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Патент USA US2105924

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Jan. .18,- 1938.
H. E. MENDENHALL
2,105,924
ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE
Filed oct. 3, 19:55
' F/la. 2
F/G. 3
F/G.5
A
/NI/ENTOR
H. E. MENDE/VHALL
BV
6. 7M
ATTORNEY
Patented Jan. 18, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT ïOFFiCE
2,105,924
ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE
Hallam E. Mendenhall, Su'uinmit, N. J., assigner
to Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated,
New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application october 3, 1935, seriall No. 43,293
9 Claims. (Cl. Z50-27.5)
This invention relates to electron discharge de
vices and more particularly to such `devices
adapted for the generation of ultra-high fre
quency oscillations and commonly known as
5 Barkhausen oscillators.
In Barkhausen oscillators, the voutput electrode
usually is in the form of a grid disposed between
a cathode and a refiecting electrode. Because of
the extremely small transit times requisite in de
10 vices adapted for the generation of ultra-high
frequency oscillations, the electrodes must be
very closely spaced so that the output electrode
necessarily must be of relatively small `dimen
sions. Hence, the output electrode has a small
15 area and can dissipate but a limited amount of
heat. Furthermore, in Barkhausen oscillators,
but a small percentage of the electrons emanating
from the cathode eventuate in or constitute the
oscillating current. As a result of the foregoing,
20 the power output obtainable from Barkhausen
oscillators is relatively small and the operating
efliciency of such oscillators is relatively low.
One object of this invention is to increase the
power output and efliciency of ultra-high fre
25 quency oscillation generators.
.
In one illustrative embodiment of this inven
tion, a Barkhausen oscillator comprises a linear
cathode, a plurality of flat grids uniformly spaced
about and extending radially with respecty to
30 the cathode, and a plurality of rod-like reflecting
electrodes each disposed parallel to the cathode
and between successive grids.
The grids may have a positive potential applied
rality of flat grids each disposed between two ad
jacent or successivevcathode elements and extend
ing radially with respect to the cathode boundary.
The radius of the cylindrical boundary preferably
is equal to or greater than the radius of the
boundary defined by the innermost edges of the
grids. A plurality of rod-like reflecting> elec
trodes are provided, each being disposed adjacent
one of the cathode elements and one of the grids,
and parallel to the cathode.
In order to insure a uniform radial dispersion
rof electrons, a fourth electrode may be provided
within the boundary defined by the cathode ele
ments. This electrode may be a linear rod posi
ytioned in the axis of the cathode boundary and
preferably is operated at a negative potential. A
coil may be provided for producing spiraling of
the electrons as described hereinabove.
The invention and the various features thereof
will be understood more clearly and fully from 20
the following detailed description with reference'
to the accompanying drawing, in which:
Fig. l is a perspective View of an electron dis
charge device illustrative of one embodiment of
this invention, a portion of the enclosing vessel v25
and external coil being broken away to show theí
electrodes more clearly;
Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic View showing the rela
tive disposition of the electrodes in the device
shown in Fig. 1, and illustrating typical paths 30
traversed by some of the electrons in ñowing from
the cathode to the output electrode;
Fig. 3 is a plan view of the electrodes in another
embodiment of this invention, wherein the
cathode includes a plurality of elements lying
thereto and serve as the output electrode of the
35 oscillator. The reflecting electrodes preferably in a cylindrical boundary;
`
are maintained at a low negative potential, al
Fig. 4 is a plan view of the electrodes in a modi
though they may be operated at a relatively low
positive potential or at substantially zero po fication of the embodiment of this invention
tential. In the operation of the device, some of shown in Fig. 3, including a fourth electrode
within the boundary of the cathode elements; 40
40 the electrons will pass into the regions between
and
the grids and the reflecting electrodes and os
Fig. 5 illustrates a typical oscillator circuit in
cillate in these regions before finally passing to
the grids. Other of the electrons will traverse cluding an electron discharge device constructed
spiral orbits through and'v around the grids be
in accordance with this invention.
'
45 fore passing to the grids.
