust as follows:
Piping 238 connects the front end of the cyl 35
inder 2I3 to piping 23I which leads to a port 232
which, with the wheel and gauges retracted, reg
isters with groove I9I which, therefore, connects
port 232 to a port 233 towhich is connected pip
the bore of which is cylindrical, is a piston I89
40 having annular grooves I98 and I9I. The piston ing 234 which connects to piping 235 which leads 40
"I89 is urged upwardly by means of a spring I92 to the reservoir I68.‘
,
located between the bottom of the piston I89 and i
Assuming that the operator has placed an
the head I88.
-
With the machine parts in the position shown
45 in Fig. 1, that is to say with the grinding wheel 35
retracted from the‘ work piece and with the cali
pering plates I88 and I880, and associated parts
also withdrawn, the various instrumentalities of‘
the ?uid pressure actuating apparatus are in the
50 respective positions vthereof shown in Fig. 11. Fig.
1 also illustrates to a certain extent the positions
of the various parts between grinding operations.
Referring, therefore, particularly to Fig. 11, and
also to Fig. 1, and describing a condition of static
55 pressure. as a ?ow of the pressur'e'?uid through.
the channels through which it ?ows while it is
actuating the parts, the pressure .?uid ?ows from’
the pump I69 along piping I18 and 288 to an en
trance port 28I in the cylinder I12 and thence by
unground work piece 32 between the centers 28
and 29 and caused the driving spindle and driv
ing plate 38 to revolve, when he wishes to cause
the grinding operation to commence he draws
the lever I16 forwardly to the ‘position where
the detent I88 engages the notch I18, and this
causes both sets of gauging instrumentalities to
advance into contact with the work piece as 50
follows:
‘
Referring now to Fig. 12, the port 282 is now
disconnected from the port 28I but the piping
248 which connects to the rear end of the cylinder 53 is not connected to the pressure-side so 55
there is no tendency for the wheel slide to move
forward. Instead, both sides of the cylinder 53
are connectedto the reservoir I68, the front side
by way of piping 283, port 282, port 24I and
60 an exit port 282 along piping 283 to, the front end
piping _235, and the rear side by way of piping 60
of cylinder 53, thus holding the wheel slide re- ' 248, check valve 242, piping, 243, piping 244, port
tracted. There is a shunt pipe 284 connectedto
the pipe 283 which leads the ?uid to the rear end
of the cylinder I64 in which is located a piston 285
65 connected by means of a piston rod 286 to a cross
head 281'in which are slidably supported the cen
tral gauging supporting member I86 and I86a, all
as more‘ clearly shown in Fig. 4. Thus with the
piston 285 inthe position shown in Fig. 11, the
70 cross head 281 is forwardly ofthe machine, that
is retracted with respect to the work piece,‘ and
both gauges are withdrawnn
_
Connected to the cross head 281 are forwardly
245, port 246 and piping 241 to piping 235. 'The
port 28I is, however, connected to port 258 which
is connected by way of piping 25I through a re
stricted ori?ce valve 252 to the front end of the 65
cylinder I64, which forces the piston 285 rear
wardly. At the same time, pressure is admitted
through piping 223, restricted orl?ce valve ‘224,
and piping 225 to the front ends of the cylinders
2I4 and 2I6 so that, as the cross head 281 and,
therefore, the portions 2I8 and. 2H and the
cylinder blocks 2I2 and 2I5 are moved toward
the work pieces, the central gauging supporting
extending portions..2l8 and‘ 2| I,_the portion 2I8 - members I86 and I86a are likewise carried for
supporting a cylinder block 2I2 having formed
ward, but as soon as the respective gauges con
75
5
.
, 2,102,618
der 53 causing the grinding wheel to approach
tact the work- piece they and their supporting
the work piece until such time as the work piece
is reduced sufficiently in diameter to cause the
right-hand gauge electrode I62 to contact the
work piece 32; whereupon a very minute current
members I66 and I661; may stop while the rest
of. the parts move forwardly responsive to move
ment of the piston 265.
'
.
