Патент USA US2105460код для вставки
Jan. 11, 1938. R. s. GAUGLER 2,105,460 REFR'IGERATING APPARATUS Original Filed March 28, 1934 2 Sheets-Sheet l Jan. 11, 1938. R s, GAUGLER 2,105,460 REFRIGERATING' APPARATUS Original Filed March 28, 1934 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Z?tEAtt Patented Jan. ill, ‘11938 Unitas spares @FFHQE 2,105,460 REFREGERATHNG APPARATUS , Richard S. Gaugler, Dayton, Qhio, assignor to General Motors Corporation, Dayton, Ohio, a corporation of Delaware Application March 28, 1934, Serial No. 717,703 Renewed August 29, 1936 iii Claims. This invention relates generally to refrigeration and particularly to ice freezing apparatus. An object of the present invention is to provide an improved freezing apparatus which continu 5 ously produces ice cubes or blocks after being initially rendered operative without further ma nipulation or attention on the part of the user. Another object of the invention is to utilize _'a force created by the buoyant effect of a pre 10 determined ice formation on a cooling element of a freezing apparatus to automatically and intermittently render the cooling element inef fective for forming ice thereon. A further object of the invention is to utilize 15 the force created by the buoyant effect of a pre determined formation of ice on a cooling ele ment of a freezing apparatus to cause move— ment of the element automatically into a posi tion to render same ineffective and to cause 2'') ice cubes or blocks to be released therefrom with out materially increasing the temperature of the cooling element. In carrying out the foregoing objects it is a further object of the invention to render the cool effective automatically after ice formed thereon has been released therefrom to provide a continuous operating freezing ap l3 3 ing element paratus. A still further and more speci?c object of the 3“ invention is to provide a freezing apparatus with a plurality of movable cooling or freezing ele ments which normally assume a position to per mit ice to form thereon and which after a pre- determined amount of ice has formed thereon :15 will move automatically and independently of one another into a position to cause the ice to be liberated therefrom. ‘ (Cl. 62-105) paratus in a position to cause ice formed thereon to be liberated therefrom; Fig. 5 is an enlarged vertical sectional view of one of the cooling elements of the apparatus and is taken on line 5-5 of Fig. 4; and 5 Fig. 6 is an enlarged vertical sectional view of one of a plurality of shut off devices employed in the refrigerating apparatus. In freezing apparatuses heretofore employed for producing large quantities of ice blocks or 10 cubes, such for example as in restaurants, hotels and the like, it has been customary to freeze water in a plurality of metallic receptacles or trays similar to the process carried out in household refrigerator cabinets. The dii?culties encoun— 15 tered in harvesting ice from trays of household refrigerators are believed to be well known to those skilled in the art and these 'di?iculties are inherently present in freezing apparatuses of the type above described and employed for com- 20 mercial use. The foregoing described method of freezing water into the form of blocks or cubes of ice and harvesting the same greatly impedes serving of cold drinks in such establishments as hotels, restaurants, and the like. To this end I 25 propose a freezing apparatus for use in restaur ants, hotels and the like which will continuously and automatically produce an abundance of ice cubes or blocks without the harvesting difficulties heretofore encountered in prior apparatuses. 30 Referring to the drawings, for the purpose of illustrating my invention, I have shown diagram matically in Fig. 1 thereof a closed refrigerant circulating system employed to refrigerate or cool the freeing elements of my apparatus. The 35 refrigerant circulating system may be of any conventional type and as disclosed, for illustra Further objects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following ing the principles of my invention, the system’ includes a compressor I0 adapted to be operated ‘1" description reference being had to the accom panying drawings, wherein a preferred form of compressor by belt and pulley connection l2, l3, and I4. Compressor ll! upon being operated by the present invention is clearly shown. In the drawings: Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic illustration of a re frigerating system employed for refrigerating the cooling or freezing elements of my apparatus; Fig. 2 is a top view partly in section and partly in elevation of my freezing apparatus; 50 Fig. 3 is an enlarged vertical sectional "view of the freezing apparatus taken on line 3-3 of Fig. 2 and showing ice beginning to accumulate on one of the cooling or freezing elements; Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 3 and shows one - 55' of the cooling or freezing elements of the ap by a motor ll operatively connected with the 40 motor H draws gaseous refrigerant from a plu rality of cooling or freezing elements I5, only one of which is shown in the diagrammatic illustra- 45 tion, through pipe or condut IS. The gaseous refrigerant