Referring now to the drawing, the electron dis
charge device shown in Fig. l is of the type gen
50 traverse spiral paths before impinging upon and
prises an enclosing vessel III having an inwardly
extending stem II at one end which terminates
in a multi-armed or cross-shaped press I2. A
linear cathode I3, which may be of the equipo
In order to increase the oscillating component
of the output current, a coil is provided for pro
ducing a magnetic field causing a large number
of the electrons emanating from the cathode to
being absorbed by the grids.
In another illustrative embodiment of this
invention, a Barkhausen oscillator comprises a
cathode having a plurality of parallel elements
55 arranged in a cylindrical boundary and a plu
45
erally known as a Barkhausen oscillator and com
tential or heater type, or a single linear filament,
is mounted on the press I2 by a leading-in con
ductor I4 for the cathode and by leading-in con
ductors I5 for the heater element of the cathode. 55
2
2,105,924
A plurality of grids I6, which may be of molyb
denum, tantalum or tungsten wire mesh, are
positioned about the cathode I3, equally spaced
from each other, and extend radially with respect
to the cathode I3 and parallel thereto. Each of
the grids I6 is supported by a rigid metallic up
right or rod I'I embedded in one of the arms of
elements 33 and the reflecting electrode elements
I9. Preferably the radius of the boundary of the
cathode elements 33 is equal to or greater than
the radius of a circle including the innermost
edges of the grids I6. The elements I9 may be
electrically connected to each other and the grids
i6 similarly may be connected to each other, and
the several electrodes may be associated in a
hence the grids I6, being electrically connected circuit as illustrated in Fig. 5.
10 together by leading-in conductors I8.
In a modification of the embodiment of this 10
A plurality of reñecting electrode elements I9 , invention shown in Fig. 3, a fourth electrode 34 is
are provided between the grids, each of the ele
provided. This electrode 34, as illustrated in Fig.
ments being, for example, a metallic Wire or rod 4, may be a linear metallic rod disposed cen
embedded in one arm of the press I2, equally trally of the cathode boundary, and preferably
spaced from two adjacent or successive grids IB, is operated at a relatively high negative potential,
and disposed parallel to the cathode I3. The as indicated in Fig. 5, to insure uniform radial
elements I9 may be electrically connected to
dispersion of the electrons from the cathode.
gether by leading-in conductors 20 sealed in the
It will be understood, of course, that a mag
the press I2, the several uprights or rods, and
stem Il.
As shown in Fig. 5, the grids I 6, which serve
as the output electrode of the device, may be
operated at a positive potential, being connected
to the cathode I3 through a Lecher system in
cluding coaxial conductors 2I and 22 short-cir
cuited by a slidable conductor 23, and a source,
such as a battery 24. If desired, a suitable in
ductance 25 may be provided in the cathode-grid
circuit. The reñecting electrode elements I 9 may
be connected to the cathode I3 by a Lecher sys
30 tem including coaxial conductors 26 and 21 short
circuited by a slidable conductor 28, in series with
a source, such as a battery 29 and a suitable in
ductance 30. Preferably, the reflecting electrode
elements I9 are negatively biased with respect to
the cathode I3, although they may be operated
at zero potential or with a small positive bias
netic coil, such as shown in Fig. l, may be utilized
in connection with devices of the construction il 20
lustrated in Figs. 3 and 4, to produce spiraling of
the electrons through and about the grids I6.
An alternating voltage at a lower frequency such
as audio-frequency may be introduced by means
of a modulating transformer 35 to modulate the
radio frequency output.
It will be understood, also, that various modi
flcations may be made in the specific embodi
ments of the invention illustrated and described
rwithout departing from the scope and spirit of
this invention as defined in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
l. An electron discharge device comprising a
cathode, an output electrode including a plu
rality of reticulated output grids extending radi 35
ally with respect to said cathode, an auxiliary
with respect to the cathode I3.
electrode including a plurality of rod members
Some of the electrons emanating from the disposed between said grids, and means for pro
cathode I3 flow directly to the grids I6 and con
ducing a magnetic field adjacent said cathode.
