Патент USA US2105924код для вставки
Jan. .18,- 1938. H. E. MENDENHALL 2,105,924 ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE Filed oct. 3, 19:55 ' F/la. 2 F/G. 3 F/G.5 A /NI/ENTOR H. E. MENDE/VHALL BV 6. 7M ATTORNEY Patented Jan. 18, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT ïOFFiCE 2,105,924 ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE Hallam E. Mendenhall, Su'uinmit, N. J., assigner to Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application october 3, 1935, seriall No. 43,293 9 Claims. (Cl. Z50-27.5) This invention relates to electron discharge de vices and more particularly to such `devices adapted for the generation of ultra-high fre quency oscillations and commonly known as 5 Barkhausen oscillators. In Barkhausen oscillators, the voutput electrode usually is in the form of a grid disposed between a cathode and a refiecting electrode. Because of the extremely small transit times requisite in de 10 vices adapted for the generation of ultra-high frequency oscillations, the electrodes must be very closely spaced so that the output electrode necessarily must be of relatively small `dimen sions. Hence, the output electrode has a small 15 area and can dissipate but a limited amount of heat. Furthermore, in Barkhausen oscillators, but a small percentage of the electrons emanating from the cathode eventuate in or constitute the oscillating current. As a result of the foregoing, 20 the power output obtainable from Barkhausen oscillators is relatively small and the operating efliciency of such oscillators is relatively low. One object of this invention is to increase the power output and efliciency of ultra-high fre 25 quency oscillation generators. . In one illustrative embodiment of this inven tion, a Barkhausen oscillator comprises a linear cathode, a plurality of flat grids uniformly spaced about and extending radially with respecty to 30 the cathode, and a plurality of rod-like reflecting electrodes each disposed parallel to the cathode and between successive grids. The grids may have a positive potential applied rality of flat grids each disposed between two ad jacent or successivevcathode elements and extend ing radially with respect to the cathode boundary. The radius of the cylindrical boundary preferably is equal to or greater than the radius of the boundary defined by the innermost edges of the grids. A plurality of rod-like reflecting> elec trodes are provided, each being disposed adjacent one of the cathode elements and one of the grids, and parallel to the cathode. In order to insure a uniform radial dispersion rof electrons, a fourth electrode may be provided within the boundary defined by the cathode ele ments. This electrode may be a linear rod posi ytioned in the axis of the cathode boundary and preferably is operated at a negative potential. A coil may be provided for producing spiraling of the electrons as described hereinabove. The invention and the various features thereof will be understood more clearly and fully from 20 the following detailed description with reference' to the accompanying drawing, in which: Fig. l is a perspective View of an electron dis charge device illustrative of one embodiment of this invention, a portion of the enclosing vessel v25 and external coil being broken away to show theí electrodes more clearly; Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic View showing the rela tive disposition of the electrodes in the device shown in Fig. 1, and illustrating typical paths 30 traversed by some of the electrons in ñowing from the cathode to the output electrode; Fig. 3 is a plan view of the electrodes in another embodiment of this invention, wherein the cathode includes a plurality of elements lying thereto and serve as the output electrode of the 35 oscillator. The reflecting electrodes preferably in a cylindrical boundary; ` are maintained at a low negative potential, al Fig. 4 is a plan view of the electrodes in a modi though they may be operated at a relatively low positive potential or at substantially zero po fication of the embodiment of this invention tential. In the operation of the device, some of shown in Fig. 3, including a fourth electrode within the boundary of the cathode elements; 40 40 the electrons will pass into the regions between and the grids and the reflecting electrodes and os Fig. 5 illustrates a typical oscillator circuit in cillate in these regions before finally passing to the grids. Other of the electrons will traverse cluding an electron discharge device constructed spiral orbits through and'v around the grids be in accordance with this invention. ' 45 fore passing to the grids. Referring now to the drawing, the electron dis charge device shown in Fig. l is of the type gen 50 traverse spiral paths before impinging upon and prises an enclosing vessel III having an inwardly extending stem II at one end which terminates in a multi-armed or cross-shaped press I2. A linear cathode I3, which may be of the equipo In order to increase the oscillating component of the output current, a coil is provided for pro ducing a magnetic field causing a large number of the electrons emanating from the cathode to being absorbed by the grids. In another illustrative embodiment of this invention, a Barkhausen oscillator comprises a cathode having a plurality of parallel elements 55 arranged in a cylindrical boundary and a plu 45 erally known as a Barkhausen oscillator and com tential or heater type, or a single linear filament, is mounted on the press I2 by a leading-in con ductor I4 for the cathode and by leading-in con ductors I5 for the heater element of the cathode. 55 2 2,105,924 A plurality of grids I6, which may be of molyb denum, tantalum or tungsten wire mesh, are positioned about the cathode I3, equally spaced from each other, and extend radially with respect to the cathode I3 and parallel thereto. Each of the grids I6 is supported by a rigid metallic up right or rod I'I embedded in one of the arms of elements 33 and the reflecting electrode elements I9. Preferably the radius of the boundary of the cathode elements 33 is equal to or greater than the radius of a circle including the innermost edges of the grids I6. The elements I9 may be electrically connected to each other and the grids i6 similarly may be connected to each other, and the several electrodes may be associated in a hence the grids I6, being electrically connected circuit as illustrated in Fig. 5. 