is compressed by compressor Ill and is forwarded under pressure to condenser I8 in which the compressed refrigerant is cooled in any suitable or desired manner to'liquefy the same. 50 The condensed liquid refrigerant flows from con denser i8 into the receiver I9 where it accumu lates or is stored. prior to being circulated to one of the freezing elements I5. A pipe or conduit 2| leads from the receiver l9 to the branch con- 55 2, duits _ @?lQbAdil connected with a plurality of the ele— ments it. Each branch conduit 23 has a re= strictor, expansion device or valve iii-inserted therein for controlling the ?ow of liduid"_reinlg= erant to the elements to. The expansion- devices . . _ disposed at right angles to the members Ell-‘ A balance weight 62 is formed on or secured to one end of the arms or members The ends of the arms 5? and the members 5i secured there= to are of such weight as to slightly overbalance or valves 22 may be of any conventional iorm_ the ends of arms 5i’ thereby causing the arms and are preferably, in the present illustration, of bland members 5!! to normally assume a tilted the type which is caused to be opened in response position such as is shown in Fig. 3 of the draw to a reduction of pressure in elements it’. it is ings. Flexible refrigerant inlet conduits or pipes to be understood that one valve 22 is interposed in each branch pipe 23 leading to each oi‘ the ele= ments to employed in the apparatus for'inde pendently controlling the ?ow of refrigerant to .230: amend from the restrictors or expansion ill, valves 22 and connect with the refrigerant pas sage 553 provided in the one end of arms ill for directing refrigerant through the expansion pas» each independent element it. It is to be fur= sages or chambers 55 in the freezing member i5. ther understood that a plurality of branch co‘n Similar ?exible conduits ila extend from the re duits it, connected with conduit iii, leads from frigerant‘ passage provided in arms 5? and each element 05 and each oi‘ these conduits . connect with the shut o? device 25. The closed ll have a shut off device 25 inserted therein. refrigerant circuit from the refrigerant liqueiying ‘the devices 25 control the how of‘evaporated and condensing unit through the apparatus is 20 or vaporized refrigerant from the freesing clef thus completed as above described. so ments it and are operated in a manner to be The shut o? devices 25 employed in the apps.» hereinafter more fully described. A control ratus may be of any suitable form and cone switch 271 preferably of'the snap acting type, struction and are herein disclosed, in Fig. 6-02 includes electrical contacts Eli and inserted the drawings for purpose of illustration, ln= 25 in the power line leading to motor 0 i. The switch eluding a sealed casing bi. Casing ti has a 21? is actuated in response to movement of a bel lows 35 connected by pipe 32 to the gaseous re frigerant or low pressure conduit it. As pres= sures vary between predetermined limits in con= 30 duit it the bellows Eli will expand or contract and will consequently actuate the switch ‘2t to make or break the electrical circuit to motor ii. The freezing apparatus to which the refriger~ ating system is connected and which apparatus houses any desired number of the cooling or freezing forming elements a cabinet it, ill includes having-ainsulated compartment Walls or container 33 therein. A door 39 located in the top of cabinet 37? provides access to the compart 40 ment 3b. The compartment 38 is adapted to contain a body of water the level oi’ which is maintained substantially constant by a ?oat valve device iii of any suitable or conventional struc ture. The ?oat valve device Ill includes the usual needle valve or the like which controls the flow of water through an inlet pipe 412. An over~ ?ow pipe tit may be provided for the container or tank 38. A manually actuated valve Elli is dis~ posed at any suitable location eirteriorily oi’ cabi 50 net dl and has a pipe connection 65 opening into the bottom of the tank or container 38 (see Figs. 3 and 4i) draining the liquid contents of the tank in order to permit cleaning of the tank when ‘ desired. 55 v Each of the plurality of cooling or freezing ele-‘ ments it of the apparatus includes a pair of double-walled members bi each comprising sheet metal plates lit and E3 (see'Flg. 5). The sheet metal plates 52 and till are fashioned or corru gated as at tit and have their contiguous portions secured together to prelude a refrigerant expan sion chamber‘ or passages therebetween. The pair of double-walled members at or each of the plurality of freezing elements it are welded or 85 otherwise suitably secured to opposite sides of a portion of an arm or member till pivotally mounted on a shaft The shaft to is carried in any suitable manner by the walls 86 of the insulated cabinet ill. The end carrying the 70 members oi of each of the arms or members 5t‘ ~ is provided with passages 5b of a suitable size and design to 'register with and connect the re~. frigerant expansion chambers or passages 5b in each double-walled member iii together. A pair 75 or ?ns iii are secured to opposite sides of and partition 62 provided therein which divides the interior