Патент USA US2105091код для вставки
Jan. 1l, 1938. 2,105,091 c. w. MaqKAY `- WELL DRILLING RIG Filed April 4, 1956 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 `INVENTOR Es WMAf KAY i »una BY _ ATTORNEY . Jan. 11, 1938. C. w. MacKAY » . 2,105,091 WELL DRILLING RIG` Filed April 4, 1936 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 I‘NVENTQR L «CHARLES W‘MACKAY BY . . .. ATTORNEYv . ' Patented Jan. 11,1938 2,105,001 i - UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE - ' ` 2,105,091 wmpammo are ' charles w. Mroxay, Tono. oklo. -' Appliooiion April 4, 193s, serial No. 12.706 ' ' s oloims. (c1. 255g-4), This invention relates to apparatus for drilling with a sump (not shown) into whichthe mud overflow passes> from the pipe I1, leading from mechanical arrangement for locating the power .the catch pit at the head of the hole. plant for the drilling. closely adjacent to the drill The pipe I3, held against rotation as described. ` itself so that the power plant 'and the drill' pro extends down into the hole, and near its lower 5 oil wells and the like, and more particularly to a gress together into the hole. f end it supports a power plant which, in the il I purpose to discard the customary method of ‘ lustrative organization, comprises a plurality of sinking a pipel into the hole, with the drilling tool specially adapted electrical motors, eaclrcylin ñxed in relation to the wbottom extremity ofthe drical in form Vand elongated on the` axis of the pipe, and employing-the pipe with the function rotor, and of small and compact diameter. of a shaft for rotating the tool by power applied Three such motors 20, 2l, and 2_2 are illustrated at the top of the pipe. According to my inven on an enlarged scale in Figs. 3, 4, and 5. The tion, the pipe is held against rotation andsup 'support .for these motors comprises a flange 23 ports the power plant at the bottom of-the hole. welded on the pipe I3 and bolted to an underly so that the latter may rotate the tool in relation ing cap piece 24 shaped as shown in Fig. 4 to pro- l to the non-rotating pipe.' ~ vide recesses 25 to receive the upper ends of the l As will appear to those skilled in the‘art, great respective motor housings. The cap plate 24 is advantages are derivable from the use' of an welded to the upper extremityof a chassis 26, embodiment of this invention. shown in horizontal section in Fig. `5, which is In the drawings, Fig. 11s n largely diagram. preferably a forging having a recessed pocket for 20 20 matic section on a vertical plane indicating the each of the motors in which the motor is seated , , drilling apparatus during a boring operation, and and held by straps 21 attached to the forging, the some _of the more or less conventional operating 'motor housings being held against rotation, '_as mechanism on the surface of the ground. - by set screws 28. Fig. -2 is adetail `section on a. horizontal plane „ on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1.l . _ , Fig. 3 is a. side elevation of a gang' of electric "1' motors mounted on a chassis near the bottom of ~ . . As shown in Fig. 7,- the lower end of the chassis .25' 2B is provided with an annular flange 30, upon which rests the lower end of each motor and through which the motor shafts, project. 'I‘hus ' the well pipe and constituting. the power plant the motors are housed, and are confined at the top ior rotating the drilling tool.v by the cap plate 24,\at the bottom by the flange 35 30 Flgs."4, 5, and 6 are horizontal sections on thev on the chassis 26; and they are held laterally by respective lines H, 5-5, and B--Iìv of Fig. 3. Fig. 'l is avertical section on the line 1-1 of Fig. 4. ' ` . _. ‘ Figs. 48 and 9 are horizontal sections on re spective lines 8--3 and 3_9 of Fig. '1. y 40 the straps 21. y l Secured .tothe lower end of the chassis“ is a pipe 32 supplying in eifect an extension of the bore through the center of the chassis. The up- 35 per end of this pipe 32 may be threaded into the chassis, as shown in Figure '1, and then provided Referring to Fig. l, the apparatus at _the surface of the ground comprises the vertical timbers Il and Il supplying vertical guideways (Fig. 2) for a horizontal crosshead I2, which .embraces the with awelded bead 33 for securely integrating the pipe 32 to the chassis 2B. '.l‘he pipe 32 supplies manner, as by having gripping jaws encircling successive elements of a reducing >item' mechanism not only a conduitfor the down~fiowof the.dri1i- 40 top part of the well pipe I3 and holds it against , ing mud, as presently described, lbut also serves rotation. This