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Патент USA US2105677

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Jan. 18, 1938.
R_ J, STUMBO
2,105,677
VAPORIZING APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
Filed June 3, 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
awe/whom
Jan. 18, 1938.
R_ J_ STUMBO
2,105,677
VAPORIZING APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
Filed June 5, 1935
l1,
I
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented Jan. 18, 1938
2,l®5,677
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFECE
2,105,677
VAPORIZING APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL
COMBUSTION ENGINES
Ray J. Stumbo, Salem, 0reg., assignor of one
third to Robin Reed, Salem, Oreg.
Application June 3, 1935, Serial No. 24,597
7 Claims.
' My invention has to do with improvements in
devices for transforming cheap oils, such as diesel
oil, into a vapor or gas to be employed as an ex
plosive mixture in running internal combustion
" engines.
, Ijhave found that vaporizing devices employing
heat for the purpose of transforming cheap oils
into’ an explosive vapor have proven unsatisfac
tory for the reason that after a short interval,
usually from four to six hours, they become
clogged or caked with residue material prohibit
ing’ further use thereof until such material has
been removed. This usually requires that such
apparatus be taken apart for that purpose.
15
Careful consideration of this fact, coupled with
experiments in connection therewith, have proven
that this caking or clogging which has resulted,
aside from the use of wholly improper oils, has
been caused by an improper control, and in all in
(01. 123—133)
therethrough. These correspond to the load and
speed of the engine, such, for instance, one for
low speeds and/or moderate loads, one for inter
mediate speeds and/or loads, and one for high
speeds and/or the heaviest loads. Each passage~
way in the vaporizing apparatus leads or is con
ducted to a corresponding inlet to the carburetor.
This ensures that the amount of oil passing
through the apparatus for vaporization is proper
ly controlled, thus to a large extent eliminating
waste.
The passageways referred to, are preferably at
an inclination in order that unvaporized oil will
spread out thereon offering a greater surface area
to the heat of the apparatus and further ensur
ing a complete vaporization of the oil.
As before stated the vaporizing apparatus is
employed in connection with the exhaust of an
internal combustion engine.
However in con
stances that have come under my observation, a
total lack of control of the heat employed for
heating such apparatus in order to transform the
oil into a vapor. Furthermore I have discovered
nection with such employment it will be obvious
that there is a constant change in temperature.
There is a constant tendency for the apparatus
to become overly hot with the consequent bad
that this lack of ‘control of the heat employed has
resulted in an'incomplete vaporization of such oils
results as heretofore stated.
With'theconsequent result that the unvaporized
oils ‘are carried into the engine where they dis
solve the engine lubricants thus causing severe
mechanical wear.
‘
In the present invention I propose to provide
an improvement in vaporizing devices of this char
acter‘whereby the faults set forth are eliminated,
thus putting to ‘an end the waste accompanying
suchgpractice. This I accomplish in part through
“ an improvement in vaporizing chambers, in part
through improvements in the control of the oils
as they pass through the vaporizer, and largely
by providing an automatic control for controlling
the application of heat whereby the apparatus is
40 constantly maintained within a temperature
range most adapted for satisfactory and success
ful operation.
‘_ Essentially my invention consists of a vaporiz
ingjunit employing the hot discharge gases of an
internal combustion engine as a source for its
heat. Preferably the apparatus is mounted to the
exhaust manifold of such engine. This appara
tus ‘is a housing or block having one or more
circuitous passageways or chambers for the pas
sage of'the oil to be vaporized for the purpose of
providing an explosive mixture. These passage~
ways lead to a suitable distribution device, such
as a carburetor, and from an oil source. The
’ ‘carburetor preferably has a number of inlets to
gether with means for controlling ?uid flow
This I overcome by
providing automatic control means for controlling
or regulating the amount of heat transferred to
the apparatus. This is accomplished by provid
ing, preferably, a shielding device between the ap
paratus and the exhaust gases. This device
which may be termed a regulator, is movable to 30
a position to shield the apparatus, to a position
where the apparatus is unshielded, and to degrees
between these two extremes.