I
It is desirable that the operator be‘ able to
?ows through the electrode I62 which, being
move‘ the gauges into position without moving
the grinding wheel, in order to set up the ma
chine, including the adjustment of the gauges
duly ampli?ed, causes energization by a strong
current. of a solenoid 215‘ which draws down- _
wardly a solenoid core 216 which is attached to
a rod 211 integral with the valve member I89, 10
and for other purposes, ‘and in the machine‘ of
the invention the gauges may be moved back and
forth prior to the commencement of grindingv thus moving the valve member I89 downwardly,
and following this occurrence the pressure ?uid
‘ anynumber of times, by moving the hand lever
instrumentalities are in the condition shown in
I16 between its full line position, Fig. 1, and the
intermediate dotted line position there shown.
Fig. 14, as
follows:
,
l
'
\
>
Pressure is still admitted through the pipe 225 15
as
already explained, but pressure is admitted to
grinding operation to'commence, whether the
gauges have been previously advanced or not, he 'the'r-ear end of the cylinder bore 2I3 thus mov-'
moves the lever I16 to the left-hand dotted line - lngthe piston 2I1 forwardly, which moves the
position, Fig. 1, thus moving the notch‘ I16 under central gauging supporting member I66 to the 20
the detent I66, and this brings the grinding front of the machine, withdrawing the right—
,wheel 35 against the work piece 32 to'start the handset of gauging‘instrumentalities'from the
grinding operation, the pressure ‘fluid apparatus work piece. This action can take placeby rea-'
having moved and being then and thereafter son of the differential in sizes of the pistons 211.
until further actuation in ‘the condition shown and 2I6. The pressure ?uid reaches the rear of
the cylinder bore 2I3 by way of piping I16, pip 25
in Fig.' 13, as follows:v
' ‘
ing
266, port 26I, port 245, piping 244,, shunt
‘Fluid is still admitted to piping 25I and ?uid
is still admitted to piping 225, thus the condi-_ piping 218, port 219‘, groove I9I, pc 266, shunt
Whenever 'the, operator wishes to cause the
‘I
‘ tion of. the gauging instrumentalities remains > piping 281 and the piping 236. It wil be noted
.
the same. But ?uid is now admitted to the port from inspection of Fig. 14 that the valve I15 is 30
in
the
same
position
it
was
while
the
grinding
245 and, by way of 'piping 244, to a port 266.
wheel was moving toward the work-piece.
Opposite to the port 266 is a port 26I connecting
by way of piping 262 to the piping 246 which, as
will be remembered, connects to the far end of
.
'The'grindlng wheel is now prevented from
further approaching the work piece, but grinding
continues by reason of the pressure set up in
moved the lever I16 to the most forward position, ,_ the machine and such grinding is usually termed -
the cylinder v53. Immediately the operator has
“sparking out”. The second gauge point I62a
is set so that when the work piece is brought to
the piston I89 is in, the position shown in Fig. 12,
' and the groove ‘I96 ‘connects the ports 268 and
26I to allow the ?uid to» ?ow, and furthermore,
the desired finished size, it will contact there-ev
with. During the ?nish grinding, while the ?nal
to allow an unrestricted ?ow. ‘ Referring now to
and. ?nishing cuts are being taken on the work 40
Figs. 1 and 13, the piston rod 5I extends rear
wardly of the machine and has located thereon
piece, this being a gradually dying-out grinding
operation, the right-hand gauging instrumen
a cam 263 and a trip block 264', and the cam 263
talities including the electrode I62 are removed
is preferably adjustable upon the piston ,rod 5|.
from the work piece. This avoids undue wear
of the gauging apparatus. When the electrode 45
In‘ the path of ,the cam 263 is a knob 265‘ on the
end of a screw 266 which ‘is adjustably' mounted
. on. the upper end of the piston I68; downward
162a contacts with the work piece, a very weak
movement of the knob 265 moves the piston I66
to the} position shown in Fig. 13, or other de
and a current backed by a. strong electromotive
current ?ows therethrough which is ampli?ed
force energizes a. solenoid 282 which has a core
sired [adjusted position, to restrict the‘l?ow- of
?uid from port ,266 to port 26I and therefore
cause'a, slow or feeding movement of the cross
‘slide to effect the desired grinding operation.
