close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2105264

код для вставки
Jan. 11, 1938.
2,105,264
H. V. REED
APPARATUS FOR THE GENERATION OF FOAM FOR FIRE EXTINCTION
Filed July 26, 1935'
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
INVENTOR
HEEBERTVERNON REED
BY
ATTORNEZY.
Jan. 11, 1938.
I
‘
‘
H. v-. REED
. .
2,105,264
APPARATUS FOR THE GENERATION OF FOAM F‘OR‘FIRE EXTINCTION }
Filed July 26, 1935
_
Y 2 Sheets-Sheet 2
luvcmoz
‘HERBERT RNONREED
BY
.
w
. I
.
2,105,264
' Patented Jan. ll, 1938
'"IUNlTED STATES PATENT OFFICE-l
mans-ms FOR. Tim GENERATION or‘
man son Fran ax'rme'rroN ' ,
Herbert Vernon
, London, England
Application July as. 1935, Serlal No. 33,272
In Great Britain August 1, 1934
13 Claims. (cl. 261-76)
This invention relates to apparatus for the genq mined volume of the piston cylinders a governed
eration of foam for ?re extinction, in which water, . amount of foam forming substanceawhich will
air or other noniniiammable gas and material _ be principally air or may be solely air if the
such as saponin in solution are intimately mixed
saponin or‘ the like has been previously added to
5 into a close foam, the air or other‘ gas, and other
the water-will be introduced under pressure into 5
foam forming materials being hereinafter re
the mixing chamber so as to combine therein with
ferred to generally as foam forming substances.
the water to form the foam.
In methods heretofore proposed, the intimate
Thegliquid pistons may be delivered on to one
mixing of the water and foam forming substances side of a perforated screen in the mixing chamber
10 has been carried out by centrifugal action‘, either and the foam forming substances to the other 10
in a bladed runner driven mechanically or by a side of the screen, but whether the screen is used
jet of the water impinging on the blades‘of the or not, the pistons will always follow the foam
runner or a separate turbine, or in a mixing
channel into which the water is ejected from a
15 turbine driving a centrifugal pump which throws
the foam forming substances fed thereto by
forming substances into the mixing chamber,
the foam forming substances being expelled into » '
a part of the chamber which may circumferen- 15
gravity into the mixing channel. There is also
tially precede the part in which the pistons are
delivered as in the rotary piston forming device
the known injector method of utilizing a jet-of
water ?owing into a mixing chamber to induce
20 into the chamber the necessary. foam forming
piston forming device is employed as hereafter
substances.
‘
'
With such methods either a mechanical drive
is necessary for the runner, or, if the water it
self is utilized to drive the apparatus, then a
_ g5 considerable amount of its energy is lost, and the
prwent invention seeks to avoid any of the known
methods by providing a method wherein not only
does the water induce, but positively expels, by
direct impact, the foam forming substances into
to be described or be in line with it where a ?xed
described.
_
20
The accompanying drawings illustrate various
forms of apparatus for foam making according
to the present invention and in these drawings:
Fig, 1 is a longitudinal cross section through
apparatus employing a rotating bladed runner.
25
Fig. 2 is a front elevation of the apparatus
partly in ‘section.
,
Fig. 3 is a section on the line t—3 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 is a developed plan of the runner and
30 a mixing chamber, so that the water and foam
forming substances are introduced into the said
chamber separately and at such a velocity that
co-operating parts.
they will be intimately mixed into a foam therein,
a. particular feature of this method being that
35 the proportion of air introduced is de?nitely con
trolled. The means employed for e?ecting this
separate and distinct introduction of the elements
of the final foam, whilst deriving rotary energy
form of mixing device in tube form.
from a jet of water, does so with minimum reduc
40 tion of the water energy so that mamrnum pres
sure is available for expelling the foam forming
substances into the mixing chamber.
trating another alternative form of mixing
The method of making foam according to the
apparatus of the invention, therefore, con
45 sists in utilizing liquid pistons to induce foam
which houses a. runner 2 mounted on ya shaft 3 ,
forming substances into the piston cylinders
which are of a predetermined and greater volume
than the pistons, and at the same time to sweep
‘ out the previously induced contents of the cylin
50 ders into one part of a mixing chamber before
the pistons themselves deliver into another part
of the said chamber.