In connection with the damper or regulator, I
provide a thermostat control which controls the
regulator or damper. The control is designed,
through the operation of the regulator to main
tain the apparatus at a desired range of tempera
ture, constantly during the operation of the en~
gine. By maintaining this constant range, cak
ing or coking of the passageways in the appa
ratus is avoided. During the starting period
while the apparatus is cold the thermostat con
trol moves the regulator or shield to a non-shield
ing position whereby the exhaust gases from the
engine may be unobstructedly employed for heat
ing the apparatus, but as the apparatus reaches
the required temperature range the shielding de—
vice is employed to prevent overheating.
A more complete understanding of the inven
tion will be attained upon reading the description
thereof following, aided by the several views
thereof in the accompanying drawings.
In the drawings Figure 1 is a front elevation of
the invention, wherein it is shown mounted to an 55
2
2,105,677
internal combustion engine exhaust pipe or mani
fold.
Figure 2 is a front sectional view of the thermo
stat control apparatus.
Figure 3 is a side sectional elevation indicated
by section line 3—3 in Figure 1.
Figure 4 is the rear elevation of parts as in
dicated by the line 4-4 in Figure 3.
Figure 5 is the rear elevation of parts indicated
by line 5 in Figure 3.
thus making a continuous and circuitous passage
way from the bowl through the neck lil. Extend
ing from the bottom to top of member I3 is a
passageway l6 which at its upper end continuous
through neck It] and at its lower end extends to
bowl in two branches.
Connecting between the neck I0 and the car
buretor 4 is an extension member I‘! which is
provided with passageways therein corresponding
to the passageways in the neck, which passage 10
ways communicate with suitable inlets to the
carburetor.
Figure 7 is a front elevation and semi-1 ' As before stated the carburetor is provided with
a number of inlets valved for metering the fuel.
perspective of the rear or vaporizing plate.
In the present instance the fuel passes from the 15
15
Figure 8 is the sectional view indicated by sec
bowl IE to the passageways II and I2, and the
tion line 8-8 in Figure 7.
‘ .
In the drawings, l indicates the exhaust pipe or passageway l6 thence to the carburetor. It is to
manifold of a gas engine and ,2 the inlet pipe or be understood that these passageways connect
Figure 6 is a front elevation
and
semi
perspective of the front plate.
-
manifold of such engine, respectively supplied
20 with passageways l’ and 2'. Mounted and con
nected to the inlet manifold by the Venturi mem
ber 3 is a carburetor 4. Carburetor 4 is prefer
ably of the multi-inlet type which may be sup
plied with an inlet for high speed or heavy load
25 operation, an inlet for intermediate speed, and in
lets for starting and idling speed, with suitable
means for opening and closing such inlets rela
tive to one another.
As has been previously indicated the inven
30 tion in this instance consists of a device for trans
forming low grade oils into a combustible or ex
plosive vapor through the application of heat.
In the present invention the exhaust gases from
the combustion engine are employed to provide
with separate inlets to the carburetor, and that
such inlets are properly valved, and further that 20
the carburetor in this instance is a standard
manufacture having the required inlets and ‘op
erating means.
Under moderate speed or load
conditions the fuel passes through the passage-}
ways £2 to the carburetor, while under heavier 25
load conditions the fuel passes through the pas
sageway ll, while during the starting period
the fuel may be passed through passageway I6,
a more volatile and explosive fuel being em
ployed at the start.
a0
It is to be understood that the fuel passing
through the passageways l I and I2 is transformed
into a vaporous state by reason of the fact that
the‘ wall of such passageway is substantially de
35 the heat necessary to vaporize such oils. For this ' ?ned by the member 8, which member'is heated
by the exhaust gases of the manifold coming
purpose the manifold is provided with an enlarged
and in this instance rectangular opening in the into contact with its rear wall. The passageways
front face thereof which opening is generally in
dicated by the numeral 5. Over this opening is
placed a rectangular member 6 though other than
in the present instance this member need not al
ways conform to a rectangular shape. Member 6
is provided with an opening ‘I therethrough co
inciding with the opening '5. As will be seen on
15 referring to Figure 3 the opening 7 communi
cates with the interior l’ of the manifold l, in
effect it is a continuation or extension of the
latter.
‘
.