283 which is'connected by means of a link 284 50,
to the lever I63. Movement of the solenoid core
263 swings the lever I63 to the position ‘shown
The cam 263 will ordinarily
adjusted so that in Fig; 1, thus moving the valve *I15'back to. its
original position, causing the piston 265 to move'
the cross slide is slowed down ' just prior to ,
forwardly
retracting the entire gauging head,
actual contact between the grinding wheel and which has and
the effect of moving. the second gauge
the work piece. By the provision of thismecha
away from the work piece; ‘at the vsame time
nism I am enabled to avoid loss of time in bring
ing the grinding wheel into contact with the ?uid is admitted to the vfront of the piston 52‘,
workpiece, and at the same time I procure the retracting the grinding wheel 35 from 'the work
desired slow movement of othe cross slide for the ,
preliminary {feeding ‘operation .tol ’ reduce~ the
work piece in diameter.
'
_
.
\ W
_
_ Considering now more particularly the con
struction of the valve I66, it includes apoppet
valve portion 216 and the valve- casing I66 has a
., seat 2" for the portion 216 so that, ‘when the
_- valve I69 is moved to its lowermost position the
ports 266 and 2_6I are separated by a‘?uid pres
sure" seal which permits no ?uid to pass through;
with the parts in the position-of Fig. 13, how
ever, fluid can ?ow slowly through va narrow
‘slot .212 in‘ a cylindrical/portion‘ of the member
I69 just below the‘lpoppet' valve portion 216.
The grinding operation proceeds by the slow ‘ '
entrance of ?uid into the rear end of the cylin
piece.
.
60
Considering still furtherthe ?uid pressure ap
paratus, the check valve 242 is provided 'so that,
during the normal grinding operation, prior to
contact of eithergauge electrode, the ,?uid will
be forced to go through the restricted-passage
2611 rather than by way of piping ‘246; on the
other hand, when the-wheel slide isv-moved away.
from the work piece, it is desired that the move
vment be a'rapid one, unimpeded by any resist-r, ance atv the start thereof, andi‘ac'cordingly check 70
valve 242 and piping 246 is a shunt between the
rear side of the cylinder 53 and‘ the piping 244
and thus, to the port 245 which, when the valve
I15 .is. in its initial, position, is connected to the
reservoir I66.
The’ valve 252 is an adjustable '
6
9,1025 18
valve and therefore, if desired, the approach of
the gauges toward the work piece may be at a.
1 very slow rate, and at the same time the operator
may move the lever I16 from the upright posi
5 tion to the extreme forward position with a sin
and 828a which are connected by conductors 888
and-880a to radiofrequency choke coils 88l .and
881a and thence by way of conductors 882 and
882a to sensitive relay coils 888 and 8884. The
otherside of the relay coils‘ is connected by con
gle motion; under such circumstances the grind ' ductors 884 and 884a to the line‘805. Main
ing 'wheel 85 will contact the work piece before power line 806 is grounded, as shown, at885.
the gauges contact it, and it is desired to be. The reason for the inductance 821 and variable
;\able to control the machine this way‘ for grind ‘condenser 828 is to tune the'plate circuit into
ing rough work pieces that have not been pre
resonance with the grid circuit, thereby permit ll
viously ground or have not even been previously
machined, in order to avoid undue wear of the
gauging instrumentalities by work pieces having
an excessive amount of scale or other foreign
15
hard matter thereon, or which are unduly rough
or irregular.
‘
ting the tube to oscillate. The amount, of cur
rent v‘flowing through the electrode I02 can be
adjusted by the rheostat M9. The foregoing
characteristics are also true of the inductance
821a, variable‘condenser828a and the rheostat
8| 9a, respectively. For each circuitI-provide a
Considering now the manner and means by grounded by-pass condenser 886 and 886a, re
which contact of the electrode I02 or the elec
trode l02a sets in operation the various instru- '
spectively.
_
v
,
a
,
.