may be effected in any practical as a non-rotatingshaft upon which are mounted the well pipe I3, as illustrated in Fig. 2, so that " the crosshead I2 and the’pip'e I3 are held- rig idly in fixed relation while vertical _movement is permitted, and rotary movement is prohibited, by ’ the engagement of the crossliead` I2 in the’ guide- , ' ways of the timbers III Aand Il. Hoisting gear il, 50 is attached' to the upper end of theA pipe I3 'so' that the latter is suspended and may be lifted _ and lowered by the illustrated hoisting engine. The indicated mud pump‘is connected by the p_iping I5 to the upper end of thewell‘xpipe 13. ' The -intake pipe i6 ofthe pump fo'r reducing the speed from that- of themotor shafts to such speed as is desired for the rotation ß cfthedrillingtool. t ì -j . f In varying applications ot” my linvention to ’ suit different purposes' and conditions, Il may ., , »select from a wide range 'of characteristics'of current and motor design. i ¿sone illustration. '§50> lumier‘ rome conditions il; would terreni-able to - employ a.v three-phase alternating: current within-» quency range 'of 5 to 20. cycles'per second. cur-2» î i rent o_ftllis #We oouldbesupplied at the-site by ß 2,105,091 a motor generator set (not shown) receiving onv 83, which is -also secured in place by a welded its intake side such commercial current as is . .-bead 84. The ferrule 83 has an annular oblique available, and delivering on its output side the; 5 face, as indicated in Fig. 7, which bears against alternating current of a voltage, phase and fre--- *_ '. the roller thrust bearing 85, which is interposed 5 quency appropriate to the particular motor de--l between the ferrule 83 and the hub 86 which sign. One practicable type of motor design would ' ' carries the tool. The hub 88 is bolted to the head deliver within the range of 300 to 1200 R. P. M., :80 and rotates with the latter. The lower end of which would be reducible to a tool speed within the hub 86 carries the drilling tool 81, which the range 40 to 100 R.. P. M. It is to beL may be threaded onto the hub 88 and secured in understood that the specifications just stated place by a welded bead 88. The tool 81, of any are merely illustrative and there is a considerable desired rotary type, has a _suilicient maximum range of choice as to the particulars mentioned, diameter to drill a hole vsomewhat larger than within the skill of those experienced in this art. the maximum diameter of the power plant and The controlling desideratum is'that the selected gear shell to allow for vthe upiiow of -mud and 15 current and motor design, and the reduction excavated material, around the exterior of the apparatus. _ gearing, be determined for the economical con According to conventional practice in the art, sumption of electrical power and a minimum the maximum cutting diameter of the drilling loss of power through reduction gears, eventu ating inthe application' of adequate power to tool may be determined vby reference to the in tention to insert casings into the' hole. f 20 rotate the tool at practical working speeds.The hub 88 and the tool 81 have the axial bore The electrical power is preferably fed to each motor by a separate cable 34 secured by bands 88 which communicates with the bore of the pipe or straps to the pipe I3 as indicated inFig. ,1. 32 so that there is in effect'a continuous hollow Each motor shaft 35 has mounted on it a pinion conduit from the top-of the pipe I3 through that 25 38 which meshes with a gear 31 formed upon a pipe, the chassis 26, the pipe 32 and thence hub 38 having an annular flange 38. ’I‘he hub 38 downward to the lower extremity of the tool 81. rotates on the non-rotating pipe 32. In the As already stated, the mud pump indicated in Fig. 1 forces the mud downwardly through this flange 39 are mountedthree shafts 48, corre sponding respectively to the three motors: Each continuous conduit and outwardly in the vicin 30 shaft 40 carries at its lower `end apinion 4l. ity of the tool, whence the mud is forced up wardly, outside the drilling apparatus, and These three pinions 4I have a planetary’move ment about the axis of the pipe 32. The pinions through the drilled hole tothe surface of the 4I all mesh with a ring gear 42 fixed upon the « ground. This forced flow of the mud may per interior of the cylindrical shell of this gear form a particularly important function, in the 85 mechanism; As presently described, this shell application of this invention, in that it tends to act as a cooling medium, and to aid in keeping is fixed to the chassis 28 and is therefore non the motors and gearing from overheating. 