»
'
'
Thus the water and foam forming substances
are kept as distinct as possible prior to delivery
65 into the mixing chamber and due to the predeter
30
Figs. 5 and 6 are a plan view and a longitudinal
section, respectively, illustrating an alternative
.
Fig‘. 'l is a longitudinal section illustrating
another alternative form of mixing device in 3
tube form.
-
,
Figs. 8 and 9 are’ a transverse section and a side
elevation, partly 'in section, respectively, illus
device.
a
4"
In the embodiment of the invention shown in
Figures 1 to 4 a cylindrical casing l is‘ provided
journaled in plain or ball bearings mounted in,
bosses I2‘, it in end plates 4, 5.
" l
The runner 2 consists of external and internal
shroud rings or bands 6, 1- between which are
fitted blades 8 disposed obliquely to the axis of
the shaft 3, the spaces between the blades opening 50
to either side of the runner and forming passage
ways for the passage of liquid-pistons across the
runner, as will hereinafter appear. The blades 8
may alternatively be longitudinally disposed when
used with an obliquely directed liquid jet, the 5g ‘
2
2,105,204
internal shroud ‘I being suitably supported from
the shaft by plates.
The front end plate 4 of the casing l is ?tted
with’ a water inlet 9 which may be ?anged or
screwed to suit any fire-hose coupling and may
be perpendicular or inclined to the surface of the
end plate 4. The inlet 9 is preferably of nozzle
shape decreasing in area in the direction of ?ow
so that the liquid enters the spaces between the.
10 runner blades 8 at a sufficiently high velocity.
In addition, ori?ces or connections Iii, H are
provided in the end plate 4 for the admission of
air andsapo'nin or the like.
The back end plate 5 has two delivery ori?ces
l4, l5, one H to pass the liquid pistons and the
other l5 to pass the air and saponin or the like,
ejected by'the pistons. Saponin or the like ma
terial may, of course, have been previously mixed
with water. A long tube l6 forming a mixing
20 chamber is attached to the end plate 5 and is
divided by a perforated metal or wire mesh screen
I'l into two compartments and terminates in a
nozzle [8.
The screen I‘! may be ?tted or as
sociated with bailles I!) (see Figures 5 and 6) to
ensure the passage of the liquid over the com
plete surface thereof so that the air delivered to
the lower side of the screen is continually in con
tact with the liquid stream delivered to the upper
side of the screen. The tube l6 may have any.
30 desired shape and in Figs. 1 and 3 is illustrated as
being of substantially equal cross sectional area
throughout its length, but is divided by the screen
I‘! so that the cross section of the air compart
spaces thereby exhausting the spaces to allow
of the free admission of air and saponin or the
like thereinto through the inlets In, H whilst
expelling by direct‘ impact the air and saponin,
previously admitted, through the outlets ll, IS,
the air and saponin ?rst being expelled through
outlet l5 and the pistons themselves following
through the outlet l4. Thus, in the runner there
is substantially no turbulence and no intimate
mixing of the water and foam forming substances, 10
but instead they are kept as separate as possible
within the blade spaces and only brought together
in the mixing chamber, the high velocity of the
various elements resulting in an intimate mix
ture thereof and a close foam.
