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Патент USA US2105460

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Jan. 11, 1938.
R. s. GAUGLER
2,105,460
REFR'IGERATING APPARATUS
Original Filed March 28, 1934
2 Sheets-Sheet l
Jan. 11, 1938.
R s, GAUGLER
2,105,460
REFRIGERATING' APPARATUS
Original Filed March 28, 1934
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Z?tEAtt
Patented Jan. ill, ‘11938
Unitas spares
@FFHQE
2,105,460
REFREGERATHNG APPARATUS ,
Richard S. Gaugler, Dayton, Qhio, assignor to
General Motors Corporation, Dayton, Ohio, a
corporation of Delaware
Application March 28, 1934, Serial No. 717,703
Renewed August 29, 1936
iii Claims.
This invention relates generally to refrigeration
and particularly to ice freezing apparatus.
An object of the present invention is to provide
an improved freezing apparatus which continu
5 ously produces ice cubes or blocks after being
initially rendered operative without further ma
nipulation or attention on the part of the user.
Another object of the invention is to utilize
_'a force created by the buoyant effect of a pre
10 determined ice formation on a cooling element
of a freezing apparatus to automatically and
intermittently render the cooling element inef
fective for forming ice thereon.
A further object of the invention is to utilize
15 the force created by the buoyant effect of a pre
determined formation of ice on a cooling ele
ment of a freezing apparatus to cause move—
ment of the element automatically into a posi
tion to render same ineffective and to cause
2'') ice cubes or blocks to be released therefrom with
out materially increasing the temperature of the
cooling element.
In carrying out the foregoing objects it is a
further object of the invention to render the cool
effective automatically after ice
formed thereon has been released therefrom to
provide a continuous operating freezing ap
l3 3 ing element
paratus.
A still further and more speci?c object of the
3“ invention is to provide a freezing apparatus with
a plurality of movable cooling or freezing ele
ments which normally assume a position to per
mit ice to form thereon and which after a pre-
determined amount of ice has formed thereon
:15 will move automatically and independently of
one another into a position to cause the ice to
be liberated therefrom.
‘
(Cl. 62-105)
paratus in a position to cause ice formed thereon
to be liberated therefrom;
Fig. 5 is an enlarged vertical sectional view of
one of the cooling elements of the apparatus and
is taken on line 5-5 of Fig. 4; and
5
Fig. 6 is an enlarged vertical sectional view of
one of a plurality of shut off devices employed
in the refrigerating apparatus.
In freezing apparatuses heretofore employed
for producing large quantities of ice blocks or 10
cubes, such for example as in restaurants, hotels
and the like, it has been customary to freeze water
in a plurality of metallic receptacles or trays
similar to the process carried out in household
refrigerator cabinets. The dii?culties encoun— 15
tered in harvesting ice from trays of household
refrigerators are believed to be well known to
those skilled in the art and these 'di?iculties are
inherently present in freezing apparatuses of the
type above described and employed for com- 20
mercial use. The foregoing described method of
freezing water into the form of blocks or cubes
of ice and harvesting the same greatly impedes
serving of cold drinks in such establishments as
hotels, restaurants, and the like. To this end I 25
propose a freezing apparatus for use in restaur
ants, hotels and the like which will continuously
and automatically produce an abundance of ice
cubes or blocks without the harvesting difficulties
heretofore encountered in prior apparatuses.
30
Referring to the drawings, for the purpose of
illustrating my invention, I have shown diagram
matically in Fig. 1 thereof a closed refrigerant
circulating system employed to refrigerate or
cool the freeing elements of my apparatus. The 35
refrigerant circulating system may be of any
conventional type and as disclosed, for illustra
Further objects and advantages of the present
invention will be apparent from the following
ing the principles of my invention, the system’
includes a compressor I0 adapted to be operated
‘1" description reference being had to the accom
panying drawings, wherein a preferred form of
compressor by belt and pulley connection l2, l3,
and I4. Compressor ll! upon being operated by
the present invention is clearly shown.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic illustration of a re
frigerating system employed for refrigerating the
cooling or freezing elements of my apparatus;
Fig. 2 is a top view partly in section and partly
in elevation of my freezing apparatus;
50
Fig. 3 is an enlarged vertical sectional "view of
the freezing apparatus taken on line 3-3 of Fig.