'I‘his rotatable. Hence, the ring gear 42 is non-rotat able. 'I'he pinions 4| engage not only the flxed ' result is enhanced by the combined downñow of ring gear 42 but also the gear 43 on a hub 44 the mud through the axial hollow conduit in direct contact -with the metal piping which it lio which rotates on the pipes 32. The gear ratios self would take up a considerable portion of the ,are such that the planetary rotation of the pinions 4I ,drives the gear 43 at a speed less than heat generated by the motors, and then further the speed of rotation of the gear 31. A ñoating by the upward ñow of the mud surrounding the ring bearing'45 is interposed between the hubs apparatus again in direct contact with the ex 45 38 and 44. The hub 44 carries a ilange which terior of the gear shell and the motor housing. According to conventional practice well known in turn carries shafts for additional pinions »en gaging an additional ring gear 48, and meshing in the art, there will be provided at so'me points with another gear 41 on still another hub and on the pipe I3, preferably where it is accessible driving the latter at a further reduced speed. above the surface of the ground, the elements 50 Similar units may be multiplied for reducing the of a measuring and indicating mechanism to speed through any desired range. Finally'. the show the vertical tensile stress on the pipe I3 to permit proper regulation of the upward pull drive rotates a hub 88 having aflange 6I, bear on the pipe I3 through the hoisting engine, so ing upon a corresponding iiange 82, upon a cap piece 81 which closes the lower end of the shell as to enable the operator to avoid the applica .tion of excessive loads on `the drilling tool. -for the gearing. ` i ì This shell consists of a cylinder 85, the upper This subject matter, however, is no part of the end of which nts over the depending rim of the present invention and is considered unnecessary ' ñange 38 and is welded thereto so that the shell to be shown in the drawings. The illustrative form of the apparatus shown et in erect is suspended from the chassis ze. The _ 60 cap 81 `is threaded on to the lower end ofthe in the drawings may be readily assembled, and shell 88 and is spot-welded thereto. Bolted to disassembled, for repair or replacement of parts. the cap 81 is a packing keeper 88 providing a Where welded beads are employed for integrat .packing gland 18. The interior of the shell 88 ing the diñerent parts, they may be removed by a suitable torch and replaced according to .is‘to besupplied with grease preferably intro "‘duced under pressure through the aperture 1 closed by the `plug 1I.> The hub ylilf‘which is the ñnal driven element 'of the described gearing, projects downwardly 'through ltlfeïicap 81 and past the'packlng gland and upon its lower end »is threaded a tool its., _18, attaching 80 secured in place by welded bead 8l. .d 88 supplies' the means of i ' driven-hub 88 pf‘ whatever drilling tool ,isemployì‘edß At the' lower'l end of fu insinua-routine più* 3,1. ordinary shop practice. . Ci in ' ` :I iu 45 „l 60 - It is to be understood that the particulary em bodiment of the invention shown in the drawings and described above is only illustrative; and that the invention may be variously embodied in di'f ferent’ forms employing wide variations of me-` 70 chanical detail. I claim: . - ' 1. A well-,drilling `ìapparatus.- comprising,I in` combination, a sectional well- pipe constructed to extend from the surface of the ground con- 75 3 2,105,091 tinuously to the vicinity of the bottom of the the driving speed of the motors; the non-rotat hole, and to supply a substantially rigid unit , ing well pipe. the motors and’ their cables, the throughout its length, to resist both torque and reduction gearing and the drilling tool compris vertical thrustland to supply a heavy downward' 'ing van Gl thrust to aid in the drilling operation; means at the surface of the ground for holding the well integrated organization extending throughoutl the length of the hole and movable 5 upwardly and downwardly, through handling at pipe against rotation; means also at the surface of the ground for raising. lowering and suspend the top of the hole, as a structural unit. 1 3. A well-drilling apparatus comprising, in ing the pipe and regulating its downward thrust combination, a sectional well pipe constructed and the effect thereof on the drilling operation; to extend _from the surface of the ground con means also at the surface of the ground for tinuously to the vicinity of the bottom of the forcing