It will be noted from Figure 4 that each blade
space comes'into register with the outlet IE only
after it has passed the inlets Ill, H, and further
that it is in register with the outlet when a liquid
piston commences its travel across the particular 20
space, i. e., when the latter registers with the
nozzle 9. Thus the obliquity of the blades is such
l that a blade space, although opening on either
side of the runner, never provides a direct pas
sage between the inlets l0, II and the outlet l5. 25
During the passage across the runner of any
liquid piston, the blade space along which it is
travelling will move circumferentially so that the
liquid piston passes out through the outlet ll sub;
30
stantially in the original line of the jet.
ment gradually diminishes towards the outlet l8
Thus, as successive blade spaces pass the out
let l5 quantities of air will be expelled therefrom
into the mixing chamber and below the screen
to produce the necessary volume for foam pro
while the cross section of the liquid stream com
partment increases in the direction of ?ow so
between a liquid piston and the volume of foam
that the liquid is gradually aerated into foam.
The same effect is obtained in Fig. 7 by making
the perforated screen l'la conical and placing it
40 concentrically within the mixing tube lGa, or in
Fig. 6 by disposing the ?at perforated screen [1b
substantially parallel with the upper 'side of the
tube l6b which increases in width in the direc
tion of flow. A further method is to deliver the
' liquid tangentially to the annular space formed
between two concentric cylinders 20, 2|, (Figures
8-and 9) the inner one 20 of which is perforated
and open to a conduit 22 to be connected to the
outlet l5 of the casing through which the foam
forming substances, i. e. the air and the saponin,
are ejected by the liquid pistons. A conduit 24
duction within the mixing chamber.
The ratio -
forming substance swept out thereby is definite
but subject to variation by varying the ratio of
the distance between blades to blade length and
also by varying the inclination of the blades to 40
the runner axis.
‘In the above described arrangement, the liquid
pistons may travel through the blade spaces dur
ing the time a space takes to travel from the
commencement of outlet IE to outlet 14; the in 43
duction action of the pistons would then be in
direct, the free admission of air being dueto the
exhaustion of the spaces. On the other hand
if the runner makes one complete revolution
whilst a liquid piston is travelling through a
space, then as the space with the piston in it,
communicates with the annular space between
passes the inlets "I, II a direct induction of the
the cylinders, and is to be connected to the outlet
M of the casing I so that the liquid pistons will
be diverted spirally along the annular-space be
tween the cylinders 20, 2| by means of bailles 23,
foam forming substances will occur.
the resulting foam being collected and delivered
to the nozzle l8.
_
>
The nozzle l8 and the tube I6 may be sepa
60 rated from the end plate 5 and connected thereto
I claim:—
‘
1. Apparatus of the character described for
making foam for ?re extinguishing, comprising a
casing with a runner mounted to rotate freely
therein, blades on the periphery of the runner,
the spaces between the blades opening on either
by two flexible hoses along which the separate
side of the runner, a nozzle on one side of the 60
runner for delivering a jet of liquid to the run
ingredients are conveyed.
ner blades, the blades and the nozzle being dis
‘
As will be seen from Figure 4, the developed
shape of the runner blades is straight so that
posed so that rotation of the runner is caused
without substantially reducing the energy of the
although the jet impinging thereon will cause
jet and the blades cut into the jet to form liquid
the runner to rotate, the energy absorbed from
pistons which sweep out the spaces between the
the jet will be very small, which is unlike the . blades, inlets on the nozzle side of the runner for
usual water turbine or centrifugal pump wherein _ admitting foam forming substances to the blade
the blades are curved to absorb a considerable or
70 the whole amount of the jet energy. The main
purpose of the blades is to cut into the liquid jet
and separate it into liquid pistons which are of
considerably less volume than that of the spaces
between the blades, and which pass with sub
75 stantially the velocity of the jet along the blade
spaces, and separate delivery outlets for the liq
uid pistons and the foam forming substances to
a mixing chamber on the opposite side of the
runner, the outlet for the/foam forming sub
K
stances being arranged with respect to the inlets
and the nozzle so that each blade space is in
register with said outlet only when the space has 75
2,105,204 ‘
passed the inlets and while a liquid piston is
travelling along the particular space.
