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Патент USA US2105134

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Jan. 11, 1938.
M. 1'. wxNTscH
2,105,134
CURRENT TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
F'iled- July 3, 1936
_
2 Sheets-Sheet l
W,
CURRENT TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
Filed July 5, -1936
r»„_
_
_____.___
2 sheets-sheet 2
______,_._.._____
gmc/WM
Patented
>2,105,134
1l, " 1938
UNITED STATES .PATENT oFElcE'
Y 2,105,134
CURRENT TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
Max Theodore Wintsch, Lancaster,\l’a.
' Application `July 3, 1936, Serial No. 88,907
`
1o claims.
‘ `.This invention relates toa current transmitting
system which may be utilized to operate auto
(Cl. 246-63)
subject to the disadvantage of picking-up har
monies of the frequencies at which they are de'
signed to operate; or of interference caused by
Therinvention more particularly comprehends a foreign currents of different frequencies. Fure continuously indicating or intermittently indicat vthei‘more, their pick-up transformers are gen
ing automatic system in which an inductive or erally designed for receiving current from both
matic train control and cab-signaling systems.
'
_ other type receiver is utilized to transmit rail » rails ofthe track and involve more or less com
current to a vehicle operated on said track-rails,
the .system herein described being immune
against
(l) Interference caused by foreign currents of
diiîerent frequencies, or harmonics of the stand
-ard frequency of the controlling current trans
mitted inductively or directly by electrical road '
side equipment.
(2) Vibration of the vehicle.
.
(3) _Direct equalizing currents iiowing through
the axle, back and forth, on railways propelled
by direct current and a third rail system, where
the wheels of the .vehicle do not make equally
perfect electrical contact with the track rails.
(4) Adverse affectation by ordinary tempera
ture changes.
One of the objects of the invention is the pro
vision in a track-rail to vehicle current transmit
ting system of an inductive type receiver similar
in construction to a closed core transformer.
Another object of the invention is to provide
such .a system and accompanying devices in
30 which the rail current from one rail only is
utilized to operate the system and devices. An
other object of the invention is to provide in
such systems a tuned-reed relay operating on
the principle of a vibrating reed frequency
meter.
_
f
Other and equally important objects of the
invention will be apparent hereinafter as the
description ofthe invention proceeds.
Figure 1 of the drawings represents a dia
grammatic
showing of one preferred form of the
40
` system.
Figure' 2 is a view in side elevation of a tuned
reed relay assembled in a casing.
Figure 3 is a view in front elevation of a relay
comprising three groups of reeds.
Figure 4 is a top plan view of Figure 3.
Figure 5 is an end view of Figure 3.
Figure 6 is a detail of a single group of reeds.
Figure 'I is a top plan view of Figure 6, and
Figure 8 is a diagram of the pick-up circuit
where more than one set cf -vibrating reeds is
used.
In the prior art, automatic train control sys
tems are old where i ieir operation depends
upon inductive fields that are produced from
alternating currents flowing in the rails, the
energy being induced or picked-up by means of
open core transformers and collector coils, am
pliñed and then transmitted to a relay carried
on the locomotive. These prior art systems are
plicated structures.
The present invention ob
viates the difficulties of the prior art and pre
sentsa much more simple construction and de 10
sign, with the added advantage of utilizing a
single rail to transmit signaling current, so that
the other rail may be used for the return path
of propelling current. The use of a single rail to
transmit signaling current by means of an in 15
ductiveopen core, single coil receiver is disclosed
in the patent to Reichard 1,824,171 of September
22, 1931; and in my prior Patent 1,720,940 is
sued July 16, 1929, I have disclosed a tuned-reed
single reed relay in a train control system, but 20
neither of these patents disclose the novel com
bination and improved system that I am here
claiming.
In Figure 1 of the drawings, the pick-up trans
former is indicated by the numeral l and is of 25
the closed core type having coils 2 mounted on
>opposite legs of the core and parallel with the
vertical center line of one of the track rails 3,
out of direct contact above the top of the rail.
The two coils are serially wound in a direction 30
opposing each other, so that an inductive iiux
entering the coils from the track rail when a sig
nal current is flowing through the rail, will -act
additively on the two coils. In actual operation,
I have provided the closed core transformer with
two coils on each leg of the core, the coils on
. each leg being connected in parallel; the coils
on one leg connected in series with the coils on
the other leg, so that induced currents in the
coils are in opposition when ñux threads each 40A
leg of the transformer in the same direction,
and additive when fiux threads each leg in op
posite direction. This receiver is suspended from °
the car underframe about 4 feet in advance of
the first pair of wheels and about ’7.5 inches above 45
the level of the top of the rail, and is so mount
ed with respect to the railthat one coil of the
receiver is located i-n a vertical plane approxi
mately 4 inches outside of the righthand mail,
while the other coil is> similarly located approxi 50
mately 4 inches inside the rlghthand rail. This
inductive receiver (which has no direct wireconnection with the rail) is connected to the
>primary of a balanced .winding in-put trans
former I, the secondary of which is connected 55
to the in-put circuit of a two-stage vacuum tube
amplifier, the tubes being designated as 5 and 6.