The sensitiverelays 888 and 888a respectively
20 mentalities described by energizing respectively
have
swit es 881 and 881a, one side con
the solenoids 215 and 282, and referring more nectedrelay
by cond ctors 888 and 888a to the power
particularly to the diagrammatic view of Fig. 10,
805 and the other side connected by‘ conduc
with reference to Fig. 1 for certain mechanical \iine
tors 889 and 889a to relays 840 and 840a. Conduc
instrumentalities, the right-hand end of piston tors
8“ and 84|a connect the other side of these
25' rod 5l- has thereon a trip block 294 and below it
is a switch box 296 adjustablye supported by relay coils to the power line 806. Thus when
means of a bracket 29'! attached to the valve
casing I86. ,In the switch box 296 is a switch
lever 298 mounted on a trunnion pin 29,9 and
30 having on its upper and left-hand end a roller
‘800. A spring 80l urges the lever 298 in a
either one of the sensitive relays is ‘energized,
a power circuit through the relay controlled by
it is closed, and/this closes one or the other of
knife switches 848 and 848a.‘ The knife ‘switch
848 controls ‘operation of solenoid ,215, while
clockwise direction, while a block 802 acts as a the knife switch 848a controls operation of the
stop to inhibit movement beyond the limit shown solenoid 282. One end of each. of these knife
in Figs. '1 and .10. The right-hand end of lever switches is connected by conductors 844 and 8440
35 298.carries an insulated contact strip 808 adapted respectively to the power line ‘806, and the other
to contact a strip 804. Except when‘ the roller ends ‘of the knife switches 848 and 848a’ are
connected by conductors 845 and 845a respec
800 ‘is depressed by the trip block 294, the cir
cuit is open between contact strips 808 and 804, _ tively' to thesolenoids 215 and 282, the other
but whenever the trip blockv 294 rides over the ' sides of the solenoid coils being‘ connected by
means of conductors 846 and 846a respectively
~
40 ' roller, the circuit is closed.
_
.
I provide any suitable source‘of alternating to the line 805.
Thus when the grinding operation has pro
current, for example 110 volts, 60 cycles, repre
sented on Fig. 1-0 by the main power lines 805, ceeded far enough to cause the electrode I 02 to
contact the work piece 82, the tube 8|4 draws
- 806. Connected across these lines 805 and 806
current which energizes the sensitive relay 888'
4 is a transformer primary 801, by means of con
ductors 808 _and_~809. Similarly, a transformer
primary 801a is connected by conductors 808a
and 809a to/ the power lines 805 and 80.6.
v.
-
which causes. energization of the relay 840‘which
closes a knife switch energizing the solenoid 215.
Furthermore, when the work piece is ?nished and
the electrode I020 contacts the work piece,.the
nected by conductors 8H, 8l2, and .8lla and tube 8l4a‘draws current which energizes the
8|2a respectively to ?laments H8. and 8l8a re sensitive relay ‘888a, this causing energization
spectively of triode tubes 8“ and 8l4a.‘ The of the.relay 840a which closes the knife switch
mid point of the secondaries M0 and 8| 0a are ‘ 848a and operates. the solenoid 282.
When the grinding wheel is approaching the
grounded as shown. '
'
r
work piece, but ‘not actually in contact with it,
The grids M6 and 8|6a of the tubes are con
nected by conductors 811 "and 811a to condensers ' and~also when the grinding wheel isureceding
8I8 and v_8|8a and also non-inductive rheostats from the work. piece, the trip block 294 strikes
8N and 8|9a in parallel. These instrumentali; ' the roller 800 and this closes the circuit between
ties are connected by conductors 820 and 820a to] the contact‘ strips 808 and 804 momentarily.
- Transformer secondaries 810 and 810a are con
6O
60 inductances 82l and 82la which are connected The strip 808 is connected by a conductor“ 850
I by conductors 822 and 8220 to the electrodes I02 to the power line 806, while the strip 804 is con
and “12a by way of‘the terminals I“ .and “la, nected by a conductor v85l to a pair of conductors
as alreadydescribed. Each work piece 82 is, of 852 and 852a leading to solenbids 858 and 868a,
course, ‘grounded by reason ‘of the fact that it is {the other ends of the coils of which are con
1 65 mounted between the centers 28 and 2,8. _ It will nected by ‘conductors 854 and 854a to the power
lines 805. These solenoids Y858 and .8581: are
now bef'seen that when an electrode, for exam
connected
to the knife ‘switches 848 and 848a
ple the electrode I02, touches the work piece 82,
the grid 816 isgrounded through the rheostat 8l9 so”. that when the solenoids‘are energized the
and inductance 82l, and in so much as‘ the mid switches'wiil'be opened. Thus all switches are
opened atthe start and before the start of a
70 point of the transformer M0 is >grounded,vthe grinding
operation. By reason of the provision
triode tube oscillates. In the tube 8“ is a plate%
of the knife switch 848, the solenoid 215 remains 7.
