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Патент USA US2105454

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Jan. 11, 1938.
2, 105,454
W. FERRIS
PUMP OR MOTOR
Filed Dec. 13, 1935
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Jan. 11, 1938.
2,105,454
W. FERRIS
PUMP OR MOTOR
Filed Dec. 13, 1955
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43
INVENTQR
VVALTER
FEHHIS
BY
:TTORNEY
Patented Jan. 11, 1938
'
2,105,454‘
warren stares
PATENT OFFICE
2,105,454
PUMP OR MOTOR
Walter Ferris, Milwaukee, Wis, assignor to The
Oilgear Company, Milwaukee, Wis, a corpora
tion of Wisconsin
Application December 13, 1935, Serial No. 54,189
8 Claims. (0]. 103-—161)
This invention relates to pumps or motors of
Fig. 3 is a transverse section taken on the line
the type in which the cylinders are arranged in 3-3
of Fig. 1.
r
a rotatable cylinder barrel, a piston-is ?tted in
Fig. 4 is a force diagram.‘ _
each cylinder and provided at its outer end with
'Fig. 5 is a central longitudinal section through
5 a contact face which is inclined to the piston
0
axis, and a thrust member engages the contact a Dump having two ‘circular rows of pistons.
face’ on each piston at one side of the piston axis
Figs. 1 to 4
and is so arranged that it forces each piston in
The
pump
has
its
mechanism arranged within
ward during one part of the revolution of the
,1“ cylinder barrel and permits it to move outward and carried by a casing l which is provided at
its rear end with an integral hub or boss 2 of 10
during another part of the revolution of the cyl
substantial thickness and at its front end with a
inder barrel whereby, during reciprocation of the removable
head 3.
pistons, relative movement between each piston
Theboss 2 has a valve shaft or pintle 4 secured
_ and the thrust member causes the contact face on
" the piston to roll upon the thrust member and
the piston to rotate within its cylinder, such as
the pump described and claimed in Patent No.
2,074,068 which issued March 16, 1937 on appli
cation Serial No. 662,219, ?led March 23, 1933 of
on which this application is a continuation as to
matters common to both applications.
A machine of the above type will function as
a pump when it is driven mechanically and will
function as a motor when driving liquid is sup—
23 plied to its cylinders. For the purpose of illus
tration, the machine will be referred to herein as
a pump and the invention will be explained as a
pump but it is to be understood that the inven
tion is equally applicable to a motor of the same
3:) type.
The present invention has as an object to pro
vide a rolling piston pump which is very compact.
Another object is to provide a rolling piston
pump which is more economical to manufacture
35 than the previous rolling piston pumps.
Other objects and advantages will appear from
the description hereinafter given of a pump in
which the invention is embodied.
According to the invention in its general aspect
40 and as ordinarily embodied in practice, the pump
has its pistons and cylinders arranged in a ro
tatable cylinder barrel and inclinedto the axis
thereof, a thrust ring is arranged around the cyl
inder barrel eccentric thereto and engages the
therein at its rear end in axial alinement with a
The pintle 4 extends into the casing I and has .
two segmental ports 6 and 1 formed therein di
ametrically opposite each other near the front 20
end thereof. The ports 6 and ‘I communicate, re
spectively, with an upper passage 8 and a lower
passage 9 which extend longitudinally of the
pintle and communicate, respectively, with a pas
sage IO and a passage I l which are formed in 25
the boss 2. The pump may be connected into a
hydraulic circuit by means of two pipes I2 and
I3 which are attached to the boss 2 and com
municate, respectively, with passages l0 and II.
The pintle 4 has closely ?tted upon the front 30
part thereof a rotatable cylinder barrel l4 which
has a plurality of cylinders i5 formed therein in.
a circular row. Each cylinder I5 is inclined to
the cylinder barrel axis and provided at its inner
end with a port It which communicates with the 35
pintle ports 6 and 'l alternately as the cylinder
barrel rotates.
When the pump is in operation, a small volume
of liquid from the cylinders is forced between the
bearing surfaces of the cylinder barrel and the 40
pintle and forms a lubricating ?lm upon which
the cylinderlbarrel rotates. This ?lm is subjected
to pump pressure and tends to move the cylinder
barrel toward the high pressure or discharge side
45 outer end of each piston at a. point offset from the .
of the pump and thereby cause it to bear more 45
piston axis whereby during rotation of the cyl
heavily upon the low pressure or intake side of
inder barrel the pistons will be simultaneously
reciprocated and. rotated.