2 and showing ice beginning to accumulate on
one of the cooling or freezing elements;
Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 3 and shows one
- 55' of the cooling or freezing elements of the ap
by a motor ll operatively connected with the 40
motor H draws gaseous refrigerant from a plu
rality of cooling or freezing elements I5, only one
of which is shown in the diagrammatic illustra- 45
tion, through pipe or condut IS. The gaseous
refrigerant is compressed by compressor Ill and
is forwarded under pressure to condenser I8 in
which the compressed refrigerant is cooled in any
suitable or desired manner to'liquefy the same. 50
The condensed liquid refrigerant flows from con
denser i8 into the receiver I9 where it accumu
lates or is stored. prior to being circulated to one
of the freezing elements I5. A pipe or conduit
2| leads from the receiver l9 to the branch con- 55
2,
duits
_
@?lQbAdil
connected with a plurality of the ele—
ments it.
Each branch conduit 23 has a re=
strictor, expansion device or valve iii-inserted
therein for controlling the ?ow of liduid"_reinlg=
erant to the elements to. The expansion- devices
.
.
_
disposed at right angles to the members Ell-‘ A
balance weight 62 is formed on or secured to
one end of the arms or members
The ends
of the arms 5? and the members 5i secured there=
to are of such weight as to slightly overbalance
or valves 22 may be of any conventional iorm_ the ends
of arms 5i’ thereby causing the arms
and are preferably, in the present illustration, of bland members 5!! to normally assume a tilted
the type which is caused to be opened in response position such as is shown in Fig. 3 of the draw
to a reduction of pressure in elements it’. it is ings. Flexible refrigerant inlet conduits or pipes
to be understood that one valve 22 is interposed in
each branch pipe 23 leading to each oi‘ the ele=
ments to employed in the apparatus for'inde
pendently controlling the ?ow of refrigerant to
.230: amend from the restrictors or expansion ill,
valves 22 and connect with the refrigerant pas
sage 553 provided in the one end of arms ill for
directing refrigerant through the expansion pas»
each independent element it. It is to be fur= sages or chambers 55 in the freezing member i5.
ther understood that a plurality of branch co‘n
Similar ?exible conduits ila extend from the re
duits it, connected with conduit iii, leads from frigerant‘ passage
provided in arms 5? and
each element 05 and each oi‘ these conduits . connect with the shut o? device 25. The closed
ll have a shut off device 25 inserted therein. refrigerant circuit from the refrigerant liqueiying
‘the devices 25 control the how of‘evaporated and condensing unit through the apparatus is
20 or vaporized refrigerant from the freesing clef thus completed as above described.
so
ments it and are operated in a manner to be
The shut o? devices 25 employed in the apps.»
hereinafter more fully described. A control ratus may be of any suitable form and cone
switch 271 preferably of'the snap acting type, struction and are herein disclosed, in Fig. 6-02
includes electrical contacts Eli and
inserted the drawings for purpose of illustration,
ln=
25 in the power line leading to motor 0 i. The switch
eluding a sealed casing bi. Casing ti has a
21? is actuated in response to movement of a bel
lows 35 connected by pipe 32 to the gaseous re
frigerant or low pressure conduit it.
As pres=
sures vary between predetermined limits in con=
30 duit it the bellows Eli will expand or contract
and will consequently actuate the switch ‘2t to
make or break the electrical circuit to motor ii.
