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Патент USA US2102756

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Dec. 21, 1937.
2,102,756l
` G. A. SMITH Er AL
BUILDING BLOCK
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Filed July 3, 1936 ~
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Dec. 21, 1937.
2,102,756
G. A. SMITH ET AL
BUILDING BLOCK
Filed July 3, 1936
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5,102,756
Patented Dec. 2l, 1937
' UNIT-ED STATES PATENT OFFICE
BUILDING BLOCK
George A. Smith, Chevy Chase, Md., and Milton
' S. Van Dilsen,> Washington, D. C.
Application July 3, 1936, Serial No. 88,772
2 Claims. (Cl. 'l2-16)
' (Granted under the act of March 3, 1883, as
amended April 30, 1928; 370 O. G. 757)
This application is made under the act oi' March which may be suitable for the purpose of construc
3, 1883, as amended by the act of April 30, 1928, tion.
and the invention, if patented, may be manu
factured' and used by or for the Government for
governmental purposes without the payment to us
The chamber within the wall structure com
prises two air spaces 2I and 22 which are defined
by a partition 25. This partition is shown as
of any royalty thereon.
being approximately in the center of the chamber,
'
Our invention relates to the art of insulation,
and has particular reference to the thermal in
sulation of buildings and other structures.
Our invention contemplates a wall structure,
but it mayv be varied to be nearer one side of the
or cold, moisture, or sound. Hollow structures for
' such purposes have already been known to those
skilled in the art, but our invention is an improve
structure than the other. 'I'he partition 25 ex
tends substantially the length of the wall struc
ture perpendicular to the plane of the paper and 10
is supported at the front and rear or top and bot
tom by cleats, channel irons, nails, grooves, ad
hesive, tie wires, or any other means. The parti
tion 25 extends from top to bottom of the air,
chamber and may be supported from the horizon- 15
tal supporting members I3 and I4, or the studs
, ment thereon and has many advantages, as will be
(not shown), or both.
and in some cases a floor or ceiling structure, in
which air spaces are provided for the purpose of
eliminating or reducing the transmission of heat
c)
The partition 25 is made of any material which
is suitable for the purpose of insulation. Conse
quently, it may be made of blanket material, fibre 20
should be distinctly understood that the principles
board, wood, metal, minerals, water-proofing, or
of our invention are applicable to other forms of
insulation of any nature whatsoever. Further
more, our invention, for the purpose of simplicity,
will refer to the insulation of a dwelling which is
any other of the long list of appropriate materials.
Naturally, if the insulation is to reduce the trans
mission of heat, heat-resistant and heat-reflective
materials will be employed. With particular ref- 25
erence to thermal insulation, we employ surfaces
which are highly reflective, and with this end in
view, the partition 25 may consist of metal sheet
ing or metal foil, or, as shown in Fig. 2, it may
comprise a central supporting member 26, with 30
the reflective insulating materials 2'I and 28 ap
plied thereto by adhesive or other means. The
at a higher temperature within than without, al
though our novel structure will be equally ef
ñcacious if the temperatures are the opposite.
Also, the invention may be used in refrigerators,
3 O ,storage houses, freight cars, or other structures.
‘ ' Our invention will be readily understood from
the accompanying drawings, which show illustra
tive examples thereof, it being understood that
these examples are not limitative and that de
partures therefrom may be made within the
scope of the appended claims.
Fig. l shows, in vertical partial cross-section,
a wall structure in accordance with the principles
of our invention.
40
y
hereafter set forth.
The invention will be described with reference
to the thermal insulation of buildings, but it
Fig. 2 shows a modiiied form of partition that
may be used in the wall structure oi' Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a vertical cross-section through a pre
fabricated building block.
Fig. 4 is a modified form of the building block
' shown in Fig. 3.
The wall structure of a house is shown in Fig. 1.
Wooden sheathing III is nailed or otherwise at
tached to the horizontal supporting or framing
members I2, I3, and Il. On the outside of the
sheathing Ill are applied shingles, siding, or simi
lar members I8, and on the inside ofthe wooden
members I2, I3, and Il is applied the plaster or
similar ñnishing material I9. Obviously, these
materials may be brick, metal, stone, or any others
partition 25 is apertured at the top and bottom,
as shown at 3I and 32 respectively, although there
may be a plurality of such apertures at each end. 35
Ii.' desired, the partition 25 may be spaced from
the wooden framing members I3 and I4 to pro-v
vide openings between it and them. 'I'he purpose
of these apertures or openings will become clear
from a description of the operation of the struc- 40
ture.
If we assume normal winter-time conditions,
the inner wall I9 will be maintained at a much
higher temperature than the outer sheathing I0.