The invention is exempli?ed by the pump illus
50 trated in the accompanying drawings in which
the views are as follows:
Fig. 1 is a central longitudinal section through
the pump as indicated by the line l—| . of Fig. 2.
Fig. 2 is a transverse section taken on the
55 line,2-2 of Fig. 1.
.
.
_
drive shaft 5 which is journaled in the front 1"
head 3 in a suitable bearing and restrained there
by from axial movement.
the pintle. In order tov overcome this tendency,
pressure limiting grooves H are formed in the
pintle to determine the width of the region of
high pressure tending to lift the cylinder barrel 50
away from the pintle on the high pressure side
thereof.
The area of this region is so propor- '
tioned that the ?uid pressure acting upon the
inner ends of the cylinders and tending to hold
the cylinder barrel against the pintle is equal to 55
2,105,464
2
or greater than the separating pressure of the
film between the surfaces tending to lift the
cylinder barrel away from the pintle.
The cylinder barrel is connected to the drive
shaft through a’ ?exible or universal joint in
order that slight manufacturing errors or mis
alinement of parts may not prevent the cylinder
barrel from ?oating freely upon the pintle. As
shown, shaft 5 is provided at its inner end with
Cradle 39 may be shifted by either manual or
power means according to common practice. As
shown, it is adapted to be moved in one direc
tion by a spring 38 and in the opposite direction
by a piston 39 which is connected thereto by a
rod 40 and ?tted in a cylinder 4| formed in one
side wall of easing I. Spring 38 engages cradle
30 at a point opposite rod 40 and reacts against
the end wall of a recess 42 which is formed in
10 an integral reduced portion 18 which is sup
ported in an anti-friction bearing l9 inserted in
the inner end of pintle 4 and carried thereby. A
coupling 29 is splined upon shaft 5 and has an
annular boss 2| formed on its inner face and
arranged-within a recess 22 which is formed in
the end of cylinder barrel l4. Recess 22 has a
ring 23 arranged therein between its outer the
outer peripheral wall and the outer periphery of
boss 2| and spaced slightly therefrom.
20 -Rotation is transmitted from drive shaft 5
through two pins 24 to ring 23 and from ring
23 through two pins 25 to cylinder barrel l4.
Pins 24 are arranged diametrically opposite each
other and ?tted in two holes each of which is
formed partly in boss 2| and partly in ring 23.
Each pin 25 is spaced 90° from the pins 24 and
?tted in a hole which is formed partly in ring
23 and partly in cylinder barrel l4.
Each cylinder l5 has a piston 26 ?tted therein
30 and provided at its outer end with a contact face
21 to engage the inner face of a thrust ring 28
which extends around the cylinder barrel and
is ?xed in a rotatable drum 29 and rotated there'
with substantially in synchronism with the cyl
35 inder barrel by frictional rotative forces trans
mitted through the pistons. Thrust ring 28 is
?xed indrum 29 in any suitable manner as by
being closely ?tted therein and restrained from
axial movement by spacer rings. In actual prac
tice, an ordinary ball bearing having a hardened
40 inner race is often employed in small size pumps
in place of thrust ring 28 and drum 29.
.
Drum 29 is arranged within a cradle 30 and
provided at its front end with a tubular hub 3|
and at its rear end with a tubular hub 32 which
45 are ?tted, respectively, in ball bearings 33 and 34
carried by the front and rear walls of cradle 30.
‘Bearings 33 and 34 permit drum 29 to rotate but
restrain it from axial movement. Shaft 5 and
pintle 4 extend through hubs 3| and 32 respec
50 tively, and the inside diameter of each hub is
great enough to permit drum 29 to be shifted
transverse to the pintle axis to change pump dis
placement.
Cradle 30 is adjustable in a horizontal plane
55 transverse to the pintle axis but is positively
restrained from movement in any other direc
~ tion.
As shown, it is restrained from rearward
movement by the rear wall of easing I, from
forward movement by a plate 35 which forms
60 the inner wall of front head 3, and from vertical
movement by the upper and lower walls of easing
the other side wall of easing I. ‘
_
Spring 38 and piston 39 may be adapted to
move cradle 3!! far enough to shift the axis of
thrust ring 28 from one side of the cylinder bar
rel axis to the other side thereof to reverse the
direction of pump delivery or stops may be pro
vided to prevent cradle 30 from moving far
enough to shift the axis of the thrust ring past
the cylinder barrel axis so that the pump will
deliver liquid in but one direction as long as the
cylinder barrel rotates in the‘ same direction. iii)
Also, either spring 38 or piston 39 may shift
cradle 30 in a direction to increase pump dis
placement and the other shift it in a direction
to decrease pump displacement.