The freezing apparatus to which the refriger~
ating system is connected and which apparatus
houses any desired number of the cooling or
freezing
forming elements
a cabinet it,
ill includes
having-ainsulated
compartment
Walls or
container 33 therein. A door 39 located in the
top of cabinet 37? provides access to the compart
40 ment 3b. The compartment 38 is adapted to
contain a body of water the level oi’ which is
maintained substantially constant by a ?oat valve
device iii of any suitable or conventional struc
ture. The ?oat valve device Ill includes the
usual needle valve or the like which controls the
flow of water through an inlet pipe 412. An over~
?ow pipe tit may be provided for the container or
tank 38. A manually actuated valve Elli is dis~
posed at any suitable location eirteriorily oi’ cabi
50 net dl and has a pipe connection 65 opening into
the bottom of the tank or container 38 (see Figs.
3 and 4i) draining the liquid contents of the tank
in order to permit cleaning of the tank when ‘
desired.
55
v
Each of the plurality of cooling or freezing ele-‘
ments it of the apparatus includes a pair of
double-walled members bi each comprising sheet
metal plates lit and E3 (see'Flg. 5). The sheet
metal plates 52 and till are fashioned or corru
gated as at tit and have their contiguous portions
secured together to prelude a refrigerant expan
sion chamber‘ or passages
therebetween. The
pair of double-walled members at or each of the
plurality of freezing elements it are welded or
85 otherwise suitably secured to opposite sides of
a portion of an arm or member till pivotally
mounted on a shaft
The shaft to is carried
in any suitable manner by the walls 86 of the
insulated cabinet ill. The end carrying the
70 members oi of each of the arms or members 5t‘
~ is provided with passages 5b of a suitable size
and design to 'register with and connect the re~.
frigerant expansion chambers or passages 5b in
each double-walled member iii together. A pair
75 or ?ns iii are secured to opposite sides of and
partition 62 provided therein which divides the
interior of the casing into two compartments.
The partition 52 is provided with an opening 63
for permitting communication between the com~
partments formed by partition 62 in casing iii. 30)
A valve 66 has a spring 55 normally tending to
close same against the walls of opening
A
stem 66 formed on valve it extends‘ through
opening 63 and is connected with a shaft til’,
extending outwardly of the casing (t i, by a ?ange
t8. A bellows 69 has its one end secured in any
suitable manner to flange 68 and has its other
end soldered or otherwise secured to the inner
wall of the casing ti surrounding the point of -
protrusion of shaft 6‘? from casing iii. The bei
lows cs seals the casing against leakage and‘
permits movement of valve to relative to its seat
or opening it}. The upper compartment in cas=
ing it communicates with the ?exible reiriger=
ant pipe or conduit ilcrwhile the lower com
partment of casing ti ‘communicates with the
refrigerant pipe ll. Operation of the shut ed
device or devices
will be hereinafter more
fully described in connection with the operation
of the apparatus.
'
The shut o?’ devices 25 are supported in any
50
suitable fashion upon brackets "ii (see Figs. 2,_ 3,
and c) secured to walls so of cabinet 3?. Each
device 25 is positioned directly above and co
operates with one of the arms bl‘ so that the 55
stem ill of device 25 is adapted to be engaged
and moved by the weighted end portion d2 of
arms 5?. A plurality of brackets 12 secured to
a wall 36 of cabinet til serve as stops for the
downward movement of arms 5'17. Another brack 60
et it serves as a mounting for the restrictors
or expansion valves 22. A screen ‘iii, carried by
brackets ‘it mounted on the inner surface of
walls to of the apparatus, depends to a point
adjacent arms‘ 57] and serves to direct ice ‘blocks, 435
to be presently described, toward the front of
cabinet til.
‘
‘Assuming now that the apparatus is to be
put into operation and the freezing elements '
thereof are in their normal position shown in 70
Fig. 3. Water from any suitable source of sup-‘
ply is admitted to the tank or container 33
through inlet pipe :32 until the, level thereof
reaches a point sufficient to cause the iioat valve
device (ii to close ed’ the water inlet. _'l'he re
2,105,460
frigerant liquefying and condensing unit is then
put into operation by closing the electric circuit
leading to the control switch 21 and motor ||.