825, and in the tube 814a is a plate 825a. These - energized
even after the electrode I02 has been
plates are respectively connected by conductors a removed from
the work piece by the ?uid pres
826 ‘and 826d to inductances and'variable con
sure withdrawal thereof which waspreviously
" densers in parallelrespectively' 821, 821a, 828, _ describedi ‘Furthermore, even momentary clos
7
arcane
accuracy of “more than ‘.002" 01‘ .003". It is
theoretically possible but practically very dim
cult to .builda machine tool with separate parts
so closely aligned and without the possibility of
ing of the sensitive relay control contact 331a
causes closing of the'knife switch 343a and so‘
the solenoid 282 is operated, if mail, We. steady
and powerful current. The same is true of the
solenoidv 215. But whenever the grinding wheel
misalignment. But the bracket l51a is more or
runsaway from the work piece by retraction of less resilient owing to its length and consequently
the cross feed slide, which is’bound to happen the gauges are self-adjusting upon the work piece
within the limitations of a few thousandths of an
inch and by reason of the pressure exerted upon
when the solenoid 282 is energized, both knife
switches are opened by the automatic means
10,
herein described.
'
them. The bracket IB'la is preferably‘made of
'
steel or malleable iron so as to allow it to be
A particular feature of the invention resides in
the fact that the metallic contact electrodes
are in contact with the work piece, during each
particular grinding operation, for an instant
slightly bent to bring the‘ central‘ plane of the
gauging headsto that position where they will
most readily adjust themselves upon the work
‘only, and consequently wear thereof is mini
.mized. Another feature of the invention resides
in the fact that the gauging apparatus is not
‘dependent upon the relation of some machine
part connected through the machine base and
carriages and tables to the work piece, but a
true gauging operation upon the work piece itself
is. effected. Nevertheless the only ‘elements '
which continuously contact the work piece, viz.
the plates I80, IOI, lilila, l?la, do not transmit
pieces.
}
v’
1
Anotherv feature of the invention lies in the
fact that it is possible to bring the .wheel into
contact with the work piece before the gauges
and, on the other hand, it is possible to bring '
the gauges into contact with the work piece be 20
fore the. wheel. Fk'iirthermoraby shifting the le
ver i16,'the gauges can be moved against and
away from the work piece as many times as de
sired without causing engagement of the work '
piece by the grinding wheel. This feature is of
electricity and may be made of any hard and
wear resistant substance as already stated. By
reason of the provision of electronic amplifying.
apparatus a current so small that it will not arc
importance in setting up the machine for a cer-'
tain size of work piece. '
-
_.
Still another feature of the invention resides in
the use of the flat contact'plates I00 and it'll
is all that is. carried by the electrodes, and
30
30 nevertheless this is ampli?ed and operates relays ~ which may be made of _ boron carbide or other
hard material and which, therefore, will not
scratch the work piece. These plates I00 and I0!
and the corresponding plates .illila and "Na act
to operate the machine, controlling solenoids
with a full strength and dependable current. By
\ reason of the provision of the rheostats 3l9 and
sensitive relays. 333, the apparatus can be adjust- 1 as steady rests since they are urged against the '
ed so that it will‘ not be operated by whatever work piece by ?uid under pressure. Thus the
apparatus is not only a gauging apparatus but
current leaks through the grinding water but
only-when actual metal contact is made.
-
Another‘ feature of the invention resides in the
also acts as a steadyrest.
The automatic advance or withdrawal of ‘the
gauges separately and together is a feature con
fact that there are no moving parts ‘in the call
tributing to make the machine automatic and, 40
pering
head
which
move
during
the
calipering.