‘
As shown, piston 39 will shift cradle 30 from
its neutralposition toward the right in respect
to Fig. 2 to increase pump displacement when
motive liquid is delivered to the head end of
cylinder 4| as by means of a pipe 43, and there
after spring 38 will shift cradle 30 toward its 30
neutral position to decrease pump displacement
when liquid is allowed to escape from the head
end of cylinder 4|.
»
When cradle 39 has been shifted toward the
right and cylinder barrel i4 is rotating in the
direction of the arrow, the pistons in the lower
half of cylinder barrel M will move progressively
outward and draw liquid into their cylinders
through passage .9 and port 1, and the pistons
in the upper half of cylinder barrel I4 will be 40
forced progressively inwardv and expel liquid
from their cylinders through ports l6 and 6 into
passage 8.
If cylinder barrel l4' should be rotated in the
opposite direction or if the axis of thrust ring
28 should be shifted to the opposite side of the
cylinder barrel axis, the direction of pump- de
livery wouldbe reversed but if both of these ad
justments were made the direction of pump de
livery would remain the same.
Liquid for actuating piston 39 may be supplied
50
from any suitable source such as a gear pump
which has its driving gear 44-?xed on drive shaft,
5 and its driven gear 45 journaled upon a stub
shaft 45 ?xed in front head 3, gears 44 and 45
being ?tted in a suitable pump chamber 41 which
is formed in front head 3 and closed by plate 35.
When the pump is in operation and thrust ring
28 is arranged eccentric to the cylinder barrel so
that each piston is forced inward during one
half-revolution of the cylinder barrel and is per
mitted to move outward during the other half
revolution, the distance between the contact face
21 on each piston and the axis of the cylinder
I. In order to reduce frictionand wear. cradle
39 is provided with a plurality of slide plates 36 _ barrel changes twice during each revolution with
each of which engages a bearing plate 31 as a resultant variation in the linear speed of the
65
shown in Fig. 2.
.
end of each piston.
When the axis of thrust ring 28 coincides with outer
Since thrust ring'28 is rotated by contact with
the axis of cylinder barrel l4, the pump is at zero '_all of the pistons, it moves at substantially the
stroke and no liquid will be delivered thereby. average speed of the outer ends of all pistons
When cradle 30 is shifted in one direction or the
70 other from its central or neutral position,‘ the which is the same as the rotary speed of the
a
, pump will deliver liquid in one direction or
75
cylinder barrel. Consequently, the outer end of
each piston moves faster than a given point on
the inner‘face of the thrust ring during one
rection and distance the axis of thrust ring 28
_ half-revolution of the cylinder barrel and slower 75
is offset from the axis of cylinder barrel l4.
the other and at a rate depending upon the di
2,105,454
than that point during the other‘half-revolution.
If the thrust ring engaged the piston upon its
axis and transmitted pumping forces to the pis
ton parallel to the piston axis, the piston would
slide upon the thrust-ring and create friction
which would detract from the efficiency of the
pump.
,
_
In the pump shown in Patent No. 2,074,068,
sliding friction between the piston and the thrust
10 ring is avoided by providing the thrust ring with
an inclined inner face and providing each piston
with an enlarged head having an arcuate con
tact face which is engaged by the inclined face
on the thrust ring at a point o?'set from the pis
15 ton axis whereby, during reciprocation of the
piston, the piston head rolls along the thrust ring
and the piston rotates in the cylinder.
In order to simplify the piston construction
and to make the pump more compact, pistons
26 are inclined to the radii of the. cylinder bar
rel and each is provided with an outer end or
head which is substantially the same diameter as
the body of the piston, and thrust ring 28 is
provided with a cylindrical inner surface which
ID Li engages the contact face 21 on each piston upon
a single spot 48 (Fig. 4) which is offset far
enough- from the piston axis to cause contact
face 21 to roll along the inner surface of thrust
ring 28 and the piston to rotate in its cylinder
as the cylinder barrel rotates.
The contact face 21 on each piston is an ar
cuate but non-spherical generated surface the
radii of which radiate from points outside the
piston axis. It is ordinarily produced by beveling
35 the outer end of the piston and then arranging
the piston in a ?xture corresponding to cylinder
barrel Ill and rotating the ?xture with the outer
end of the piston in contact with an abrading
surface which corresponds to the inner surface
of thrust ring 28.
Pumping force is transmitted from thrust ring
responding parts’ previously described.
wise these parts remain unchanged.