The out-put of amplifiers 5 and 6 are connected
to the coils of a tuned-reedrelay 1 >which is ad
justed to vibrate on a band of frequencies corre
2
2,105,134
sponding to the frequencies of the track con
trolling current supplied to the rails. An as
sembly of such a relay is shown in Figure 2, with
cathode, and the plate. In practice, the ñlament
the details of the vibrating group or groups
is composed of a wire mesh, and on the outside
shown in Figures 3 to ’7. In Figure 2, the letter
A is the armature, D the amplitude adjusting
screw, M the electro-magnet, and R the tuned
reed. It will be noted from Figure 3 that the
relay comprises three groups of reeds, each group
10 consisting of three reeds secured to a support;
one group being responsive to 25cycle current, a
second group to 60 cycle current, and a third.
group to 100 cycle current. This relay utilizes
some construction features of the “Frahm” type
15 or” vibrating-reed frequency meter or “Tacho
meter”, in which instruments reeds are tuned to
different natural periods of vibration to meas
ure the frequency of cycle of electric current.
The tuned-reed relay 'l differs in construction
20 from the Frahm type instrument in that the
relay has contacts on each of the reeds and sta
tionary contact points mounted in the relay cor
responding with contacts mounted on the reeds.
The natural period of vibration of the tuned
N) UK reed will not deviate from the standard more
than one percent from the period upon which
the reed is tuned to vibrate. On lower frequen
cies,
deviation from the standard is as low as
one-tenth of one percent. I therefore prefer to
3@ me several reeds to cover a whole band of fre
quencies of the controlling fcurrent. For ex
ample, if the frequency of the controlling current
is 25 cycles, one reed is tuned to vibrate on exactly
25 cycles, and several other reeds are tuned to
vibrate on one-quarter cycle either way from
the standard, each reed one-quarter cycle higher
or lower than the preceding reed either direction
from the reed tuned to the standard of 25 cycles.
In other words, the reeds may be tuned to a
Whole band of frequencies, as 23.5, 23.75, 24, 24.25,
24.5, 24.75, 25, 25.25, 25.5, etc. as conditions may
require. The construction is such that the reeds
may contact at about 1% of the iull amplitude of
their natural amount of vibration. These reeds,
45 being provided with contacts which make and
break in rapid succession at the frequency to
which the reeds are tuned, control the flow of
current from a small battery 8 to the grid oi.'
vacuum tube S located betweenv the tuned-reed
50 relay 'l and the master relay Ill, the coils of which
are included in the plate circuit of the tube 9.
A compensation condenser I l is charged by the
battery 8 each time the contact "a" in the tuned
' reed relay is closed, and the condenser II re
55 leases its charge slowly through the grid and
is in the center, around the filament is the cath
ode, around the cathode we have the grid which
of the grid is located the plate. As long as the
cathode is made incandescent by the heated ilia
ment, negative electrons are thrown off into the
space around the cathode. The negative elec
trons are attracted by the plate which is always
connected to the positive pole oi’ the “B” current
supply, the electronic current ilowing through
the mesh oi' the grid tothe plate. It is a known
fact that electric current will ilow only from a
zone 'of high, or positive potential to one of low
or negative potential.
Hence, the “B" supply
current will ilow inside of the tube from the plate -
through the mesh of the grid to the negative
cathode against the electron flow.
As already
explained, a plate-cathode circuit is secured by
the electrons traveling from the cathode to the 20
plate, since they are attracted by the plate posi
tively charged, resulting in a ñow of current from
the “B” supply to ilow in this circuit from the
plate to the cathode, thus the electrons act as
a conductor.
25
.
Whenever the contact a in the vibrating-reed
relay is closed, a low current will also flow in the
grid-cathode circuit because a certain number of -
electrons are stopped by the positively charged
grid and allows the current of the “B” supply to 30
flow in the circuit in which case we have a grid
cathode current. The flow of electrons from the
cathode, when the grid is negativê, is repulsed,
for in this case the electrons are negatively
charged, since we know that two polarities of the
same name repulse one another. Therefore, the
current from the plate, having no electronic sup
port to travel on, is then quitesuddenly stopped.