,Refrigerant in the pipe lines "5 and 32 of the
refrigerating system will be at a relatively higher
pressure than during operation of the system
3 .
portion thereof directly exposed to or in contact
with the water in container 38 to cause heat ab
sorbed from the water to break the bond between
the ice and the cooling or freezing elements l5
or 5|. Thus the ?ns 6| and sheet metal mem
ll) therefore reduces the pressure or tends to
create a vacuum in the low pressure side of the
bers 52 of the double-walled structure 5| effec
tively conduct heat from the water to thaw the
ice and to cause the ice to be released from the
freezing elements l5. The. ice blocks 18 thus
released from element- |6 rises, due‘ to their 10
buoyancy, to the top of the body of ‘water in
container 38. These blocks of ice 18 may then
be taken or harvested from the apparatus or
cabinet 31 upon opening the access door 39.
Screen 15 prevents the ice blocks 18 from travel-v
ing to the rear portion of the cabinet 31 thus
preventing same from interfering with operation
or ‘movement of other parts of the apparatus.
After the ice 18 has been liberated from one of
the freezing elements l5 in the manner de
scribed, the buoyant effect of that element‘ is
destroyed and it will move about its pivot auto
refrigerating system and builds up pressure in
matically into the position shown in Fig. 3. This
the high pressure side thereof. ~Either- the low
‘pressure in the refrigerant expansion chamber
55 of the elements |5 or the high pressure created
movement of any of the elements l5 causes the
arm 51 thereof to strike and force open valve
thus causing expansion of bellows 3| to main
tain'the electric contacts 28 and 29 closed for
completing the circuit to motor ||. Operation
of motor | | and consequently compressor Ill
1-0
causes refrigerant to be drawn from the elements
|5 since all elements |5 are at this time in the
position shown in Fig. 3 of the drawings with
the arms 51 thereof engaging and forcing stems
61 of. shut off devices 25in an» upward position
to maintain valves 64' open. The open position
of valves 64 permits communication of the re
frigerant expansion passages 55, formed in the
double-walled members 5|, with the suction line
20'
It of the refrigerating system. The compressor
by the compressor in back of the restrictors or
64 in the shut off device 25. Thus the refrigerat
ing effect or freezing operation of element I5 is
expansion valves 22 causes liquid refrigerant to
be expanded through the restrictors or valves
22 into the refrigerant expansion chambers 55.
Refrigerant'upon, expanding and vaporizing. in
the chamber or passage 55 produces a refrigerat
restored to again ~complete the freezing cycle‘.
determined degree as to create a force sufficient
to cause movement of an arm 51 about its piv
apparatus.
above described.
'
-
The freezing elements |5 of the apparatus may
or may not be moved simultaneously by the
force created by the buoyancy of the ice forma
tion. In operation of theapparatus disclosed,
ing or cooling effect of the double-walled mem
ber 5| of elements l5 and causes water within it will be apparent to those skilled in the art
35 the container or tank 38 to freeze on the outer ~that, the freezing elements l5 willlvary some 35
surfaces of the members 5| in the form of ice, whatin the refrigerating effect produced thereby
indicated by the number 15. This refrigerating vand movement of the elements I5 will therefore
effect may be and is preferably con?ned to the ordinarily occur in succession rather than simul
end portions of members 5| or |5 beyond the taneous. However in either event vthe control
switch 21 of the refrigerating system will cause
40 ?ns 6| in any suitable manner so as to prevent
frosting or ice formation on other parts of the. the refrigerant liquefying and condensing unit
apparatus such as by insulating or coating with ' to stop operating when the pressure of the re
rubber or the like the ?exible conduits 23a, I11; frigerant in the low pressure side of the system
and the portions of ‘arms 51 through which the has been reduced to a predetermined degree.
expanding
refrigerant passes. The ice 18 con- ‘ For example, the control switch 28 will always 45
45
tinues to accumulate or build up on' members maintain the electric circuit to motor || closed,‘
except when all the freezing elements l5 are
- l5 or 5| as refrigeration therein continues'until
the buoyancy of the ice formed on any one of in the position shown in Fig. 3 of the drawings
to thus provide a continuous operating freezing
the freezing elements |5 increases to such a pre
otal mounting on shaft 58.