iluid downwardly through the pipe; 'a . hole, and constructed to supply a substantially , plurality of electric motors mounted upon the rigid unit throughout its length, to resist both pipe >near its lower extremity, with their rotor torque and vertical thrust and to supply a heavy axes parallel‘with each other and with the axis downward thrust to aid in the drilling operation; of the pipe, said rotor axes being spaced from the means at the surface of the ground for holding axis of the pipe and disposed with geometric the well pipe against rotation; means also at symmetry around the axis of the pipe; a drilling the level of the ground for raising, lowering tool rotatably mounted at the lower extremity of the pipe; speed reducing mechanism driven by said motors collectively for rotating the tool at a speed substantially less -than the driving speed of the‘motors; the mounting of the motors upon the pipe providing substantially continuous metal heat conduction from the vicinity of the motor fields to the' interior of the well pipe, and the motor casings being at least partially ex and suspending the pipe and regulating its downward thrust and the effect thereof on the drilling operation; means also at the surface of the ground for pumping , fluid downwardly through the pipe; a plurality of electric motors mounted upon ‘the pipe near its lower extremity, with their rotor axes spaced from the axis of the pipe and disposed' with geometric symmetry around the axis of the pipe; a drilling tool rotat posed to the external upflow of fluid forced ably _mounted at the lower extremity of the through the lower extremity of the well pipe; pipe; and speed reducing mechanism driven by` the non-rotating well pipe, the motors and their ' said motors collectively for.rotating the tool at ' current supply'cables, the reduction gearingand _ the drilling tool comprising an integrated organ ization extending throughout the length of the hole and movable upwardly and downwardly, through handling at the top of the hole, as a structural unit. 2. A well-drilling apparatus comprising, in combination. a 'sectional well pipe constructed to extend from the surface _of the ground con-_ tinuously to the vicinity of the bottom ofthe hole, and constructed to supply a substantially rigid unit throughout its length, to resist both torque and vertical thrust and to supply a heavy downward thrust to aid in the drilling operation; means at vthe surface 'of the ground for holdingV the well pipe against rotation; means also at the surface of the ground for raising, lowering and suspending the pipe and regulating its" down ward thrust and the effect thereof on the drill ing operation; means also at the surface of the ground for forcing ñuid downwardly through the pipe; a plurality of electric motors mounted upon the pipe near its lower extremity, with their ro- ' tor axes parallel with each other and with the axis of the pipe, said rotor axes being spaced from the axis of the pipeV and disposed with geometric symmetry around- the axis of the pipe; a drilling tool rotatably mounted at the lower extremity of the pipe; speed reducing mecha >nism driven by saidv motors collectively for ro tating the tool at a speed substantially less than a speed substantially less than the driving speed of the motors. . ^ 4. A well-drilling apparatus comprising, in combination, a non-rotating well pipe; means for-raising, lowering and suspending the pipe; means for pumping fluid downwardly through , the pipe; a plurality of electric motors mounted upon the pipe 'near its lower extremity, with their rotor axes parallel with each other and with the axis of said pipe, said rotor axes be 40 ing spaced from the axis of the pipe yand disposed vwith geometric symmetry around the axis of the ' pipe; a drilling tool rotatably mounted at the lower extremity of >the pipe; and speed-reducing mechanism driven by vsaid motors collectively for 45 rotating the tool at a speed substantially less than the driving speed of the motors. _ 5. A well-drilling apparatus comprising, in combination, a non-rotating well pipe;- means for raising, lowering and suspending vthe pipe; means for pumping fluid downwardly through the pipe; a gang of three electric motors mount ed upon the well pipe near its lower extremity ‘with their rotor axes parallel and spaced 120° apart; a drilling tool rotatably mounted at the lower extremity of the pipe; and speed-reducing mechanism intermediate said motors and the tool for'rotating the latter at a speed substan tially less than the driving speed of the motors. 60. CHARLES W. MACKAY.