One can understand from this explanation that
the grid acts as an automatic interrupter, but 40
since no mechanical parts are to be moved it
has no inertia, and it can therefore open and
close the circuit of the plate a tremendous nurn
ber of times per second.
Since we now know that changing the polarity 46
of the grid in our tube 9 from positive to neg
ative opens and closes the plate circuit by means
of an alternating current supplied from the cur
rent supply I, which may be a 48 volt battery,
and regularly interrupted by the vibrating reed so
frequency of the track control current.
Assuming a 100 cycle control current is flowing
at the contact a at a speed corresponding to the
in the track rail I, this current is then induc
tively transmitted by means of the pick-up trans~
former to the input of a two stage audio fre
'cathode of the amplifier tube l each time the
contact “a” is broken.' As long as the grid is » quency amplifier of the electronic type, located
carrying a positive charge, the plate circuit for on the propelling vehicle. The operating coils
the tube 9 will be closed. The coil of the master
of the vibrating-reed relay will become energized
60 reiay Ill is connected to the secondary winding or de-energized corresponding to the frequency of
I2 of a transformer i3 having a’primary winding the alternations of the track control current.
i4 which in turn is connected to the plate I 5 of The reed l which has a natural period of vibra
the amplifier tube 9 and to the B+ supply. The tion also corresponding to the frequency of
master-relay in turn actuates the cab-signal ap
the alternations of the track current will now
paratus in accordance with track conditions.
open or close the contact a 100 times per second.
A detailed description or the operation oi.' the Every time the reed 1 closes the contact a, a
radio amplifying tubes, and particularly tube 9 grid-cathode current will ilow from the positive
shown in Figure 1 of the drawings, is as fol
pole of the current supply I, through the reed
7, through the contact a to the grid and through
lows:
70 Inside of the glass envelope of the radio tube 8 the cathode in the tube 9 to the negative pole
in a vacuum we have four electrodes which are of the current supply 8. This same current will
the heating ñlament, the cathode which supplies also place a static charge on the compensating
-the electrons for the operation of the tube while condenser Ii. The path for the plate-cathode
"B” current including serially connected there
it is heated by the filament, the grid which con
75 trols the flow of electrons from the plate to the with the operating coil I0 of our master relay.
60
65
70
75
2,105,134
is now'closed,
by action of the positively
charged grid. ~The coil l0 ofthe masterl relay
will become energized and will pick up its arma
tures.
3
which the train might pass. This will be oi espe
cial advantage where a train operating in a ter
. ritory where the signals are on a 100 cycle fre
quency passes into a territory where the fre
'
Now when the contact a in the vibrating reed
relay is open, the grid in the tube 9 becomes neg
quency is, say 60 cycles.
.~
In an actual installation of the present sys
atively charged being connected to the negative tem, tests were made to determine the eifect of
v pole of the “B” current supply. The flow of elec
trons from the cathode when the ygrid is negative
10 is repulsed since the electrons are now nega
tively charged, therefore the plate-cathode cur
. foreign current from adjacent power lines of the
same frequency as that used for the operation
of the device. To simulate the effect of an ad
10
jacent power line, a wire loop incorporating a
slide wire resistance and an ammeter was con
is now interrupted. ’ The supply of “B” current to , nected to a 25 cycle power supply, this being the
the coil I0 of the master relay becomes there- ' frequency at which the installation was designed
rent having no electronic supportto travel on',
15 fore interrupted and the relay will release its
armatures.
However, asl explained previously,
as long as the contact a inthe vibrating-reed
relay was closed, the compensating .condenser Il
was statically charged. With the contact a open
20 the condenser Il will release its static Icharge
through the grid-cathode circuit, momentarily
acting in the same manner as the current supply
8. The plate-cathodecircuit inside of the tube
9 will therefore remain closed and the “B” cur
25 rent supply` will keep the coil I0 of the master
relay energized.
If the‘current supply to the input ofthe two
. stage audio amplifier in advance of the coils of
the vibrating reed relay becomes permanently
30 interrupted, the tuned reed 1 will no longer
vibrate.
'I'he contact a will remain open, the
plate-cathode circuit in the tube 9 will be per
manently interrupted and the master relay will
remain in the “open” position.
Any suitable circuit may be employed for
operating the cab-signals by reason of the en
ergizing and deenergizing of the master relay,
but I prefer to use the wayside signal and ve
hicle circuits and ' mechanism described and
40 claimed in my two copending United States ap
plications, Ser. No. 37,878, filed August 26, 1935
and Ser. No. 748,252, ñled October 15, 1934.