This movement of
arm 51 causes same to assume'ahorizontal po
sition such as shown in Fig. 4 of the drawings.
55 It is apparent that this movement of any of the
arms 51 away from the shaft. or stem 61 of shut
off device'25 and into abutting relation with the
stops 12 causes the‘spring 65 in casing 6| of
the device 25 to close the valve 64 thus cutting
.60
off communication of refrigerant‘ expansion
'
.
50
It will be apparent from the foregoing that I
have provided an improved freezing apparatus
of the continuous type and have provided an
apparatus wherein a force created by the buoy
ant e?ect of ice formed on the freezing elements 5.5
thereof is utilized for stopping the refrigerating
effect of a certain freezing element to permit ,
release of ice blocks therefrom. My improved
continuous freezing apparatus permits certain
freezing elements to increase in temperature to 60
chamber or passage 55 in the freezing element‘ cause ice to be released therefrom while at the
l5, moved under the force created by buoyancy same time causing a continued refrigerating ef
of ice formed thereon. The refrigerating effect ' feet in certain other freezing elements to cause
of freezing element l5, moved in the manner ice to form thereon. My improved continuous
freezing apparatus is automatic in operation for 65
65 described, is caused to cease since no evaporated
producing ice blocks or cubes and needs no vat
or vaporized refrigerant can be withdrawn there
from and this element therefore begins to in-' tention on the part of the-user after being in
crease in temperature. The ?ns SI and the sheet itially rendered operative. This insures the pro
duction of an abundance of ice cubes or blocks
metal members 52 of the double-walled struc
by
the apparatus which can be readily har
ture
5|
are
constructed
so
as
to
be
greater
in'
70
size than the blocks of ice to be formed ‘and vested without the diiliculties ordinarily encoun
therefore the portions of these elements extend tered in freezing apparatuses heretofore em
outwardly from the formation of ice 18 thereon
While the form of embodiment of the inven
into the body of water in tank'38. The ?ns 6|
tion as herein disclosed, constitutes a preferred 75
and
52
are
constructed
so
as
to
have
a
suf?cient
75
ployed.
'
v
,
‘
at
form, it is to be understood that other forms
might be adopted, all coming within the scope
therein independently of and while the freezing
of the claims which follow. I
ing elements.
6. A freezing apparatus for making and har
What is claimed is as follows:
1. A continuous freezing apparatus for produc
ing ice blocks including, a container for holding
a body of water, a plurality of cooling elements
disposed in ‘said body of water, means for re
frigerating said plurality of cooling elements to
10 a temperature to cause ice to form thereon, and
means for stopping the refrigerating effect of
action continues in other of said plurality of cool
vesting ice blocks'including a plurality of cooling 5.
elements disposed in a body of Water, means for
producing a freezing action in said plurality of
cooling elements, and means for temporarily in
terrupting the freezing action in one of said
pluralityof cooling elements while the freezing 10
action being produced in other of said‘ elements
continues, said last named means being operable
one of said plurality of cooling elements inde
pendently of and while the refrigerating e?'ect of ' automatically in response to‘a force created by
the buoyant e?ect of ice formed on said one of
other of said plurality of cooling elements con
15
15 tinues, said last named means being operable said cooling elements.
