Патент USA US2105134код для вставки
Jan. 11, 1938. M. 1'. wxNTscH 2,105,134 CURRENT TRANSMISSION SYSTEM F'iled- July 3, 1936 _ 2 Sheets-Sheet l W, CURRENT TRANSMISSION SYSTEM Filed July 5, -1936 r»„_ _ _____.___ 2 sheets-sheet 2 ______,_._.._____ gmc/WM Patented >2,105,134 1l, " 1938 UNITED STATES .PATENT oFElcE' Y 2,105,134 CURRENT TRANSMISSION SYSTEM Max Theodore Wintsch, Lancaster,\l’a. ' Application `July 3, 1936, Serial No. 88,907 ` 1o claims. ‘ `.This invention relates toa current transmitting system which may be utilized to operate auto (Cl. 246-63) subject to the disadvantage of picking-up har monies of the frequencies at which they are de' signed to operate; or of interference caused by Therinvention more particularly comprehends a foreign currents of different frequencies. Fure continuously indicating or intermittently indicat vthei‘more, their pick-up transformers are gen ing automatic system in which an inductive or erally designed for receiving current from both matic train control and cab-signaling systems. ' _ other type receiver is utilized to transmit rail » rails ofthe track and involve more or less com current to a vehicle operated on said track-rails, the .system herein described being immune against (l) Interference caused by foreign currents of diiîerent frequencies, or harmonics of the stand -ard frequency of the controlling current trans mitted inductively or directly by electrical road ' side equipment. (2) Vibration of the vehicle. . (3) _Direct equalizing currents iiowing through the axle, back and forth, on railways propelled by direct current and a third rail system, where the wheels of the .vehicle do not make equally perfect electrical contact with the track rails. (4) Adverse affectation by ordinary tempera ture changes. One of the objects of the invention is the pro vision in a track-rail to vehicle current transmit ting system of an inductive type receiver similar in construction to a closed core transformer. Another object of the invention is to provide such .a system and accompanying devices in 30 which the rail current from one rail only is utilized to operate the system and devices. An other object of the invention is to provide in such systems a tuned-reed relay operating on the principle of a vibrating reed frequency meter. _ f Other and equally important objects of the invention will be apparent hereinafter as the description ofthe invention proceeds. Figure 1 of the drawings represents a dia grammatic showing of one preferred form of the 40 ` system. Figure' 2 is a view in side elevation of a tuned reed relay assembled in a casing. Figure 3 is a view in front elevation of a relay comprising three groups of reeds. Figure 4 is a top plan view of Figure 3. Figure 5 is an end view of Figure 3. Figure 6 is a detail of a single group of reeds. Figure 'I is a top plan view of Figure 6, and Figure 8 is a diagram of the pick-up circuit where more than one set cf -vibrating reeds is used. In the prior art, automatic train control sys tems are old where i ieir operation depends upon inductive fields that are produced from alternating currents flowing in the rails, the energy being induced or picked-up by means of open core transformers and collector coils, am pliñed and then transmitted to a relay carried on the locomotive. These prior art systems are plicated structures. The present invention ob viates the difficulties of the prior art and pre sentsa much more simple construction and de 10 sign, with the added advantage of utilizing a single rail to transmit signaling current, so that the other rail may be used for the return path of propelling current. The use of a single rail to transmit signaling current by means of an in 15 ductiveopen core, single coil receiver is disclosed in the patent to Reichard 1,824,171 of September 22, 1931; and in my prior Patent 1,720,940 is sued July 16, 1929, I have disclosed a tuned-reed single reed relay in a train control system, but 20 neither of these patents disclose the novel com bination and improved system that I am here claiming. In Figure 1 of the drawings, the pick-up trans former is indicated by the numeral l and is of 25 the closed core type having coils 2 mounted on >opposite legs of the core and parallel with the vertical center line of one of the track rails 3, out of direct contact above the top of the rail. The two coils are serially wound in a direction 30 opposing each other, so that an inductive iiux entering the coils from the track rail when a sig nal current is flowing through the rail, will -act additively on the two coils. In actual operation, I have provided the closed core transformer with two coils on each leg of the core, the coils on . each leg being connected in parallel; the coils on one leg connected in series with the coils on the other leg, so that induced currents in the coils are in opposition when ñux threads each 40A leg of the transformer in the same direction, and additive when fiux threads each leg in op posite direction. This receiver is suspended from ° the car underframe about 4 feet in advance of the first pair of wheels and about ’7.5 inches above 45 the level of the top of the rail, and is so mount ed with respect to the railthat one coil of the receiver is located i-n a vertical plane approxi mately 4 inches outside of the righthand mail, while the other coil is> similarly located approxi 50 