of the casing into two compartments. The partition 52 is provided with an opening 63 for permitting communication between the com~ partments formed by partition 62 in casing iii. 30) A valve 66 has a spring 55 normally tending to close same against the walls of opening A stem 66 formed on valve it extends‘ through opening 63 and is connected with a shaft til’, extending outwardly of the casing (t i, by a ?ange t8. A bellows 69 has its one end secured in any suitable manner to flange 68 and has its other end soldered or otherwise secured to the inner wall of the casing ti surrounding the point of - protrusion of shaft 6‘? from casing iii. The bei lows cs seals the casing against leakage and‘ permits movement of valve to relative to its seat or opening it}. The upper compartment in cas= ing it communicates with the ?exible reiriger= ant pipe or conduit ilcrwhile the lower com partment of casing ti ‘communicates with the refrigerant pipe ll. Operation of the shut ed device or devices will be hereinafter more fully described in connection with the operation of the apparatus. ' The shut o?’ devices 25 are supported in any 50 suitable fashion upon brackets "ii (see Figs. 2,_ 3, and c) secured to walls so of cabinet 3?. Each device 25 is positioned directly above and co operates with one of the arms bl‘ so that the 55 stem ill of device 25 is adapted to be engaged and moved by the weighted end portion d2 of arms 5?. A plurality of brackets 12 secured to a wall 36 of cabinet til serve as stops for the downward movement of arms 5'17. Another brack 60 et it serves as a mounting for the restrictors or expansion valves 22. A screen ‘iii, carried by brackets ‘it mounted on the inner surface of walls to of the apparatus, depends to a point adjacent arms‘ 57] and serves to direct ice ‘blocks, 435 to be presently described, toward the front of cabinet til. ‘ ‘Assuming now that the apparatus is to be put into operation and the freezing elements ' thereof are in their normal position shown in 70 Fig. 3. Water from any suitable source of sup-‘ ply is admitted to the tank or container 33 through inlet pipe :32 until the, level thereof reaches a point sufficient to cause the iioat valve device (ii to close ed’ the water inlet. _'l'he re 2,105,460 frigerant liquefying and condensing unit is then put into operation by closing the electric circuit leading to the control switch 21 and motor ||. ,Refrigerant in the pipe lines "5 and 32 of the refrigerating system will be at a relatively higher pressure than during operation of the system 3 . portion thereof directly exposed to or in contact with the water in container 38 to cause heat ab sorbed from the water to break the bond between the ice and the cooling or freezing elements l5 or 5|. Thus the ?ns 6| and sheet metal mem ll) therefore reduces the pressure or tends to create a vacuum in the low pressure side of the bers 52 of the double-walled structure 5| effec tively conduct heat from the water to thaw the ice and to cause the ice to be released from the freezing elements l5. The. ice blocks 18 thus released from element- |6 rises, due‘ to their 10 buoyancy, to the top of the body of ‘water in container 38. These blocks of ice 18 may then be taken or harvested from the apparatus or cabinet 31 upon opening the access door 39. Screen 15 prevents the ice blocks 18 from travel-v ing to the rear portion of the cabinet 31 thus preventing same from interfering with operation or ‘movement of other parts of the apparatus. After the ice 18 has been liberated from one of the freezing elements l5 in the manner de scribed, the buoyant effect of that element‘ is destroyed and it will move about its pivot auto refrigerating system and builds up pressure in matically into the position shown in Fig. 3. This the high pressure side thereof. ~Either- the low ‘pressure in the refrigerant expansion chamber 55 of the elements |5 or the high pressure created movement of any of the elements l5 causes the arm 51 thereof to strike and force open valve thus causing expansion of bellows 3| to main tain'the electric contacts 28 and 29 closed for completing the circuit to motor ||. Operation of motor | | and consequently compressor Ill 1-0 causes refrigerant to be drawn from the elements |5 since all elements |5 are at this time in the position shown in Fig. 3 of the drawings with the arms 51 thereof engaging and forcing stems 61 of. shut off devices 25in an» upward position to maintain valves 64' open. The open position of valves 64 permits communication of the re frigerant expansion passages 55, formed in the double-walled members 5|, with the suction line 20' It of the refrigerating system. The compressor by the compressor in back of the restrictors or 64 in the shut off device 25. Thus the refrigerat ing effect or freezing operation of element I5 is expansion valves 22 causes liquid refrigerant to be expanded through the restrictors or valves 22 into the refrigerant expansion chambers 55. Refrigerant'upon, expanding and vaporizing. in the chamber or passage 55 produces a refrigerat restored to again ~complete the freezing cycle‘. determined degree as to create a force sufficient to cause movement of an arm 51 about its piv apparatus. above