Heat may be lost through conduction by means of 45
the air in the chamber and of the studs and the
Wooden members I2, I3, and I4; through radia
tion; and through convection by means of air
currents within the chamber.
50
The metallic foil 21 or 28 on the partition should
be highly polished to reflect practically all the
heat which impinges thereon. T'he wooden fram
ing members I2, I3, and I4 and the wooden studs
will be poor conductors of heat. The assembly, 55
deposited on the cold surface of the air chamber,
on the inner side of the coldest wail, instead oí’
on the partition
Figs. 3 and d illustrate two forms of pre-fabri
cated building b-lochs constructed in accordance
with. theprlnciples oi.’ our invention. These blocks
may be of any suitable size or shape, and may be
which 'surface will be the wood sheathing i0. lf
made of any materials common to the art of build
the out-door temperature is low enough, the pan
ing. In both cases, the outer wall is shown at 5u
therefore,
the insulating
will be
materials
an eiiicient
retain
insulator
their prokerties.
so long
lf, however, the temperature Within the air
chamber falls below the dew point, the moisture
in the air chamber will he condensed and will be
tition 25 will also be cooled so that its temperature
10 may be below the dew point of the air in chamber
22. If this chamber is tight or closed entirely as it
would be normally in building construction and
the partition' 25 is cooled suiilciently, the moisture
in the chamber 22v will be deposited on the right
and the inner wall at 5|. It is understood that
these walls may be thinner or thicker than as 10
shown and may be made of different materials.
The two air chambers 52 and 53 are defined by a
partition which comprises a supporting member
54 of wood or other suitable material and the
15 hand side of the partition 25 or on the_metallic _ 1 metallic surfaces 55 and 56. In Fig. 3, the parti 15
n 20
surface 28. This deposition will have i'ar more""““` tion is spaced from the upper and lower webs of
the building block to -provide passage ways for the
deleterious effects than a similar coating of mois
ture on the sheathing I0, because the metallic air in the respective chambers to pass from one to
coating 28 will immediately lose-most oi' its re the other, as shown by the arrows. In Fig. 4, the
fleeting properties, and will in time corròde. If partition is apertured, similar to the manner 20
the partition 25 comprises blanket material. ñbre shown in Fig. 1, to provide the appropriate open
board, or similar material, it will become wet and ings 58 and 59. The partition may comprise a
soggy and will eventually rot. In any case, it will unitary structure, like that shown in Fig. 1, and
lose much of its emciency as an insulating ma
terial. The primary purpose of our invention is
to avoid or reduce to a minimum the deposition
of moisture on or Within the partition 25.
To this end, the openings 3| and 32, which are
of a predetermined size and number, permit a
30 slight passage oi’ air from the chamber 22 to the
chamber 2|. It is understood that the composite
size of such openings as may be provided is rela
tively small and will not materially ailect the
overall insulation produced by the partition 25.
35 The sheathing I0 being the coldest, .the air con
tiguous thereto will be cooled and will sink, where
as the air adjacent to the relatively warm plaster
`|9 will become warm and will rise, resulting ,in a
counter-clockwise circuit. The partition 25 will
40 act as a deñning wall for a portion of the air in
both chambers, so that there will be counter
clockwise currents of air in the chamber 2| and
in the chamber 22, as well as a small simultaneous
flow of air from one chamber to the other through
the openings 3| and 32. With this arrangement.>
all the exuded water will be condensed on the
sheathing I0, where it will do the least harm to
may be made of any suitable material or com
bination of materials.
’
now claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent
1s:
1. A wall structure comprising an outer and
inner shell and an insulating partition therebe .30
tweeny adapted to divide the air space enclosed by
said shell, said partition having apertures formed
therein and adapted to permit the passage of a
portion of the air in one subdivision into another,
thereby causing the warm moisture laden air to 35
pass from the warmer to the cooler chamber and
inhibiting condensation on said insulating par
tition.
2. A Wall structure comprising an outer and
inner vshell and an insulating partition therebe
tween adapted to divide the air space enclosed by
said shell, said partition adapted to be supported
in said shell in such a manner as will provide an
aperture above and below the partition, and
adapted to permit the passage of a portion of the 45
ail-_in one subdivision into another, thereby caus~
the insulating properties of the complete wall
ing the warm moisture laden air to pass from the
Warmer to the cooler chamber and inhibiting con
structure.
densation on said insulating partition.
For ceiling or roofing structures, we may pro
vide horizontal partitions 25 similarly arranged
'and apertured, so that the moisture is condensed
25
Having now described our invention, what we
GEORGE A. Sli/HTH.
lVIILTON S. VAN DUSEN.
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