mately 4 inches inside the rlghthand rail. This inductive receiver (which has no direct wireconnection with the rail) is connected to the >primary of a balanced .winding in-put trans former I, the secondary of which is connected 55 to the in-put circuit of a two-stage vacuum tube amplifier, the tubes being designated as 5 and 6. The out-put of amplifiers 5 and 6 are connected to the coils of a tuned-reedrelay 1 >which is ad justed to vibrate on a band of frequencies corre 2 2,105,134 sponding to the frequencies of the track con trolling current supplied to the rails. An as sembly of such a relay is shown in Figure 2, with cathode, and the plate. In practice, the ñlament the details of the vibrating group or groups is composed of a wire mesh, and on the outside shown in Figures 3 to ’7. In Figure 2, the letter A is the armature, D the amplitude adjusting screw, M the electro-magnet, and R the tuned reed. It will be noted from Figure 3 that the relay comprises three groups of reeds, each group 10 consisting of three reeds secured to a support; one group being responsive to 25cycle current, a second group to 60 cycle current, and a third. group to 100 cycle current. This relay utilizes some construction features of the “Frahm” type 15 or” vibrating-reed frequency meter or “Tacho meter”, in which instruments reeds are tuned to different natural periods of vibration to meas ure the frequency of cycle of electric current. The tuned-reed relay 'l differs in construction 20 from the Frahm type instrument in that the relay has contacts on each of the reeds and sta tionary contact points mounted in the relay cor responding with contacts mounted on the reeds. The natural period of vibration of the tuned N) UK reed will not deviate from the standard more than one percent from the period upon which the reed is tuned to vibrate. On lower frequen cies, deviation from the standard is as low as one-tenth of one percent. I therefore prefer to 3@ me several reeds to cover a whole band of fre quencies of the controlling fcurrent. For ex ample, if the frequency of the controlling current is 25 cycles, one reed is tuned to vibrate on exactly 25 cycles, and several other reeds are tuned to vibrate on one-quarter cycle either way from the standard, each reed one-quarter cycle higher or lower than the preceding reed either direction from the reed tuned to the standard of 25 cycles. In other words, the reeds may be tuned to a Whole band of frequencies, as 23.5, 23.75, 24, 24.25, 24.5, 24.75, 25, 25.25, 25.5, etc. as conditions may require. The construction is such that the reeds may contact at about 1% of the iull amplitude of their natural amount of vibration. These reeds, 45 being provided with contacts which make and break in rapid succession at the frequency to which the reeds are tuned, control the flow of current from a small battery 8 to the grid oi.' vacuum tube S located betweenv the tuned-reed 50 relay 'l and the master relay Ill, the coils of which are included in the plate circuit of the tube 9. A compensation condenser I l is charged by the battery 8 each time the contact "a" in the tuned ' reed relay is closed, and the condenser II re 55 leases its charge slowly through the grid and is in the center, around the filament is the cath ode, around the cathode we have the grid which of the grid is located the plate. As long as the cathode is made incandescent by the heated ilia ment, negative electrons are thrown off into the space around the cathode. The negative elec trons are attracted by the plate which is always connected to the positive pole oi’ the “B” current supply, the electronic current ilowing through the mesh oi' the grid tothe plate. It is a known fact that electric current will ilow only from a zone 'of high, or positive potential to one of low or negative potential. Hence, the “B" supply current will ilow inside of the tube from the plate - through the mesh of the grid to the negative cathode against the electron flow. As already explained, a plate-cathode circuit is secured by the electrons traveling from the cathode to the 20 plate, since they are attracted by the plate posi tively charged, resulting in a ñow of current from the “B” supply to ilow in this circuit from the plate to the cathode, thus the electrons act as a conductor. 25 . Whenever the contact a in the vibrating-reed relay is closed, a low current will also flow in the grid-cathode circuit because a certain number of - electrons are stopped by the positively charged grid and allows the current of the “B” supply to 30 flow in the circuit in which case we have a grid cathode current. The flow of electrons from the cathode, when the grid is negativê, is repulsed, for in this case the electrons are negatively charged, since we know that two polarities of the same name repulse one another. Therefore, the current from the plate, having no electronic sup port to travel on, is then quitesuddenly stopped. One can understand from this explanation that the grid acts as an automatic interrupter, but 40 since no mechanical parts are to be moved it has no inertia, and it can therefore open and close the circuit of the plate a tremendous nurn ber of times per second. Since we now know that changing the polarity 46 of the grid in our tube 9 from positive to neg ative opens and closes the plate circuit by means of an alternating current supplied from the cur