described. ' - The freezing elements |5 of the apparatus may or may not be moved simultaneously by the force created by the buoyancy of the ice forma tion. In operation of theapparatus disclosed, ing or cooling effect of the double-walled mem ber 5| of elements l5 and causes water within it will be apparent to those skilled in the art 35 the container or tank 38 to freeze on the outer ~that, the freezing elements l5 willlvary some 35 surfaces of the members 5| in the form of ice, whatin the refrigerating effect produced thereby indicated by the number 15. This refrigerating vand movement of the elements I5 will therefore effect may be and is preferably con?ned to the ordinarily occur in succession rather than simul end portions of members 5| or |5 beyond the taneous. However in either event vthe control switch 21 of the refrigerating system will cause 40 ?ns 6| in any suitable manner so as to prevent frosting or ice formation on other parts of the. the refrigerant liquefying and condensing unit apparatus such as by insulating or coating with ' to stop operating when the pressure of the re rubber or the like the ?exible conduits 23a, I11; frigerant in the low pressure side of the system and the portions of ‘arms 51 through which the has been reduced to a predetermined degree. expanding refrigerant passes. The ice 18 con- ‘ For example, the control switch 28 will always 45 45 tinues to accumulate or build up on' members maintain the electric circuit to motor || closed,‘ except when all the freezing elements l5 are - l5 or 5| as refrigeration therein continues'until the buoyancy of the ice formed on any one of in the position shown in Fig. 3 of the drawings to thus provide a continuous operating freezing the freezing elements |5 increases to such a pre otal mounting on shaft 58. This movement of arm 51 causes same to assume'ahorizontal po sition such as shown in Fig. 4 of the drawings. 55 It is apparent that this movement of any of the arms 51 away from the shaft. or stem 61 of shut off device'25 and into abutting relation with the stops 12 causes the‘spring 65 in casing 6| of the device 25 to close the valve 64 thus cutting .60 off communication of refrigerant‘ expansion ' . 50 It will be apparent from the foregoing that I have provided an improved freezing apparatus of the continuous type and have provided an apparatus wherein a force created by the buoy ant e?ect of ice formed on the freezing elements 5.5 thereof is utilized for stopping the refrigerating effect of a certain freezing element to permit , release of ice blocks therefrom. My improved continuous freezing apparatus permits certain freezing elements to increase in temperature to 60 chamber or passage 55 in the freezing element‘ cause ice to be released therefrom while at the l5, moved under the force created by buoyancy same time causing a continued refrigerating ef of ice formed thereon. The refrigerating effect ' feet in certain other freezing elements to cause of freezing element l5, moved in the manner ice to form thereon. My improved continuous freezing apparatus is automatic in operation for 65 65 described, is caused to cease since no evaporated producing ice blocks or cubes and needs no vat or vaporized refrigerant can be withdrawn there from and this element therefore begins to in-' tention on the part of the-user after being in crease in temperature. The ?ns SI and the sheet itially rendered operative. This insures the pro duction of an abundance of ice cubes or blocks metal members 52 of the double-walled struc by the apparatus which can be readily har ture 5| are constructed so as to be greater in' 70 size than the blocks of ice to be formed ‘and vested without the diiliculties ordinarily encoun therefore the portions of these elements extend tered in freezing apparatuses heretofore em outwardly from the formation of ice 18 thereon While the form of embodiment of the inven into the body of water in tank'38. The ?ns 6| tion as herein disclosed, constitutes a preferred 75 and 52 are constructed so as to have a suf?cient 75 ployed. ' v , ‘ at form, it is to be understood that other forms might be adopted, all coming within the scope therein independently of and while the freezing of the claims which follow. I ing elements. 6. A freezing apparatus for making and har What is claimed is as follows: 1. A continuous freezing apparatus for produc ing ice blocks including, a container for holding a body of water, a plurality of cooling elements disposed in ‘said body of water, means for re frigerating said plurality of cooling elements to 10 a temperature to cause ice to form thereon, and means for stopping the refrigerating effect of action continues in other of said plurality of cool vesting ice blocks'including a plurality of cooling 5. elements disposed in a body of Water, means for producing a freezing action in said plurality of cooling elements, and means for temporarily in terrupting the freezing action in one of said pluralityof cooling elements while the freezing 10 action being produced in other of said‘ elements continues, said last named means being operable one of said plurality of cooling elements inde pendently of and while the refrigerating e?'ect of ' automatically in response to‘a force created by the buoyant e?ect of ice formed on said one of other of said plurality of cooling elements con 15 15 tinues, said last named means being operable said cooling elements. 