Any desired signaling or controlling me‘cha
nism may be eiîectuated through the single mas
45 ter relay, or a plurality of relays similar to the
tinguished and the green cab-signal was dis
played. With 10 amperes in the loop, it was 20
necessary to bring the wire within 18 inches of
the receiver in order to extinguish the red and
display the green indication. 'I'hese tests were
made with no rail current present in the rails,
simulating the conditions which‘should obtain 25
in an occupied block. These tests indicate the
comparative immunity of the device from the in
ductive effects of adjacent power lines and other
electric roadside equipment such as. generators,
transformers, etc.
30
Various modifications may be made within the
spirit and scope of the invention, and I do not
Wish to be slavishly restricted to the details as
set forthherein, but desire to claim the inven
tion as broadly as set forth in the appended 35
claims. 'I'he pick-up system might be used on
steam propelled locomotives- and the tuned-reed
relay control for the- signals and/or train con
trol could be used, without regard to the specific
type of pick-up utilized.
What I claim is:
'1. In a current transmitting system in which
the rails of a track section are supplied with ` '
alternating current of a predetermined stand-.
ard cycle for control of train carried apparatus, 45
master relay Ill may be provided, each controlled
a train-carried receiving circuit including a re
by a reed-relay which is responsive to a prede
,ceiver for said control current, a tuned~reed re- '
termined frequency.
.
'
The tuned-reed relay may operate on an in
50
to operate. This loop, carrying 5 amperes was 15
gradually moved ytoward the receiver, and when
it had been brought to within 12 inches of the
receiver, the red-cab signal indication was ex
lay in said circuit having a set> of reeds each
carrying contacts and tuned to a band of fre
a voltage of 15 volts or more and a controlling
quencies approximating and including said pre 50
determined standard cycle, said tuned-reed re
particular frequencies. The invention has been
quencies of the rail current, said receiving appa
described with one set of reeds on the basis of a
25 cycle current, but as many sets of reeds may
be used as desired. They may be manually ad
lay selectively independent of filtering means and
having a plurality of sets of reeds capable of vi
put current of approximately'l-Z milliamperes at
track current of 1.5 to 2 amperes at 1/2 volt. lay being selectively independent of ñltering
The number of stages of vacuum tube »ampliñca . means, and another circuit including a master
tion required in advance ofthe reed-relay will relay controlled by current flowing through the
be determined by the frequency of the controlling reeds and contacts in said tuned-reed re1ay,-said 55
current. Three stages of amplification are used reeds and contacts being included in the circuit
if the frequency is near 25 cycles, while only one of the master-relay.
2. A current transmitting system in which the
stage of amplification will suiiice if- the fre
quency is above 60 cycles. In order to operate rails in one section of a track are supplied with
alternating current of a predetermined cycle and 60
60 the master relay one stage of amplification is
in another section are supplied with alternating
shown. Additional stages may be used, if de
current of another predetermined cycle, said cur
sirable or necessary.
It may be observed that no electrical iilter is rent being supplied for control of train carried
apparatus, and a vehicle provided with a receiv
required in the pick-up circuit and the tuned
ing apparatus responding selectively to the fre 65
reed
relay
makes
the
device
more
selective
to
65
70 justable and interchangeable. As described here
inabove, and with particular reference to Fig
brating at bands approximating and including 70
said respective predetermined frequencies, y
whereby said receiving apparatus is effective for
operation in both sections.
3. A current transmitting system in which the
respond to the frequency prevailing in the par
ticular signaling system' of the territory overv rails of a track section are supplied with alter
. ure 3, a number of sets may be provided together
so that one set may at any one time automatically
75
ratus having a circuit including a tuned-reed re
4
l2,105,134
nating current for control of train carried appa
ratus, and a vehicle provided with a receiving ap
paratus having a circuit including a tuned-reed
relay selectively independent of ñltering means
and having a plurality of sets of reeds, each set
responding to a desired standard frequency band
approximating a predetermined standard cycle.
4. The system set forth in claim l in which a
closed core type transformer inductively receives '
a source of current of a predetermined standard
frequency at times subject to fluctuations from
said standard frequency, a train-carried circuit
including means for receiving said current, means
in said circuit for amplifying the received cur
rent, tuned-reed relay means in said circuit se
_lectively independent of filtering means and
having a plurality of reeds tuned to a band of
frequencies including and approximating said
the rail current, said transformer comprising a predetermined standard cycle, said relay having 10
laminated core with coils mounted on two op
its coils connected with said amplifying means
posite legs thereof, the coil on one leg being con . and having its reeds in make and break circuit
nected serially with the coil on the other leg
whereby induced currents in the coils are in op
15 position when flux threads each- leg of the trans
former carrying the coils in the same direction,
and additive when flux threads each leg of the
transformer carrying the coilsin opposite direc
tion; such transformer eliminating stray inter
20 fering currents.