-:C1osing the opening ‘I and to the front and
placed and mounted over the member 6 is the
vaporizing or gassifying plate 8 which is pro
vided on its rear wall with a number of heat col
lecting ribs 9 which project into chamber 1, their
purpose being to provide an additional heat col
The upper
edge of the member 8 is supplied with‘ a connec
tion neck is the purpose of which will be readily
55 lecting surface for the member 8.
apparent.
In the outer face of plate 8, see Figure ‘l, are
60 two circuitous passageways or grooves II and I2
respectively terminating at their upper ends in
passageways ii’ and i2’ through the neck [0.
I It is to be understood that the number of grooves
employed, their inclination, etc., may vary.
As
will be noted the grooves or passageways II and
H’ are somewhat larger than the grooves: and
passageways l2 and i2’ which is for a purpose to
be explained later.
Covering the front of the plate 01' member 8
70 and concealing the grooves referred to is a cover
plate 53 which is provided with a lower angularly
disposedfasteningneck Mto which is mounted the
oilbowl l5. The neck is supplied with passageways
l I" and I2”which afford communication between
75 the oilbowl and the grooves! I and 12 respectively,
l I and it, as will be noted, have inclined sections
and reversely curved sections, with certain of the
reversely curved sections forming the base of cer 40
tain inclined sections. Portions of oil passing
through the passageways may be slow in vaporiz
ing, in which event it ?ows down the inclined por
tions to the reversely curved portions at the base,
which form pockets, and the oil is retained in 45
these pockets until the vaporization is completed.
However I have found that unless this heat is
properly controlled there will be a tendency to
form
a carbon or coke in the passageways
through overheating of the member 8. I have 50
found that extremes of heat contribute largely
if not entirely to the formation of such carbon
or coke, thus obstructing the passage of fuel
through the passageways, and in other ways in
terfering with an e?icient operation of a vaporiz
55
ing unit of this type.
My invention is particularly directed to con
trolling the application of heat to the vaporizing
unit to the end that it may not become overheat
ed, and to the ‘end that substantially if not all co
of the fluid shall be transformed into an explo
sive vapor. In this connection there is provided
the shielding device or movable wall indicated
by the numeral l8 which is preferably a blade
occupying the opening ‘I in the member 6. This 6.5
member is pivotally mounted by means of a rod
l9 extending from end to end of member 6 at the
top of the chamber or aperture 1. This rod is
rockably mounted in order that the blade I8 may
be tipped or rocked away from the member 8 in
order that the explosive discharges in the mani
fold may come into contact with such member
6, or it may be rocked to a position covering or
shielding such member, though spaced somewhat
therefrom. This ‘operation will be fully under
3
2,105,677
stood upon examination of the full and dash line
views in Figure 3. When the member I8 is in
position to shield member 6 it will be readily
?rst member and the interior of the manifold,
and thermostat means controlling the position
of the shielding member.
appreciated that it prevents hot discharges from
the engine reaching such member, and as a con
sequence such member does not become nearly
so heated as when the shield is in an upraised
2. In a device for transforming oil into an
explosive vapor or gas for operating gas engines, 6
the combination with an exhaust pipe or mani
fold of a gas engine having an opening therein
or unshielding position.
of a member seated over said opening, said mem
Consequently by ad
justing the member IS the amount of heat de
10 sired for member 6 can be regulated.
It will be readily appreciated from the fore
going that the member 6 may be maintained at
a relative constant degree of temperature if a
control device for regulating member I8 is pro
15 vided, provided such regulating means operates
upon a thermostat control principle. In the pres
ber having internal passageways therein for the
flow of oil to be vaporized through the action of 10
heat occasioned by exhaust gases in said mani
fold, a blade rockably mounted to the member
between it and the exhaust gases and. adapted
ent invention I have provided a thermostat con
trol or regulating device for regulating the mem
ber iii. For this purpose the member 13 is pro
20 vided with a horizontally elongated boss 20 which
has a central bore 2|, boss and bore are to pro
vide a housing. Mounted within the boss is a
thermal spring 22 which has its one end 23 held
stationary to the mount 24 threaded into bore
25 2|, and its other end 25 secured to the rod 26
which rod is free to rotate Within the mount 24.