2. Apparatus for making foam for ?re extin
guishing comprising a casing with a runner
mounted to rotate freely therein, blades disposed
8. In combination with apparatus according to
claim 6, a perforated screen dividing the mixing
chamber into two compartments, one disposed in
‘advance of the other as regards the direction of
rotation of the liquid pistons within the casing so Ul
that the foam forming substances are discharged
into one of said chambers inadvance of the dis
on the periphery of the runner obliquely across
the runner axis and forming straight lines when
the runner is developed, the spaces between the
charge of the liquid pistons into the other of said
blades opening on either side of the runner, a
10 nozzle on one side of the runner for delivering
a {ct of liquid to the runner blades which cut
the jet into liquid pistons, an inlet on the nozzle
chambers, and baiiles , in said last mentioned
chamber to de?ect the liquid from side to side 10
during its passage through said ‘chamber.
9. Apparatus of the character described, for
making foam for ?re extinguishing, comprising
side of the runner for admitting foam forming
‘substances to the blade spaces and separate de
livery outlets for the liquid pistons and the foam’
forming substances ‘to a mixing chamber. on the
15'
opposite side: of the runner, the obliquity, of the
blades being such that no direct passage is pro
charging into the chamber, said means including
vided between the inlet and outlet of the foam
a nozzle delivering a jet of liquid which is cut
into the liquid pistons, an air inlet angularly pre 20
ceding the nozzle and an inlet for chemical foam
formant angularly preceding the air inlet.
10. Apparatusof the character described for
‘
\
3. Apparatus of the character described, for
making foam for ?re extinguishing, comprising
a tubular, mixing chamber, a perforated, screen
dividing the chamber longitudinally into two
compartments, and means for creating liquid
pistons and causing ‘the’ same to deliver foam
forming substances to one compartment of the
mixing chamber before they themselves deliver
into the'other compartment of the said chamber.
4. Apparatus of the character described, for
making foam for fire extinguishing, comprising
a tubular mixing chamber of substantially con
stant cross section area through its length, a per
forated screen dividing the chamber longitudinally into two compartments so that one of the
compartments gradually diminishes in area to
40
a mixing chamber, rotary means for creating suc
cessive liquid pistons and causing each to deliver
in front of it a quantity of air and chemical foam
formant to the said chamber before itself dis
forming substances.
30
3
making foam for ?re extinguishing, comprising '
a casing housing a‘ liquid piston forming device 25
and a ‘nozzle for delivering a jet of liquid to said
device, said device and nozzle being mounted for
relative rotation, a series of blades immovably
mounted in said device and so disposed in rela
tion to the nozzle that they cause relative r'ota-. 30
tion between themselves and the nozzle without
substantially reducing the energy of the jet,
whilst cutting the jet into successive liquid pis
tons each of which passes axially along and
, sweeps out the contents of a blade space before as
wards the outlet end of the mixing chamber, and)
means for creating liquid pistons and causing
same to deliver foamlforming substances to the
compartment of gradually diminishing area be '
fore they themselves deliver into the other com
partment of the mixing chamber,
5. Apparatus of the character described, for
_making foam for ?re extinguishing, comprising a
cylindrical mixing chamber, a cylindrical per
forated screen of smaller diameter than the
chamber, and mounted concentrically therein to
form two compartments, and a spiral bame in
the outer compartment formed by the space be-\
50 tween the screen and the chamber, and means
for creating liquid pistons and causing same to
deliver foam forming substances to the inner
compartment before they themselves deliver to
the outer compartment.
~
6. Apparatus of the character described for
it, inlets for foam forming substances, arranged‘, ‘
on the nozzle side of said device so that the liquid
pistons moving axially along the blade spaces
induce foam forming substances behind them,
and a mixing chamber into which the contents of 40
the blade spaces swept out by the pistons and
the pistons ‘deliver in succession.