rent supply I, which may be a 48 volt battery, and regularly interrupted by the vibrating reed so frequency of the track control current. Assuming a 100 cycle control current is flowing at the contact a at a speed corresponding to the in the track rail I, this current is then induc tively transmitted by means of the pick-up trans~ former to the input of a two stage audio fre 'cathode of the amplifier tube l each time the contact “a” is broken.' As long as the grid is » quency amplifier of the electronic type, located carrying a positive charge, the plate circuit for on the propelling vehicle. The operating coils the tube 9 will be closed. The coil of the master of the vibrating-reed relay will become energized 60 reiay Ill is connected to the secondary winding or de-energized corresponding to the frequency of I2 of a transformer i3 having a’primary winding the alternations of the track control current. i4 which in turn is connected to the plate I 5 of The reed l which has a natural period of vibra the amplifier tube 9 and to the B+ supply. The tion also corresponding to the frequency of master-relay in turn actuates the cab-signal ap the alternations of the track current will now paratus in accordance with track conditions. open or close the contact a 100 times per second. A detailed description or the operation oi.' the Every time the reed 1 closes the contact a, a radio amplifying tubes, and particularly tube 9 grid-cathode current will ilow from the positive shown in Figure 1 of the drawings, is as fol pole of the current supply I, through the reed 7, through the contact a to the grid and through lows: 70 Inside of the glass envelope of the radio tube 8 the cathode in the tube 9 to the negative pole in a vacuum we have four electrodes which are of the current supply 8. This same current will the heating ñlament, the cathode which supplies also place a static charge on the compensating -the electrons for the operation of the tube while condenser Ii. The path for the plate-cathode "B” current including serially connected there it is heated by the filament, the grid which con 75 trols the flow of electrons from the plate to the with the operating coil I0 of our master relay. 60 65 70 75 2,105,134 is now'closed, by action of the positively charged grid. ~The coil l0 ofthe masterl relay will become energized and will pick up its arma tures. 3 which the train might pass. This will be oi espe cial advantage where a train operating in a ter . ritory where the signals are on a 100 cycle fre quency passes into a territory where the fre ' Now when the contact a in the vibrating reed relay is open, the grid in the tube 9 becomes neg quency is, say 60 cycles. .~ In an actual installation of the present sys atively charged being connected to the negative tem, tests were made to determine the eifect of v pole of the “B” current supply. The flow of elec trons from the cathode when the ygrid is negative 10 is repulsed since the electrons are now nega tively charged, therefore the plate-cathode cur . foreign current from adjacent power lines of the same frequency as that used for the operation of the device. To simulate the effect of an ad 10 jacent power line, a wire loop incorporating a slide wire resistance and an ammeter was con is now interrupted. ’ The supply of “B” current to , nected to a 25 cycle power supply, this being the the coil I0 of the master relay becomes there- ' frequency at which the installation was designed rent having no electronic supportto travel on', 15 fore interrupted and the relay will release its armatures. However, asl explained previously, as long as the contact a inthe vibrating-reed relay was closed, the compensating .condenser Il was statically charged. With the contact a open 20 the condenser Il will release its static Icharge through the grid-cathode circuit, momentarily acting in the same manner as the current supply 8. The plate-cathodecircuit inside of the tube 9 will therefore remain closed and the “B” cur 25 rent supply` will keep the coil I0 of the master relay energized. If the‘current supply to the input ofthe two . stage audio amplifier in advance of the coils of the vibrating reed relay becomes permanently 30 interrupted, the tuned reed 1 will no longer vibrate. 'I'he contact a will remain open, the plate-cathode circuit in the tube 9 will be per manently interrupted and the master relay will remain in the “open” position. Any suitable circuit may be employed for operating the cab-signals by reason of the en ergizing and deenergizing of the master relay, but I prefer to use the wayside signal and ve hicle circuits and ' mechanism described and 40 claimed in my two copending United States ap plications, Ser. No. 37,878, filed August 26, 1935 and Ser. No. 748,252, ñled October 15, 1934. Any desired signaling or controlling me‘cha nism may be eiîectuated through the single mas 45 ter relay, or a plurality of relays similar to the tinguished and the green cab-signal was dis played. With 10 amperes in the loop, it was 20 necessary to bring the wire within 18 inches of the receiver in order to extinguish the red and display the green indication. 