40 stitute a substantially constant component of
2. A Barkhausen oscillator comprising a linear
the output current. Other electrons pass through cathode, an output electrode including a plu
and around the grids I6 before finally impinging rality of flatv perforate grids disposed edgewise to
upon and being absorbed by the grids, and con
said cathode and extending radially with respect
stitute the oscillating component of the output thereto, a reflecting electrode including a plu
45 current. When the reñecting electrode is oper
rality of rod members disposed parallel to said
ated at a positive potential with respect to the ,cathode and between said grids, and means for
cathode, secondary electrons emanating from the producing a magnetic field in the vicinity of and
grids may also become part of the oscillating parallel to said cathode.
current. In order to increase the oscillating com
3. An electron discharge device comprising a
50 ponent of the output current, in accordance with
cathode including a plurality of elements mounted
this invention, a coil 3I is provided about the in a substantially cylindrical boundary, an out
vessel I0 for subjecting the electrons emanating put electrode including a plurality of grids dis
from the cathode to a magnetic ñeld so that the posed radially with respect to said boundary, an
electrons will be caused to traverse spiral orbits electrode including a plurality of members dis
55 before impinging upon the grids I6. As shown posed in cooperative relation with said cathode
in Fig. 2, under the action of the magnetic field, and grids, and an auxiliary electrode mounted
the electrons will traverse spiral paths as indi
within said boundary and in the longitudinal
cated by the dotted lines 32, in passing from the axis thereof.
cathode I3 to the grids I6.
Y
4. A Barkhausen oscillator comprising a cath
60
It Will be apparent also that the grids I6 may ode including a plurality of linear elements
be of relatively large area so that they are mounted in a cylindrical boundary, an output
capable of handling relatively large currents
electrode including a plurality of ñat grids ex
`without becoming unduly heated.
tending
radially with respect to said boundary,
In another embodiment of this invention,
each of said grids being disposed between two of
shown in Fig. 3, the cathode comprises a plu
rality of linear elements 33, which may be of the said cathode'elements, a reflecting electrode in
cluding a plurality of rod members disposed par
heater type, or filaments, arranged in a cylin
allel to said cathode elements, and a linear aux
drical boundary. If the elements 33 are ñla
iliary electrode within said boundary and in the
ments, they may be connected in series or par
longitudinal axis thereof.
allel. Each of the cathode elements 33 is dis
posed between two linear reflecting electrode ele
5. A Barkhausen oscillator comprising a cath
y ments I9 which in turn are disposed between and
ode, a reflecting electrode, an output electrode,
equally spaced from a plurality of -grids I6 ex
said reflecting electrode being mounted adjacent
tending radially with respect to the cathode and intermediate the lateral ends of said output
75 boundary and disposed parallel to the cathode electrode, and means for causing electrons eman
40
45
50
60
65
70
75
3
2,105,924
ating from said cathode to traverse spiral paths
in passing to said output electrode.
6. A Barkhausen oscillator comprising a cath
ode, a reflecting electrode, an output electrode
including a reticulated grid member extending
radially with respect to said cathode, and means
for producing a magnetic field in the vicinity of
said cathode and output electrode whereby elec
ments disposed about said cathode andv extending
radially with respect thereto, a reñecting elec
trode, an auxiliary electrode adjacent said cath
ode for producing radial dispersion of electrons
therefrom, and means for producing a magnetic
ñeld in the Vicinity of said cathode and said ele
ments whereby electrons emanating from said
cathode are caused to traverse spiral orbits in
trons emanating from said cathode are caused
passing to said output electrode.
to traverse spiral orbits in passing to said out
put electrode.
a cylindrical boundary, an output electrode in
'7. A Barkhausen oscillator comprising a linear
cathode, an output electrode including a plural
ity of grids disposed about and extending radially
with respect to said cathode, a reflecting electrode
including a plurality of rod members disposed in
cooperative relation to said cathode and grids
and parallel to said cathode, and a magnetic coil
encompassing said grids for causing electrons
emanating from said cathode to traverse spiral
20
orbits in passing to said grids.
8, A Barkhausen oscillator comprising a cath
ode, an output electrode having perforated ele
9. A Barkhausen oscillator comprising a cath 10
ode including a plurality of elements disposed in
cluding a plurality of grids extending radially
with respect to said boundary, a reflecting elec
trode including a plurality of rod members dis 15
posed between said grids and parallel to said ele
ments, an electrode within said boundary, and
means for producing a magnetic field in the
vicinity of said elements and grids so that elec
trons emanating from said cathode are caused to 20
traverse spiral orbits in passing to said grids.
HALLAM E, MENDENHALL.
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