11. Apparatus of the character- described for
making foam for ?re extinguishing, comprising a
vcasing housing a liquid’ piston forming device
and a nozzle for delivering a jet of liquid to said
device, said device and nozzle being mounted for
relative rotation, a series of blades immovably
mounted in said-device and so disposed in rela
tion to the nozzle that they cause relative rota
- tion between themselves and the nozzle without
substantially reducing the energy of the jet,
whilst cutting the jet into successive liquid pis- ‘
tons each of which passes axially along and
sweeps out the contents of a blade space before
making foam for ?re extinguishing, comprising it, inlets for foam forming substances, arranged
a casing having an inlet for liquid and an outlet
for liquid and foam forming substances, rotary
60
on the nozzle side of said device so that the liquid
pistons moving axially along the-blade spaces ,
means within said casing for dividing a stream of induce foam forming substances behind them,
liquid flowing therethrough into successive liquid , separate delivery outlets for the liquid pistons
pistons, means for the supply of foam forming and the foam forming substances swept out by
and a mixing chamber disposed to receive liquid
the pistons to a mixing chamber on ‘the opposite
side of said device, the outlet for the liquid pistons
being arranged in advance of the outlet for the
and foam forming substances discharged from
foam forming substances. .
said casing through said outlet.
12. Apparatus of the character described for
making foam for ?re extinguishing, comprising a.
casing, a rurmer rotatably mounted in and about
substances in front of each liquid piston prior to
its discharge from said casing through said outlet,
. 7.-Apparatus as set forth in claim 6, wherein
‘a perforated screen divides the mixing chamber
into’ two compartments one disposed in advance
‘of the other as regards the direction of rotation
of the liquid pistons within the casing so that
the foam forming substances are discharged into
one of said chambers in advance of the discharge
65
the axis of the casing, blades on the periphery
of the runner extending across the casing between 70
the sides thereof in which the axis of the runner
is mounted, and forming spacesopen at each end,
of the liquid pistons into the other of said cham
a mixing chamber having an ‘entrance which the
spaces pass in succession as the runner rotates, a
bers.
nozzle for delivering a Jet of liquid to the oppo
4
,
aromas
site ends of the blade spaces, the blades and the
nomle being disposed so that rotation of the run
her‘ is caused without substantiallyreducing the
energy of the jet, and the blades 'cut into thejet
to form liquid pistons which sweep out the con
tents of the blade spaces and then follow them
selves into the 'mixing chamber, and inlets for
admitting foam‘ forming substances to be induced
. by the liquid pistons, said inlet anglllarly preced
10 ing the nozzle so that the ‘foam forming sub
stances are induced into the blade spaces before
'
passingthe ventrance to the mixing chamber as
the runner rotates. a nozzle attached to an inlet
in the other side plate for delivering a jet of liq
aid to the blade spaces as they pass the inlet, '
the blades and the nozzle being disposed so that
rotation of the nmner is caused without substan
tially reducing the energy of the jet, and the
blades cut into the Jet to form liquid pistons
‘which sweep out the contents of the blade spaces
and then follow themselves into the mixing 10
chamber, and an inlet for foam forming sub
the said spaces open to the entrance to the mix
stances to‘ be induced by the liquid pistons, said
ing chamber.
13.‘Apparatus,oi' the character described for
inlet’ being arranged in the nozzle side plate an
gularly before the nozzle inlet and in such a po
sition that each blade space registers with the 15
making foam for ?re extinguishing, comprising a
casing having parallel side plates, a runner ro
' tatably mounted between the side plates, a mix
ing chamber having an entrance in one side
plate, blades on the periphery of the runner ex
20 ‘ tending from side plate to side plate and form
' ing spaces open at each end and successively
entrance to the mixing chamber only when the
space has passed the inlet for the foam forming
substances, and while a liquid piston is travelling
along the particular space.
'
'
20
HERBERT VERNON REED.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
687 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа