Патент USA US2104892код для вставки
Jan. 1 l, 1938. 2,104,892 G. H. BLETTNER INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE CONSTRUCTION Filed Sept. 30, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 3/" 629071719 7/. 31611226}: g% 5_ Jan. 11, 1938. 2,104,892 G. H. BLETTNER INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE CONSTRUCTION Filed Sept. 30, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 """ FE UP 61307"; e 76.31%‘; ner: QM” W5 Patented Jan. 11, 1938 -: ‘ i. 2,104,892 ’ s PATENT 2,104,892 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE CON STRUCTION George H. Blettner, Chicago, 111., assignor to Renette Company, Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Illinois ‘ Aj'spiication September 30, 1935, Serial No. 42,776 1 Claim. (Cl. 123-193) The present invention relates to internal com bustion engine construction, and has to do more exhaust passages and above the positions oc particularly with the provision of reliefs between the pistons and cylinder walls adjacent the ex 5 haust passages of the engines, to accommodate for the growth of the metal of the engine blocks due to undissipated heat to which the portions of the engines between the cylinder walls and the cross passages are subjected. It has been observed, in internal combustion engines, that adjacent the exhaust ports or ex haust passages of the engine blocks, because of the excess metal there present, repeated starting and stopping of the engines, causes growths of 15 metal adjacent such areas. Furthermore, there being more metal adjacent the head ends of the cylinder blocks, at the exhaust passages, than opposite to the exhaust passages, a tendency to how the cylinder has been observed. The straight cylindrical surfaces of the cylinder have been slightly bent so as to cause wedging action between ‘the pistons and the upper or outer ends of the cylinders whenever the pistons are moved to such ends. Such wedging action has caused the upper lands of the pistons to become crowd ed to such an extent as to wear the lands ex cessively and also to tilt the pistons to such an extent as to press the pistons against the cylin der walls opposite the exhaust valves with suf 30 ?cient pressure to cause rapid deterioration of the cylinder walls and wear recesses in the walls opposite the exhaust passages. Such action causes abrasion of the surfaces of the upper ring lands of the pistons and deforms the contour of - the opposite sides of the pistons, causing bind ing, collapse, scuffing and in a short time re sulting in oil pumping and rattling of the pis tons, thus calling for replacement of the parts. The present invention has to do with the .10 provision of reliefs at the upper or outer ends of the cylinder blocks adjacent the ends thereof to prevent the wedging of the pistons in the cylin ders and thus prolong the lives of the engines and pistons. An object of the present invention is to pro long the life and e?iciency of the pistons and cylinder walls‘ of internal combustion engines by affording additional clearance between the pistons and cylinder walls in areas adjacent the exhaust passages in the cylinder blocks, to ac commodate for growth of the metal of the blocks, at such areas, due to undissipated heat to which such areas are subjected. Another object of the present invention is to provide reliefs on cylinder Walls adjacent the cupied by the uppermost piston rings to pre vent the cylinder walls, if distorted in this par ticular area, from contacting the ring lands of the pistons when the pistons reach their upper most positions during use. A further object of the present invention is so to construct an internal combustion engine that the distortion and enlargement localized adjacent the exhaust passages in the engine 10 blocks cannot wedge or thrust the pistons against the opposite sides of the cylinder walls while the pistons are operating. rfhe accompanying drawings illustrate an em bodiment of the present invention, and the views thereof are as follows: Figure l is a fragmental axial sectional view through a block of an internal combustion en gine showing the cylinder, piston and, in dotted lines, an exhaust passageway and valve for the passageway. The piston is illustrated as having the ring lands relieved to provide space for the “growth” of a cylinder wall adjacent the ex haust passageway. Figure 2 is a view‘ similar to Figure 1, showing a recess formed in the cylinder wall adjacent 25 the exhaust passageway for accommodating the “growth” of metal occurring in this neighbor hood. Figure 3 is a fragmental top plan view of an internal combustion engine block, showing the 30 lands of the pistons relieved to provide spaces ad jacent the exhaust passages of the engine. Figure 4 is a fragmental top plan view of an engine block, showing a recess in the cylinder - to provide relief space adjacent the exhaust pas sage in the block. Figure 5 is a view similar to Figures 1 and 2, showing how an unrelieved piston is canted or tilted in a cylinder, because of the presence of a “growth” adjacent the exhaust passage of the 40 engine, and projecting into the cylinder. This view shows, in dotted lines, the truly cylindrical shape of the cylinder as originally fashioned and, at the upper left, in full lines, the recess gouged in the cylinder wall by the tilting of the piston because of the presence of a “growth” adjacent an exhaust passageway of the block. The drawings will now be explained. Figure 1 illustrates a fragmental portion of an engine block casting having a cylinder 1, an 50 exhaust passageway 2, and water cooling com partments 3 surrounding the cylinder for cool ing purposes, as Well understood. Between the exhaust passageway 2 and the cylinder 1, the 2 , “ 2,104,892 in service, and therefore the consequent change of casting is thickened at 4 by reason of the method size and shape of the straight cylindrical surface of manufacture employed in casting such blocks. of the cylinder is su?icient to slightly how the cyl Opposite to the thickened portions 4 of metal,' inder inwardly, thereby causing wedging of the the section indicated at v5 is less, so that as ex pansion and contraction takes place, due to the stopping and starting of the engine, different effects are created at these-points. ' Figure‘ 1 illustrates at 6 a “growth” which has accumulated on the interior of the cylinder wall pistons in the upper or outer ends of the cylinders. It has been observed that this wedging action has, in some instances, been such as to so tightly wedge the upper ends of pistons in the upper ends of cylinders as to result in a tearing‘ apart of the 10 adjacent the exhaust passageway, and which has pistons when the direction of travel of the pistons was reversed by the crank shaft. cylindrical surface of the cylinder I. The dotted lines 1 indicate the cylindrical portion of the cyl “growt ” 6 or by a slightly bowed effect of the become a permanent deforma ion within the truly " inder wall.’ The obstructional deformation formed by the cylinder due to the heat abovementio-necl is suffi ' cient, unless provision'is made to overcome it, to In order to enable the piston 8 to reach its up V15 alwaysv press the pistons against the cylinder walls per or outward limit of movement adjacent the I opposite to the exhaust valves with suf?cient pres head end of the block, the lands 9 and 10 are re duced or ?attened to provide a space between the sure to cause rapid deterioration of the cylinder walls and as well abrade the surfaces of the upper piston and cylinder wall at its upper end to ac- I "ring lands ’ of the. pistons adjacent the exhaust 20 commodate the “growt ” 6, and: thus prevent" the passageway and deforming the contours of the op- . wedging or jamming of the piston in the cylinder at the upper limit of its stroke; a V Figure 3 shows piston 3 relieved as indicated‘ by the line I l, the cylinder'being shown as truly cir cular. Exhaust valves l2 control exhaust pas sages in the engine block communicating with the cylinders shown in this ?gure. The inlet valves !3 are arranged as is common practice and func tion in a manner well understood. FigureZ shows the cylinder casting as having a recess or relief space it formed in‘ the wall of the cylinder l adjacent the exhaust passageway‘ 2, the truly cylindrical surface of the cylinder being in dicated by the dotted line l5. With the provision of this recess ill, the accumulation of metal or “growth” at this area would therefore not cause wedging or binding of the piston 8 on reaching its uppermost or outermost limit of travel in service. Figure 5 shows what happens in an internal '40 combustion engine when metal “growth” J6 oc curs on an area of the cylinder wall adjacent the exhaust passageway 2‘, and no relief is provided to accommodate for this “growth”. It willbe ob served that the piston I1 has been tilted or‘ canted to the left, and by reason of the travel of-the pis ton in the cylinder has worn a recess IS in the wall of the cylinder opposite to the exhaust pas sageway 2, that is, opposite tothe “growth” l6‘. In forming the recess i8,a slight ledge 19 remains 50 which lies within the cylindrical contour‘ of the original shape of the cylinder. The dotted. line 20 ' of this figure shows the original cylindrical con tour of the cylinder prior to the formation of the recess i8 therein by the canting or tilting of the piston I? in service. ’ It is to eliminate the trouble illustrated in Fig ure 5 that the‘ relief, such as illustrated in Fig ures 1 and 2, has been provided. Because of the fact that the thicker portion 4 of the engine block 60 casting'is between the exhaust passageway 2 and‘ the cylinder, this portion becomes unduly heated posite thrust sides of the pistons, causing bind ing, collapse, scuffing or otherdamage. I The provision of reliefs on the pistons by flat tening the ring lands is caused preferably by ta- " pering off the‘ heads of the pistons along the areas which will be adjacent theexhaust passageways when the pistons are assembled in the engines. 'The “growths” heretofore mentioned in the neighborhood of the exhaust passageways result - from intermittent operations of the engines and eventually become permanently fixed obstructions in the cylinders and are'contacted by the pistons‘ for every revolution of the crank shafts. . - It may be stated, by way of example, that in one I internal combustion engine inspected, a growth of as much as .018 inch was observed in 31/2 inch cylinders, after a sustained operation of the en gine while the engine was in a heated condition. I am aware that many changes may be'made 40 and numerous detailsof construction may be var ied through a wide range without departing from the principles of this invention, and I, therefore, do not purpose limiting the patent granted here on otherwise than is necessitated by the prior art. The invention is claimed asfollows: In an internal combustion engine including an ‘engine ‘block casting having therein a cylinder, ‘a piston reciprocally mounted in said cylinder, and an exhaust passage, the: upper portion of the , block between said passage and adjacent upper cylinder wall being relatively thicker than the portion of said block on the opposite side of said cylinder, localized clearance being. provided be tween said upper cylinder wall portion and that portion of said piston which overrides said wall portion in its travel, whereby any growth of said wall portion is-compensated for and tilting of the piston is prevented. GEORGE BLETTNER.