'I'hese tests were made with no rail current present in the rails, simulating the conditions which‘should obtain 25 in an occupied block. These tests indicate the comparative immunity of the device from the in ductive effects of adjacent power lines and other electric roadside equipment such as. generators, transformers, etc. 30 Various modifications may be made within the spirit and scope of the invention, and I do not Wish to be slavishly restricted to the details as set forthherein, but desire to claim the inven tion as broadly as set forth in the appended 35 claims. 'I'he pick-up system might be used on steam propelled locomotives- and the tuned-reed relay control for the- signals and/or train con trol could be used, without regard to the specific type of pick-up utilized. What I claim is: '1. In a current transmitting system in which the rails of a track section are supplied with ` ' alternating current of a predetermined stand-. ard cycle for control of train carried apparatus, 45 master relay Ill may be provided, each controlled a train-carried receiving circuit including a re by a reed-relay which is responsive to a prede ,ceiver for said control current, a tuned~reed re- ' termined frequency. . ' The tuned-reed relay may operate on an in 50 to operate. This loop, carrying 5 amperes was 15 gradually moved ytoward the receiver, and when it had been brought to within 12 inches of the receiver, the red-cab signal indication was ex lay in said circuit having a set> of reeds each carrying contacts and tuned to a band of fre a voltage of 15 volts or more and a controlling quencies approximating and including said pre 50 determined standard cycle, said tuned-reed re particular frequencies. The invention has been quencies of the rail current, said receiving appa described with one set of reeds on the basis of a 25 cycle current, but as many sets of reeds may be used as desired. They may be manually ad lay selectively independent of filtering means and having a plurality of sets of reeds capable of vi put current of approximately'l-Z milliamperes at track current of 1.5 to 2 amperes at 1/2 volt. lay being selectively independent of ñltering The number of stages of vacuum tube »ampliñca . means, and another circuit including a master tion required in advance ofthe reed-relay will relay controlled by current flowing through the be determined by the frequency of the controlling reeds and contacts in said tuned-reed re1ay,-said 55 current. Three stages of amplification are used reeds and contacts being included in the circuit if the frequency is near 25 cycles, while only one of the master-relay. 2. A current transmitting system in which the stage of amplification will suiiice if- the fre quency is above 60 cycles. In order to operate rails in one section of a track are supplied with alternating current of a predetermined cycle and 60 60 the master relay one stage of amplification is in another section are supplied with alternating shown. Additional stages may be used, if de current of another predetermined cycle, said cur sirable or necessary. It may be observed that no electrical iilter is rent being supplied for control of train carried apparatus, and a vehicle provided with a receiv required in the pick-up circuit and the tuned ing apparatus responding selectively to the fre 65 reed relay makes the device more selective to 65 70 justable and interchangeable. As described here inabove, and with particular reference to Fig brating at bands approximating and including 70 said respective predetermined frequencies, y whereby said receiving apparatus is effective for operation in both sections. 3. A current transmitting system in which the respond to the frequency prevailing in the par ticular signaling system' of the territory overv rails of a track section are supplied with alter . ure 3, a number of sets may be provided together so that one set may at any one time automatically 75 ratus having a circuit including a tuned-reed re 4 l2,105,134 nating current for control of train carried appa ratus, and a vehicle provided with a receiving ap paratus having a circuit including a tuned-reed relay selectively independent of ñltering means and having a plurality of sets of reeds, each set responding to a desired standard frequency band approximating a predetermined standard cycle. 4. The system set forth in claim l in which a closed core type transformer inductively receives ' a source of current of a predetermined standard frequency at times subject to fluctuations from said standard frequency, a train-carried circuit including means for receiving said current, means in said circuit for amplifying the received cur rent, tuned-reed relay means in said circuit se _lectively independent of filtering means and having a plurality of reeds tuned to a band of frequencies including and approximating said the rail current, said transformer comprising a predetermined standard cycle, said relay having 10 laminated core with coils mounted on two op its coils connected with said amplifying means posite legs thereof, the coil on one leg being con . and having its reeds in make and break circuit nected serially with the coil on the other leg whereby induced currents in the coils are in op 15 position when flux threads each- leg of the trans former carrying the coils in the same direction, and additive when flux threads each leg of the transformer carrying the coilsin opposite direc tion; such transformer eliminating stray inter 20 fering currents. 