40
operation. The calipering head as a whole'is furthermore, wear upon the electrodes is reduced
urged towards the work piece and, while it is‘ to an absolute minimum by reason of the’fact
gauging, each Y-gauge'mechanism is maintained that the barest contact of each with the work
piece is all that takes place during the grinding
' against the work piece. While both the head as
and gauging of that work-piece. _
_
45' a whole and each gauge separately are individu
.Still another feature -of the invention resides
ally movable, ‘nevertheless the relative position
- of the Y-gauge parts remains ?xed during a given in the organization of they gauging apparatus
whereby the operator is allowed full and free
machine operation. Furthermore, means for rig
access to the work piece‘ to inspect the same
idly attaching and securely anchoring the sev
moreover, the operator is not interfered 50
50 eral parts of each gauge mechanism has been and,
with in the loading of the machine. In the em
shown and described. The result is that varia
bodiment of the invention described there are‘
tions in gauging due to stresses within the gaug
practically no overhead parts.
ing parts are practicallyeliminated.
'
It has already .been mentioned that the gaug
Another feature of the invention resides in the '
-ing. apparatus also acts as a steadyrest. Itsac
55 means for ready adjustment of the calipering
head toward and from the machine centers," tion as a steadyrest is enhanced by reason‘ of the
and 29. This is a feature of practical importance fact that it is‘ always located opposite the wheel.
in so much as itpermits the calipering device to Furthermore,‘ this permits the use 'of the ap
be set up for many di?erent sizes of work pieces. paratus describedin connection with a grinding
operation in" which a relative traverse between
60 This feature is, as already described, independ
wheel and work piece is employed. If the work
' ent of the automatic advance and withdrawal of
piece is a uni-diameter shaft, relative reciproca
the calipering'head by ?uid pressure means.
Along with the feature just mentioned is the - tion between the work piece and the gauges is
adjustability of each Y-gauge. This permits entirely practical in accordance with the disclo
'
each gauge to be individually adjusted for the sure of the present invention 7
Referring now to Fig. 15,'I have therein dis
sizing of different work pieces. Nevertheless, by
means ‘of the wedge clamps, the-parts of each closed a modi?cation of the invention according to
gauge can be so ?rmly secured in position as to which some of the features of advantage already
eliminate variation in the ultimate sizeof a work mentioned though not all thereof are achieved.
The modi?ed apparatus may be'employed espe
cially in cases where dry grinding is practiced
Still another feature of the invention resides and in which the work piece is magnetic so that
chips would be apt to short circuit prematurely
in the fact that the central plane of the elec
7trodes I02 and IBM does not have to be in the the gauging apparatus already described. Re»
horizontal plane of the centers 28 and 29 to an ferring now to Fig. 15, I provide an adjustable 75
piece by slipping of the parts at the adjustable
' connection.
75
8/
9,102,618
screw threaded plug i351: in a sleeve 134a: which
is insulated by insulation I321; theiplug being
held in desired position of adjustment by nut
I311‘. Terminal wire Mix: is insulated from the
machine and connects to the sleeve I 342: and
this terminal wire Illa: is. connected into one
of the circuits'alread‘y described as was either
of the terminals “I or Illa. ‘In place of the'
electrodes I02 and I02a'I provide a contact rod
10 I021: having a tip of hard and insulated mate
rial IIJZy, which material may be boron carbide.
This rod I021: is mounted between a collar i330:
operated upon by the grinding wheel, a. pair of
gauges, a mounting for said gauges to move them
both towards and from a work piece, a further
mounting for one gauge upon the ?rst mounting
permittingv differential positioning of said gauges,
and ?uid pressure means for-moving the ?rst
mounting.