To the outer end of the rod is a?ixed a lever 21,
3. In a device for transforming oil into an
explosive vapor or gas for operating a gas engine,
' which lever is connected by link 28 to lever 29
mounted upon the rod IS.
The action of the
80 spring 22 is well understood, it turning the rod
in one direction as it becomes heated and in the
opposite direction as it becomes cool, thereby
opening and closing the shield l8 to provide
proper temperature conditions for member 8.
The spring 22 may be adjusted as to periods of
operation by turning the mount 24.
The foregoing construction provides a certain
means for de?nitely controlling the temperature
of member 6, and consequently the operation of
the device. This apparatus ensures against the
overheating of the member 6 thus avoiding the
bad effects from overheating complained of, at
'45
the same time it allows the hot discharges to
come into contact with the member 6 when they
are most needed, at the same time preventing
overheating.
In operation the control of the heating or va—
porizing chamber has tended to eliminate losses
from incomplete vaporization of the fuel, thus
preventing such fuel being conducted in a liquid
state to the engine where it is liable to dissolve
the engine lubricants. Furthermore it has been
found in actual operating tests that there is a
minimum of caking or coking in the passageways
65 of the vaporizer and this I attribute to the heat
control, my contention being that a steady tem
perature range ensures a maximum of vaporizing
of the fuel.
While I have shown a speci?c mounting of
60 the invention with relation to a gas engine, it
is to be understood that this may be altered in
order to conform to Various other applications
for the invention without departing from the
spirit of such invention.
65
‘
Having described my invention, I claim:
1. In a device for transforming oil into an ex
plosive vapor or gas for operating gas engines,
the combination with an exhaust pipe or mani
fold of a gas engine having an opening therein,
70 of a member seated over said opening and form
ing a section of the wall of said manifold, said
member having internal circuitous passageways
therein for the flow of oil to- be vaporized, a
shielding member adjustable to shielding posi
75 tions and non-shielding positions between the
to cover and uncover the member to the gases,
and means controlling the position of the shield
ing member.
15
a vaporizing member mounted exteriorly to the
exhaust manifold of such engine and having its 20
inner wall forming a section of the wall of the
manifold, and a pivotally mounted Wall spaced
inwardly in the manifold relative to the ?rst
wall, movable to positions paralleling the ?rst
Wall or at an angle thereto.
4. In a device for transforming oil into an ex
plosive vapor or gas for operating a gas engine,
a vaporizing member mounted exteriorly to the
exhaust manifold of such engine and having its
inner wall forming a section of the wall of the 30
manifold, a second wall spaced inwardly in the
manifold from the ?rst Wall, a pivotal mounting
supporting the second wall, and means external
to the manifold for operating the pivotal mount
ing for the purpose of altering the position of
the second wall relative to the ?rst wall.
5. In a device for transforming oil into an
explosive vapor or gas for operating a gas en
gine, a vaporizing member mounted exteriorly to
the exhaust manifold of such engine and having 40
its inner wall forming a section of the wall of
the manifold, a second wall spaced inwardly in
the manifold from the ?rst wall, a pivotal mem
ber supporting the second wall, and a thermostat
control mechanism. operating the pivotal mem 45
ber for the purpose of altering the position of
the second Wall relative to the ?rst wall.
6. In a device for transforming oil into an
explosive vapor or gas for operating a gas en
gine, a vaporizing member mounted to the ex
50
haust manifold of such engine the inner wall
of which forms a section of the wall of the mani
fold, said member having internal passages con
stituting vaporizing chambers with inlets thereq
to at the bottom of the member and outlets at 55
the top, and certain of said passages being cir
cuitously arranged within the member embodying
straight sections and reverse curved sections with
the straight sections at an inclination and the
alternate reverse curved sections forming pock 60
ets at the base of certain straight sections.
7. In a device for transforming oil into an
explosive vapor or gas for operating a gas engine,
a vaporizing member mounted to the exhaust
manifold of such engine the inner wall of which 65
forms a section of the wall of the manifold, said
member having internal passages constituting
vaporizing chambers including inlet and outlets
therefor, and certain passages having a circuitous
arrangement with inclined sections and reverse 70
curved sections and certain reverse curved sec
tions forming pockets at the base of certain in
clined sections.
RAY J. STUMBO.
75
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