Патент USA US2102756код для вставки
Dec. 21, 1937. 2,102,756l ` G. A. SMITH Er AL BUILDING BLOCK 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed July 3, 1936 ~ ay w mw alu Z 52 " @if .fm/ef? fom GEOQGE AóM/ïß/ MM TON 5. VAN 0055/5/ by 7646/' Dec. 21, 1937. 2,102,756 G. A. SMITH ET AL BUILDING BLOCK Filed July 3, 1936 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 y w W ßß l.. W . 5. .Í w , H814 In Ve'nïo nö @£0965 A. :JM/TH - M/LTON „5. VAN ¿3l/55N by ?/W/'rÄ/fome/g 5,102,756 Patented Dec. 2l, 1937 ' UNIT-ED STATES PATENT OFFICE BUILDING BLOCK George A. Smith, Chevy Chase, Md., and Milton ' S. Van Dilsen,> Washington, D. C. Application July 3, 1936, Serial No. 88,772 2 Claims. (Cl. 'l2-16) ' (Granted under the act of March 3, 1883, as amended April 30, 1928; 370 O. G. 757) This application is made under the act oi' March which may be suitable for the purpose of construc 3, 1883, as amended by the act of April 30, 1928, tion. and the invention, if patented, may be manu factured' and used by or for the Government for governmental purposes without the payment to us The chamber within the wall structure com prises two air spaces 2I and 22 which are defined by a partition 25. This partition is shown as of any royalty thereon. being approximately in the center of the chamber, ' Our invention relates to the art of insulation, and has particular reference to the thermal in sulation of buildings and other structures. Our invention contemplates a wall structure, but it mayv be varied to be nearer one side of the or cold, moisture, or sound. Hollow structures for ' such purposes have already been known to those skilled in the art, but our invention is an improve structure than the other. 'I'he partition 25 ex tends substantially the length of the wall struc ture perpendicular to the plane of the paper and 10 is supported at the front and rear or top and bot tom by cleats, channel irons, nails, grooves, ad hesive, tie wires, or any other means. The parti tion 25 extends from top to bottom of the air, chamber and may be supported from the horizon- 15 tal supporting members I3 and I4, or the studs , ment thereon and has many advantages, as will be (not shown), or both. and in some cases a floor or ceiling structure, in which air spaces are provided for the purpose of eliminating or reducing the transmission of heat c) The partition 25 is made of any material which is suitable for the purpose of insulation. Conse quently, it may be made of blanket material, fibre 20 should be distinctly understood that the principles board, wood, metal, minerals, water-proofing, or of our invention are applicable to other forms of insulation of any nature whatsoever. Further more, our invention, for the purpose of simplicity, will refer to the insulation of a dwelling which is any other of the long list of appropriate materials. Naturally, if the insulation is to reduce the trans mission of heat, heat-resistant and heat-reflective materials will be employed. With particular ref- 25 erence to thermal insulation, we employ surfaces which are highly reflective, and with this end in view, the partition 25 may consist of metal sheet ing or metal foil, or, as shown in Fig. 2, it may comprise a central supporting member 26, with 30 the reflective insulating materials 2'I and 28 ap plied thereto by adhesive or other means. The at a higher temperature within than without, al though our novel structure will be equally ef ñcacious if the temperatures are the opposite. Also, the invention may be used in refrigerators, 3 O ,storage houses, freight cars, or other structures. ‘ ' Our invention will be readily understood from the accompanying drawings, which show illustra tive examples thereof, it being understood that these examples are not limitative and that de partures therefrom may be made within the scope of the appended claims. Fig. l shows, in vertical partial cross-section, a wall structure in accordance with the principles of our invention. 40 y hereafter set forth. The invention will be described with reference to the thermal insulation of buildings, but it Fig. 2 shows a modiiied form of partition that may be used in the wall structure oi' Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is a vertical cross-section through a pre fabricated building block. Fig. 4 is a modified form of the building block ' shown in Fig. 3. The wall structure of a house is shown in Fig. 1. Wooden sheathing III is nailed or otherwise at tached to the horizontal supporting or framing members I2, I3, and Il. On the outside of the sheathing Ill are applied shingles, siding, or simi lar members I8, and on the inside ofthe wooden members I2, I3, and Il is applied the plaster or similar ñnishing material I9. Obviously, these materials may be brick, metal, stone, or any others partition 25 is apertured at the top and bottom, as shown at 3I and 32 respectively, although there may be a plurality of such apertures at each end. 35 Ii.' desired, the partition 25 may be spaced from the wooden framing members I3 and I4 to pro-v vide openings between it and them. 