3
Other
Cylinder barrel It‘1 is provided with two rows
of cylinders l5a which are inclined to the radii
of the cylinder barrel and have pistons ‘i6a ?tted 5
therein. The cylinders in one row are inclined in
one direction and the cylinders in the other
row are inclined in the opposite direction. Each
cylinder is connected at its inner end to the ad
jacent cylinder in the opposite row by a cylinder . .l
port Iiiti which communicates with the pintle
ports alternately as the cylinder barrel rotates.
The pistons 26a in each row have the contact
faces 2'!B thereof normally held in engagement
with the inner face of a thrust ring 28a which
is ?xed in drum 2!!11 as by being closely ?tted
therein and spaced- from the other ring 28‘1
by a suitable spacer ring. The pump functions
in the same manner as the pump previously
described.
The invention herein described is susceptible
of various modifications without'departing from
the scope thereof as hereafter claimed.
The invention is hereby claimed as follows:
1. A pump, comprising a casing, a pintle ?xed
in said casing and having ports and passages
formed therein, a cylinder barrel journaled upon
and carried by said pintle and provided with
cylinders which communicate with said pintle
ports alternately as said cylinder barrel rotates, 30
said cylinders being inclined to the radii of said
cylinder barrel, means for rotating said cylinder
barrel, a cylindrical piston ?tted in each cylin
der and provided with an arcuate contact face
upon its outer end, and'a thrust ring arranged 35
around said cylinder barrel and engaging said
contact face upon a single spot which is at all
times offset far enough from the piston axis to
cause the piston to rotate in its cylinder during
rotation of said cylinder barrel.
40
2. A pump, comprising a casing, a pintle ?xed
28 through spot 48 to piston 26 in a direction at ' in said casing and having ports and passages
right angles to the cylinder barrel axis as indi
formed therein, a cylinder barrel journaled upon
cated by line ?ll-49 on Fig. 4. The liquid in the and carried by said pintle and provided with cyl~
cylinder reacts upon the inner end of the pis
inders which communicate with said pintle ports
ton and the resultant of this reaction lies along alternately as said cylinder barrel rotates, said 45
a line 50—50 which intersects the line of pump
cylinders being inclined to the radii of said cyl-.
ing force at a point 5i which is intermediate inder barrel, means for rotating said cylinder
the ends of the piston and well within the cylin
barrel, a cylindrical piston ?tted in each cylin
50 der in all positions of the piston. The pumping der and provided with an arcuate contact face
force is thus resolved into two components one upon its outer end, a thrust ring arranged around
of which acts along line 50-50 and urges the said cylinder barrel and engaging said contact
piston inward and the other of which extends face upon a single spot which is at all times
from point 5|, as indicated by arrow 52, and re
offset far enough from the piston axis to cause
acts upon the wail of the cylinder at right angles the piston to rotate in its cylinder duringrotation .
thereto so that the piston bears evenly upon of said cylinder barrel, and means for rotatably
the wall of the cylinder and no tilting of the pis
supporting said thrust ring to permit it to be
ton or uneven wear will result. The forces act
rotated in unison with said cylinder barrel by
ing upon the cylinder barrel are so nearly bal
contact with said pistons.
60 anced that the cylinder barrel substantially ?oats
3. A pump, comprising a casing, a pintle ?xed
upon the pintle and little if any force is required in said casing and having ports and passages 60
to restrain it from axial movement.
, formed therein, a cylinder barrel journaled upon
Fig. 5
said pintle and provided with cylinders which
The pump shown in this ?gure is substantially
the same as the pump shown in Figs. i‘to 3 except
that it is provided with two rows of pistons.
Consequently, corresponding parts have‘ been in
dicated by the same reference numeral with the
communicate with said pintle ports alternately
as said cylinder barrel rotates, means for rotating
said cylinder barrel, a cylindrical piston ?tted
in each cylinder and provided with an arcuate
contact face upon its outer end, and a thrust ring
arranged around said cylinder barrel and having
exponent “a”.added.
a cylindrical inner surface in engagement with
Drive shaft 58 and the manner of supporting 'the contact faces on said pistons, said cylinders 70
and connecting it remain unchanged but the ad
and pistons being inclined to the radii of said
dition of another row of pistons requires that cylinder barrel at such an angle that said thrust
the pump casing (not shown),‘pintle 4e, drum engages the contact face on each piston upon a
75 ‘29a and cradle 30*1 be made longer than the cor-_ single spot'which is offset far enough from the
75
2,105,454
4
piston axis to cause the piston to rotate in its
cylinder during rotation of said cylinder barrel.