7. In the art of making and harvesting ice by automatically in response to a force created by the buoyancy of ice formed on said one of said producing a freezing action in a plurality of cool cooling elements. > ing elements submerged in water, that step which comprises utilizing the amount of ice formed by I 2. A continuous freezing apparatus for produc 20 ing ice blocks including, a container for holding a body of water, a plurality of cooling elements disposed in said body of water and movably mounted independent of one another, means for refrigerating said plurality of cooling elements 25 to a temperature to cause ice to form thereon, said cooling elements being movable automatical ly in response to a force created by the‘ buoyancy of ice formed thereon, and ‘means actuated by the movement of any one of said plurality of 36 cooling elements for stopping the refrigerating effect thereof, said last named means operating independently of and while the refrigerating ef fect of the other of said plurality of cooling ele ments continues. 3. A continuous freezing apparatus for pro ducing ice blocks including, a container for hold ing a body of water, ‘a plurality of cooling ele ments movably mounted in said body of water, means for directing a refrigerant through said $1) cooling elements to cool same to a temperature in Q ments continues, said last named means being normally ineffective and rendered effective auto matically in response to the amount of ice formed ' by said one of said cooling elements. 35 9. A freezing apparatus for making and hard vesting ice blocks including a plurality of'cooling elements submerged in water, conduit means for circulating a refrigerating medium. through said cooling elements to cause same to produce a freez to cause ice to form thereon, said cooling ele ments being movable automatically in response to a force created by the buoyancy of ice formed thereon, a plurality of valves cooperating with said plurality of cooling elements, and either of said plurality of valves being actuated by the movement of its cooperating cooling element for controlling the circulation of refrigerant there through, and said either of said plurality of valves ing action, a valve interposed in said conduit means for stopping the flow of refrigerating medium through one of said plurality of'cooling elements while the freezing action being pro operating independently of other, of said plu 10. A refrigerating apparatus comprising in 50 combination, a plurality of cooling elements, at rality of valves to cause the refrigerating effect in the cooling elements cooperating with the said other of said plurality of valves to continue. 4;. In the art of making and harvesting ice .by abe producing a freezing action in a plurality of cool ing elements submerged in a body of water, that step which comprises utilizing a force created by the buoyant effect of ice formed on one of the plurality of cooling elements for stopping the 60 freezing action therein independently of and while the freezing action continues in other of said plurality of cooling elements. (3 one of a plurality of cooling elements for stopping the freezing action thereof independently of and While the freezing action of another of said plurality of cooling elements continues. 8. A freezing apparatus for making and har vesting. ice blocks including a plurality of cooling 25 elements submerged in water, means for causing said plurality of cooling elements to produce a freezing action, and means for temporarily inter rupting the freezing action produced by one of said plurality of cooling elements while the freez 30 ing action being produced by another of said ele ' 5. In the art of making and harvesting ice by producing a freezing action in a plurality of cool ing elements submerged in a body of water, that step which comprises utilizing a force created by the buoyant eifect of ice formed on one of the plurality of cooling elements for causing move ment thereof and stopping of the freezing action duced by another of said elements continues, and said valve being normally ineffective and ren dered effective automatically in response to the amount of ice formed by said one of said cool ing elements. . least one of said cooling elements being sub merged in water and adapted to have ice blocks formed thereon, means operable for circulating a cooling medium through said plurality of cooling 55 elements to cause same to produce a refrigerating effect, means for interrupting the refrigerating effect produced by said one of said plurality of cooling elements without interrupting operation of said cooling medium circulating means to 60 thereby permit continuance of the refrigerating effect produced by another of said elements and to cause ice‘ blocks to be released from said one cool ing element, and said interrupting means being normally ineffective and rendered effective auto 65 matically in response to the amount of ice formed by said one of said cooling elements. RICHARD S. GAUGLER.