5. In a current transmitting system in which
the rails of a track section are supplied with a
source of current of a predetermined standard
connection with other amplifying means, and
another circuit including master-relay means
connected to said other amplifying means.
8. A current transmitting system in which the
rails in one track section are supplied with alter
nating current of a predetermined cycle and an
other track sectlon are supplied with alternating
current of another predetermined cycle, said cur
rent being supplied for control of train carried
apparatus, a vehicle provided with a vehicle
carried circuit including a receiving apparatus
cycle at times subject to fluctuations from said capable of picking up current from a rail in
standard cycle, a train-carried receiving circuit each of said sections, means in said circuit for
25
including a receiver capable of inductively receiv
amplifying said current, tuned-reed relay means
ing said current, a balanced winding in-put in said circuit selectively independent of filter
transformer in said circuit having its primary ing means and having a plurality of sets of reeds,
winding connected to said receiver, multi-stage each of said sets respectively being tuned to bands
electronic tube amplifiers in said circuit, means of frequencies approximating and including pre
connecting the secondary winding of 'said trans ' determined standard cycles, whereby each set may 30
former to the in-put of said amplifier, a tuned
vibrate on a different frequency of different con
reed relay in said receiving circuit selectively in
trol currents ln different track sections, and an
dependent of filtering means and provided with other circult including a master-relay controlled
35 a plurality of reeds having contacts capable of by said sets of reeds.
making and breaking in rapid succession at the
9. In a current transmitting train-control sys
frequency to which each of the reeds is tuned, tem, a source of current of a predetermined
said reeds being tuned to a frequency band ap
standard frequency at times subject to fluctua
proximating and including said standard cycle tions from said standard frequency, a rail sup
40 whereby fiuctuations from said standard cycle plied with a vehicle-carried circuit including said
will be compensated for, means connecting the current, a vehicle provided with a receiving appa 40
out-put of the said amplifier to said tuned-reed ratus responding selectively to the frequency of
relay, another circuit including a master-relay, the rail current, said circuit including a tuned
an electronic tube amplifier having its grid and reed relay selectively independent of filtering
45
plate circuits respectively connecting the circuits
of the tuned-reed relay and the master-relay,
and means actuated by the master-relay.
6. In a current transmitting system in which
the rails of a track section are supplied with a
50 source of current of a predetermined standard
means and having a plurality of reeds tuned to 45
a band of frequencies approximating and includ
ing said predetermined standard frequency, said
reeds being tuned to vibrate one-quarter cycle
apart from each other successively, and another
circuit including a master-relay controlled by said 60
reed relay.
_
\
frequency at times subject to fluctuations from
said standard frequency, a train-carried receiv
10. In a current transmitting train-control sys
ing circuit including a receiver, a balanced wind
tem, a vehicle provided with a. vehicle-carried
ing in-put transformer having its primary wind . circuit
including a receiving apparatus capable
55 ing connected to said receiver, a multi-stage elec
of picking up current from a rail, a. tuned-reed 55
tronic tube amplifier in said circuit, means con
relay in said circuit selectively independent of
necting the secondary of said transformer to filtering means and having a plurality of vibrat
the in-put of said amplifier, a tuned-reed relay ing reeds in make and break circuit connection
in said receiving circuit selectively independent with amplifying means, said amplifying means
of filtering means and provided with a plurality comprising an electronic tube having a grid lnl1
of reeds having contacts capable of making and series connection with a condenser and resistor,
breaking in rapid succession at the frequency to said condenser and resistor being ln series make
which each of the reeds is tuned, at least one
of said reeds being tuned to a frequency slightly
65 lower than the predetermined frequency and an
other slightly higher than the predetermined fre
quency, means connecting the out-put of said
amplifier to said tuned-reed relay, another cir
cuit including a master-relay, an electronic tube
70 amplifier having its grid and plate circuit respec
tively connecting the circuits of the tuned-reed
relay and the master-relay, and means actuated
by the master-relay.
7. In a current transmitting system in which
75 the rails of a track section are supplied with
and break circuit connection with said vibrating
reeds, and a battery in make and break circuit
connection with said condenser and resistor and 65
said grid and operable to apply current to the
grid by building up a static charge in the con
denser during a period of impulse of the reeds
when the same are in contacting circuit with
the grid and the condenser releasing its static 70
charge through the grid-cathode circuit of the
electronic tube when the reeds are out of con
tacting circuit with the grid.
MAX THEODORE WINTSCH.
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