5. In a current transmitting system in which the rails of a track section are supplied with a source of current of a predetermined standard connection with other amplifying means, and another circuit including master-relay means connected to said other amplifying means. 8. A current transmitting system in which the rails in one track section are supplied with alter nating current of a predetermined cycle and an other track sectlon are supplied with alternating current of another predetermined cycle, said cur rent being supplied for control of train carried apparatus, a vehicle provided with a vehicle carried circuit including a receiving apparatus cycle at times subject to fluctuations from said capable of picking up current from a rail in standard cycle, a train-carried receiving circuit each of said sections, means in said circuit for 25 including a receiver capable of inductively receiv amplifying said current, tuned-reed relay means ing said current, a balanced winding in-put in said circuit selectively independent of filter transformer in said circuit having its primary ing means and having a plurality of sets of reeds, winding connected to said receiver, multi-stage each of said sets respectively being tuned to bands electronic tube amplifiers in said circuit, means of frequencies approximating and including pre connecting the secondary winding of 'said trans ' determined standard cycles, whereby each set may 30 former to the in-put of said amplifier, a tuned vibrate on a different frequency of different con reed relay in said receiving circuit selectively in trol currents ln different track sections, and an dependent of filtering means and provided with other circult including a master-relay controlled 35 a plurality of reeds having contacts capable of by said sets of reeds. making and breaking in rapid succession at the 9. In a current transmitting train-control sys frequency to which each of the reeds is tuned, tem, a source of current of a predetermined said reeds being tuned to a frequency band ap standard frequency at times subject to fluctua proximating and including said standard cycle tions from said standard frequency, a rail sup 40 whereby fiuctuations from said standard cycle plied with a vehicle-carried circuit including said will be compensated for, means connecting the current, a vehicle provided with a receiving appa 40 out-put of the said amplifier to said tuned-reed ratus responding selectively to the frequency of relay, another circuit including a master-relay, the rail current, said circuit including a tuned an electronic tube amplifier having its grid and reed relay selectively independent of filtering 45 plate circuits respectively connecting the circuits of the tuned-reed relay and the master-relay, and means actuated by the master-relay. 6. In a current transmitting system in which the rails of a track section are supplied with a 50 source of current of a predetermined standard means and having a plurality of reeds tuned to 45 a band of frequencies approximating and includ ing said predetermined standard frequency, said reeds being tuned to vibrate one-quarter cycle apart from each other successively, and another circuit including a master-relay controlled by said 60 reed relay. _ \ frequency at times subject to fluctuations from said standard frequency, a train-carried receiv 10. In a current transmitting train-control sys ing circuit including a receiver, a balanced wind tem, a vehicle provided with a. vehicle-carried ing in-put transformer having its primary wind . circuit including a receiving apparatus capable 55 ing connected to said receiver, a multi-stage elec of picking up current from a rail, a. tuned-reed 55 tronic tube amplifier in said circuit, means con relay in said circuit selectively independent of necting the secondary of said transformer to filtering means and having a plurality of vibrat the in-put of said amplifier, a tuned-reed relay ing reeds in make and break circuit connection in said receiving circuit selectively independent with amplifying means, said amplifying means of filtering means and provided with a plurality comprising an electronic tube having a grid lnl1 of reeds having contacts capable of making and series connection with a condenser and resistor, breaking in rapid succession at the frequency to said condenser and resistor being ln series make which each of the reeds is tuned, at least one of said reeds being tuned to a frequency slightly 65 lower than the predetermined frequency and an other slightly higher than the predetermined fre quency, means connecting the out-put of said amplifier to said tuned-reed relay, another cir cuit including a master-relay, an electronic tube 70 amplifier having its grid and plate circuit respec tively connecting the circuits of the tuned-reed relay and the master-relay, and means actuated by the master-relay. 7. In a current transmitting system in which 75 the rails of a track section are supplied with and break circuit connection with said vibrating reeds, and a battery in make and break circuit connection with said condenser and resistor and 65 said grid and operable to apply current to the grid by building up a static charge in the con denser during a period of impulse of the reeds when the same are in contacting circuit with the grid and the condenser releasing its static 70 charge through the grid-cathode circuit of the electronic tube when the reeds are out of con tacting circuit with the grid. MAX THEODORE WINTSCH.