4. A pump, comprising a casing, a pintle fixed
in said casing and having ports and passages
' formed therein, a cylinder barrel journaled upon
said pintle and provided with cylinders which
communicate with said pintle ports alternately as
'said cylinder barrel rotates, means for rotating
said cylinder barrel, a cylindrical piston ?tted in
each cylinder and provided with an arcuate con
tact face upon its outer end, a thrust ring ar-'
ranged around said cylinder barrel and having a
cylindrical inner surface in engagement with
the contact faces on said pistons, said cylinders
and pistons being inclined to the radii of said
cylinder barrel at such an angle that said thrust
ring engages the contact face on each piston
upon a single spot which is offset far enough from
the piston axis to cause the piston to rotate in
its cylinder during rotation of said cylinder bar
rel, and means for rotatabiy supporting said
thrust ring to permit it to be rotated in unison
with said cylinder barrel by contact with said
pistons.
’
_
5. A, pump, comprising a casing, a cradle ar
ranged within said casing, a hollow drum sup
ported within said cradle to rotate therein, a
thrust ring ?xed to the inside of said drum, a
pintle having one end ?xed to said casing and
its other end extending into said drum and pro
vided with intake and exhaust ports and passages,
a cylinder barrel arranged Within said drum and
journaled upon said pintle,-means for rotating
' said cylinder barrel, cylinders arranged in said
cylinder barrel and provided with ports to com
municate with said pintle ports alternately as
said cylinder barrel rotates, and a cylindrical»
piston ?tted in each cylinder and provided at
its outer end with an arcuate contact face to
40
engage the inner surface of said thrust ring,
said pistons and cylinders being inclined to the
radii of said cylinder barrel at such an angle that
said thrust ring engages the contact face on each
piston upon a single spot which is offset far
enough from the piston axis‘ to cause the piston
to rotate in its cylinder during rotation of the
cylinder‘ barrel.
6. A pump, comprising a' casing, a cradle ar
ranged within said casing, a hollow drum sup
ported within said cradle to rotate therein, a
30
thrust ring ?xed to the inside of said drum, a pin
tle having one end ?xed to said casing and its
other end extending into said drum and provided
with intake and exhaust ports and passages, a
a GI
cylinder, barrel arranged within said drum and
journaled upon said pintle,'means for rotating
said cylinder barrel, cylinders arranged in said’?v
cylinder barrel and provided with ports to com
municate with said pintle ports alternately as
said cyinder barrel rotates, a cylindrical piston
?tted in each cylinder and provided at its outer
end with an arcuate contact face to engage
the inner surface of said thrust ring, said pistons
and cylinders being inclined to the radii of said
cylinder barrel at such an angle that said thrust
ring engages the contact face on each piston
upon a single spot which is offset far enough from
the piston axis to cause the piston to rotate in
its cylinder during rotation of the cylinder bar
rel, and means for shifting said cradle trans
versely of said casing to thereby vary pump dis
placement.
,
'7. A pump, comprising a casing, a pintle ?xed
in said casing and having ports and passages
formed therein, a cylinder barrel journaled upon
said pintle, means for rotating said cylinder bar
rel, cylinders arranged in said cylinder barrel
in a plurality of circular rows and provided with,
ports to communicate with said pintle ports al
ternately as said cylinder barrel rotates, said
cylinders being inclined to the radii of said cylin
. der barrel and the cylinders in different rows be
ing inclined indifferent directions, a cylindrical
piston ?tted in each cylinder and provided with
an arcuate contact face upon its outer end, and
a thrust ring arranged around said cylinder bar
rel and engaging said contact face upon a single
spot which is offset far enough‘from the piston
axis to cause the piston to rotate in its cylinder
during rotation of said cylinder barrel.
_
8. A pump, comprising a casing, a pintle ?xed
in said casing and having ports and passages
formed therein, a cylinder barrel journaled upon
said pintle, means for rotating said cylinder bar
rel, cylinders arranged in said cylinder barrel
in a plurality of circular rows and provided with
ports to communicate with said pintle ports al
ternately as said cylinder barrel rotates, said cyl
inders being inclined to the radii of said cylinder
barrel and the cylinders in different rows being
inclined in different directions, a cylindrical pis- v .
ton ?tted in each cylinder and provided with an
arcuate contact face upon its outer end, a thrust
ring arranged around said cylinder barrel and
engaging said contact face upon a single spot
which is offset far enough from the piston axis
to cause the piston to rotate in its cylinder dur
ing rotation of said cylinder barrel, and‘ means
for rotatably supporting said thrust ring to per
mit it to be rotated in unison with said cylinder
barrel by contact with said pistons.
‘
'
‘WALTER FERRIS.
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