'I'he purpose of these apertures or openings will become clear from a description of the operation of the struc- 40 ture. If we assume normal winter-time conditions, the inner wall I9 will be maintained at a much higher temperature than the outer sheathing I0. Heat may be lost through conduction by means of 45 the air in the chamber and of the studs and the Wooden members I2, I3, and I4; through radia tion; and through convection by means of air currents within the chamber. 50 The metallic foil 21 or 28 on the partition should be highly polished to reflect practically all the heat which impinges thereon. T'he wooden fram ing members I2, I3, and I4 and the wooden studs will be poor conductors of heat. The assembly, 55 deposited on the cold surface of the air chamber, on the inner side of the coldest wail, instead oí’ on the partition Figs. 3 and d illustrate two forms of pre-fabri cated building b-lochs constructed in accordance with. theprlnciples oi.’ our invention. These blocks may be of any suitable size or shape, and may be which 'surface will be the wood sheathing i0. lf made of any materials common to the art of build the out-door temperature is low enough, the pan ing. In both cases, the outer wall is shown at 5u therefore, the insulating will be materials an eiiicient retain insulator their prokerties. so long lf, however, the temperature Within the air chamber falls below the dew point, the moisture in the air chamber will he condensed and will be tition 25 will also be cooled so that its temperature 10 may be below the dew point of the air in chamber 22. If this chamber is tight or closed entirely as it would be normally in building construction and the partition' 25 is cooled suiilciently, the moisture in the chamber 22v will be deposited on the right and the inner wall at 5|. It is understood that these walls may be thinner or thicker than as 10 shown and may be made of different materials. The two air chambers 52 and 53 are defined by a partition which comprises a supporting member 54 of wood or other suitable material and the 15 hand side of the partition 25 or on the_metallic _ 1 metallic surfaces 55 and 56. In Fig. 3, the parti 15 n 20 surface 28. This deposition will have i'ar more""““` tion is spaced from the upper and lower webs of the building block to -provide passage ways for the deleterious effects than a similar coating of mois ture on the sheathing I0, because the metallic air in the respective chambers to pass from one to coating 28 will immediately lose-most oi' its re the other, as shown by the arrows. In Fig. 4, the fleeting properties, and will in time corròde. If partition is apertured, similar to the manner 20 the partition 25 comprises blanket material. ñbre shown in Fig. 1, to provide the appropriate open board, or similar material, it will become wet and ings 58 and 59. The partition may comprise a soggy and will eventually rot. In any case, it will unitary structure, like that shown in Fig. 1, and lose much of its emciency as an insulating ma terial. The primary purpose of our invention is to avoid or reduce to a minimum the deposition of moisture on or Within the partition 25. To this end, the openings 3| and 32, which are of a predetermined size and number, permit a 30 slight passage oi’ air from the chamber 22 to the chamber 2|. It is understood that the composite size of such openings as may be provided is rela tively small and will not materially ailect the overall insulation produced by the partition 25. 35 The sheathing I0 being the coldest, .the air con tiguous thereto will be cooled and will sink, where as the air adjacent to the relatively warm plaster `|9 will become warm and will rise, resulting ,in a counter-clockwise circuit. The partition 25 will 40 act as a deñning wall for a portion of the air in both chambers, so that there will be counter clockwise currents of air in the chamber 2| and in the chamber 22, as well as a small simultaneous flow of air from one chamber to the other through the openings 3| and 32. With this arrangement.> all the exuded water will be condensed on the sheathing I0, where it will do the least harm to may be made of any suitable material or com bination of materials. ’ now claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent 1s: 1. A wall structure comprising an outer and inner shell and an insulating partition therebe .30 tweeny adapted to divide the air space enclosed by said shell, said partition having apertures formed therein and adapted to permit the passage of a portion of the air in one subdivision into another, thereby causing the warm moisture laden air to 35 pass from the warmer to the cooler chamber and inhibiting condensation on said insulating par tition. 2. A Wall structure comprising an outer and inner vshell and an insulating partition therebe tween adapted to divide the air space enclosed by said shell, said partition adapted to be supported in said shell in such a manner as will provide an aperture above and below the partition, and adapted to permit the passage of a portion of the 45 ail-_in one subdivision into another, thereby caus~ the insulating properties of the complete wall ing the warm moisture laden air to pass from the Warmer to the cooler chamber and inhibiting con structure. densation on said insulating partition. For ceiling or roofing structures, we may pro vide horizontal partitions 25 similarly arranged 'and apertured, so that the moisture is condensed 25 Having now described our invention, what we GEORGE A. Sli/HTH. lVIILTON S. VAN DUSEN.