-
-
-
4. In a grinding'machine, a grinding wheel,
means supporting a work piece in position to be
operated upon by the grinding wheel, a pair of ' 10
gauges, a main, support for said gauges, ?uid
‘pressure means to actuate said main support
and the front of the main supporting sleevellliw. ' to carry thegauges toward and away from the
A spring 360 acting against a collar 3“ and re
means supporting the “work piece, a pair of addi
15 acting against the collar I332: urges the rod I023:
tional supports, one for each gauge, mounted 15
toward the work piece. The tip "121:, therefore,
" upon the main support, a pair of individual ?uid
continuously-contacts the work piece, and when
pressure operated devices, one for eachot said
last named supports, urging said supports in
the work piece comes to the desired size, whether
for cessation of cross‘ feed advance or for wheel
20 withdrawal or for other purposes, the rod I022:
the direction of the means to support a work
piece, and further means for withdrawing one 20
strikes the end of the plug 135x, and accordingly
of said last named supports prior to the other
the current through terminal wire mm is
grounded. In this case the actual contact is
made in‘ a closed box amply insulated.
thereof.
'
operated upon by the grinding, wheel, a pair of 25
in the copending application'serial No. 60,479
?led January 23, 1936 of George Crompton, Jr.
and Clarence J. Green, but the subject matter
gauges, a- slide for said gauges, m ans urging
‘the gauges towards the work piece
'
'
'
.
relation to the workpiece, and additional auto 30
It will thus be seen that there has been pro
vided by this invention an apparatus in which
the various objects hereinabove set forth‘ to
gether with many 'th‘oroughly practical advan
35 tages are successfully achieved.
As many-pos- .
sible embodiments may be made of the above
operated upon byvthe grinding wheel, a pair of 35
gauges towards the work piece with respect to
in the embodiment above set forth, it- is to be
said slide, means to move the slide to carry both
of the gauges into and out of operative relation
understood thatall matter hereinbefore set forth
40 or shown in the accompanying drawings is to be
interpreted as illustrative ‘and not in a limiting
to the work piece, and additional automatically 40
operated. ?uid pressure means to move one or
sense.‘ ''
claim’z-
matically operated means to move one of the
gauges on the slide away from the work piece.
6. In a grindingv machine, a grindingwheel,.
means supporting a wcrk piece in position to be
gauges, a slide for said gauges, means urging the
inventionand as many changes might be made
I
1th respect
to said slide, means to move the slide to, carry
both of the gauges into and out‘ of. operative
of the following claims is my own separate in
vention.
.
means supporting a work piecesin position to be
25. -The disclosure herein is identical with that
30
I
5. In a grinding machine, a grinding wheel,
the, gauges on the slide away from the work
,
v
-
piece.
’
\
.
'
1. In a grinding machine, a grinding wheel,
'7. In a grinding machine, a grinding wheel,
45 means supporting a work piece in position to be
)means supporting a work piece in position to be
operated upon by the grinding wheel, a pair of operated upon by the grinding wheel, ‘a. pair
gauges, a support for both of said gauges,‘ means of gauges, 'a slide for said gauges,‘ means urging
urging said support towards the work piece, a the gauges towards the work piece with respect
second support for one gauge mounted upon said to said slide,-'?uid pressure means to move the
?rst support whereby the gauges may. measure slide-to carry both of the gauges, into and out
the work piece to di?erent sizes, and means ‘for. of operative relation to‘ the work piece, and 60
withdrawing the ?rst named support.
_
additional automatically operated means to move
2,.In a grinding machine, a grinding wheel, one of the gauges on the slide away from the
means supporting a work piece in position to be
so operated upon by the grinding ‘wheel, a pair of
8. In a grinding machine, a grinding wheel,
gauges, a support for both gauges,‘ ?uid pressure means supporting a work piece in position to be 55
means to move said support towards and from operated upon by the grinding wheel, a pair‘ of
a work piece, a second support mounted on sa‘d gauges, a slide for said gauges; ?uid pressure
?rst support and-directly connected to one of the means urging the gauges towards the work piece
I gauges, and ?uid pressure means ‘for the second
with respect to said slide, means to move'the slide 60
support upon the ?rst support to urge the gauge to carry both of the gauges into and out of oper
held thereby towards. the work piece allowing ative relation to the work piece, and additional
differential movement of the gauges.
.
automatically operated means to move one of the
3. In a grinding machine, a grinding wheel, gauges on the slide awayv from the work piece.
means supporting a~work piece in position to be
~
work
piece.
’
*
FRANKLIN, E. JOHNSON.
'
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