7. In the art of making and harvesting ice by
automatically in response to a force created by
the buoyancy of ice formed on said one of said
producing a freezing action in a plurality of cool
cooling elements. >
ing elements submerged in water, that step which
comprises utilizing the amount of ice formed by
I
2. A continuous freezing apparatus for produc
20 ing ice blocks including, a container for holding
a body of water, a plurality of cooling elements
disposed in said body of water and movably
mounted independent of one another, means for
refrigerating said plurality of cooling elements
25 to a temperature to cause ice to form thereon,
said cooling elements being movable automatical
ly in response to a force created by the‘ buoyancy
of ice formed thereon, and ‘means actuated by
the movement of any one of said plurality of
36 cooling elements for stopping the refrigerating
effect thereof, said last named means operating
independently of and while the refrigerating ef
fect of the other of said plurality of cooling ele
ments continues.
3. A continuous freezing apparatus for pro
ducing ice blocks including, a container for hold
ing a body of water, ‘a plurality of cooling ele
ments movably mounted in said body of water,
means for directing a refrigerant through said
$1) cooling elements to cool same to a temperature
in Q
ments continues, said last named means being
normally ineffective and rendered effective auto
matically in response to the amount of ice formed
' by said one of said cooling elements.
35
9. A freezing apparatus for making and hard
vesting ice blocks including a plurality of'cooling
elements submerged in water, conduit means for
circulating a refrigerating medium. through said
cooling elements to cause same to produce a freez
to cause ice to form thereon, said cooling ele
ments being movable automatically in response
to a force created by the buoyancy of ice formed
thereon, a plurality of valves cooperating with
said plurality of cooling elements, and either of
said plurality of valves being actuated by the
movement of its cooperating cooling element for
controlling the circulation of refrigerant there
through, and said either of said plurality of valves
ing action, a valve interposed in said conduit
means for stopping the flow of refrigerating
medium through one of said plurality of'cooling
elements while the freezing action being pro
operating independently of other, of said plu
10. A refrigerating apparatus comprising in 50
combination, a plurality of cooling elements, at
rality of valves to cause the refrigerating effect
in the cooling elements cooperating with the
said other of said plurality of valves to continue.
4;. In the art of making and harvesting ice .by
abe producing a freezing action in a plurality of cool
ing elements submerged in a body of water, that
step which comprises utilizing a force created by
the buoyant effect of ice formed on one of the
plurality of cooling elements for stopping the
60 freezing action therein independently of and while
the freezing action continues in other of said
plurality of cooling elements.
(3
one of a plurality of cooling elements for stopping
the freezing action thereof independently of and
While the freezing action of another of said
plurality of cooling elements continues.
8. A freezing apparatus for making and har
vesting. ice blocks including a plurality of cooling 25
elements submerged in water, means for causing
said plurality of cooling elements to produce a
freezing action, and means for temporarily inter
rupting the freezing action produced by one of
said plurality of cooling elements while the freez 30
ing action being produced by another of said ele
'
5. In the art of making and harvesting ice by
producing a freezing action in a plurality of cool
ing elements submerged in a body of water, that
step which comprises utilizing a force created by
the buoyant eifect of ice formed on one of the
plurality of cooling elements for causing move
ment thereof and stopping of the freezing action
duced by another of said elements continues, and
said valve being normally ineffective and ren
dered effective automatically in response to the
amount of ice formed by said one of said cool
ing elements.
.
least one of said cooling elements being sub
merged in water and adapted to have ice blocks
formed thereon, means operable for circulating a
cooling medium through said plurality of cooling 55
elements to cause same to produce a refrigerating
effect, means for interrupting the refrigerating
effect produced by said one of said plurality of
cooling elements without interrupting operation
of said cooling medium circulating means to 60
thereby permit continuance of the refrigerating
effect produced by another of said elements and to
cause ice‘ blocks to be released from said one cool
ing element, and said interrupting means being
normally ineffective and rendered effective auto 65
matically in response to the amount of ice formed
by said one of said cooling elements.
RICHARD S. GAUGLER.
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