10 together by leading-in conductors I8. In a modification of the embodiment of this 10 A plurality of reñecting electrode elements I9 , invention shown in Fig. 3, a fourth electrode 34 is are provided between the grids, each of the ele provided. This electrode 34, as illustrated in Fig. ments being, for example, a metallic Wire or rod 4, may be a linear metallic rod disposed cen embedded in one arm of the press I2, equally trally of the cathode boundary, and preferably spaced from two adjacent or successive grids IB, is operated at a relatively high negative potential, and disposed parallel to the cathode I3. The as indicated in Fig. 5, to insure uniform radial elements I9 may be electrically connected to dispersion of the electrons from the cathode. gether by leading-in conductors 20 sealed in the It will be understood, of course, that a mag the press I2, the several uprights or rods, and stem Il. As shown in Fig. 5, the grids I 6, which serve as the output electrode of the device, may be operated at a positive potential, being connected to the cathode I3 through a Lecher system in cluding coaxial conductors 2I and 22 short-cir cuited by a slidable conductor 23, and a source, such as a battery 24. If desired, a suitable in ductance 25 may be provided in the cathode-grid circuit. The reñecting electrode elements I 9 may be connected to the cathode I3 by a Lecher sys 30 tem including coaxial conductors 26 and 21 short circuited by a slidable conductor 28, in series with a source, such as a battery 29 and a suitable in ductance 30. Preferably, the reflecting electrode elements I9 are negatively biased with respect to the cathode I3, although they may be operated at zero potential or with a small positive bias netic coil, such as shown in Fig. l, may be utilized in connection with devices of the construction il 20 lustrated in Figs. 3 and 4, to produce spiraling of the electrons through and about the grids I6. An alternating voltage at a lower frequency such as audio-frequency may be introduced by means of a modulating transformer 35 to modulate the radio frequency output. It will be understood, also, that various modi flcations may be made in the specific embodi ments of the invention illustrated and described rwithout departing from the scope and spirit of this invention as defined in the appended claims. What is claimed is: l. An electron discharge device comprising a cathode, an output electrode including a plu rality of reticulated output grids extending radi 35 ally with respect to said cathode, an auxiliary with respect to the cathode I3. electrode including a plurality of rod members Some of the electrons emanating from the disposed between said grids, and means for pro cathode I3 flow directly to the grids I6 and con ducing a magnetic field adjacent said cathode. 40 stitute a substantially constant component of 2. A Barkhausen oscillator comprising a linear the output current. Other electrons pass through cathode, an output electrode including a plu and around the grids I6 before finally impinging rality of flatv perforate grids disposed edgewise to upon and being absorbed by the grids, and con said cathode and extending radially with respect stitute the oscillating component of the output thereto, a reflecting electrode including a plu 45 current. When the reñecting electrode is oper rality of rod members disposed parallel to said ated at a positive potential with respect to the ,cathode and between said grids, and means for cathode, secondary electrons emanating from the producing a magnetic field in the vicinity of and grids may also become part of the oscillating parallel to said cathode. current. In order to increase the oscillating com 3. An electron discharge device comprising a 50 ponent of the output current, in accordance with cathode including a plurality of elements mounted this invention, a coil 3I is provided about the in a substantially cylindrical boundary, an out vessel I0 for subjecting the electrons emanating put electrode including a plurality of grids dis from the cathode to a magnetic ñeld so that the posed radially with respect to said boundary, an electrons will be caused to traverse spiral orbits electrode including a plurality of members dis 55 before impinging upon the grids I6. As shown posed in cooperative relation with said cathode in Fig. 2, under the action of the magnetic field, and grids, and an auxiliary electrode mounted the electrons will traverse spiral paths as indi within said boundary and in the longitudinal cated by the dotted lines 32, in passing from the axis thereof. cathode I3 to the grids I6. Y 4. A Barkhausen oscillator comprising a cath 60 It Will be apparent also that the grids I6 may ode including a plurality of linear elements be of relatively large area so that they are mounted in a cylindrical boundary, an output capable of handling relatively large currents electrode including a plurality of ñat grids ex `without becoming unduly heated. tending radially with respect to said boundary, In another embodiment of this invention, each of said grids being disposed between two of shown in Fig. 3, the cathode comprises a plu rality of linear elements 33, which may be of the said cathode'elements, a reflecting electrode in cluding a plurality of rod members disposed par heater type, or filaments, arranged in a cylin allel to said cathode elements, and a linear aux drical boundary. If the elements 33 are ñla iliary electrode within said boundary and in the ments, they may be connected in series or par longitudinal axis thereof. allel. Each of the cathode elements 33 is dis posed between two linear reflecting electrode ele 5. A Barkhausen oscillator comprising a cath y ments I9 which in turn are disposed between and ode, a reflecting electrode, an output electrode, equally spaced from a plurality of -grids I6 ex said reflecting electrode being mounted adjacent tending radially with respect to the cathode and intermediate the lateral ends of said output 75 boundary and disposed parallel to the cathode electrode, and means for causing electrons eman 40 45 50 60 65 70 75 3 2,105,924 ating from said cathode to traverse spiral paths in passing to said output electrode. 6. A Barkhausen oscillator comprising a cath ode, a reflecting electrode, an output electrode including a reticulated grid member extending radially with respect to said cathode, and means for producing a magnetic field in the vicinity of said cathode and output electrode whereby elec ments disposed about said cathode andv extending radially with respect thereto, a reñecting elec trode, an auxiliary electrode adjacent said cath ode for producing radial dispersion of electrons therefrom, and means for producing a magnetic ñeld in the Vicinity of said cathode and said ele ments whereby electrons emanating from said cathode are caused to traverse spiral orbits in trons emanating from said cathode are caused passing to said output electrode. to traverse spiral orbits in passing to said out put electrode. a cylindrical boundary, an output electrode in '7. A Barkhausen oscillator comprising a linear cathode, an output electrode including a plural ity of grids disposed about and extending radially with respect to said cathode, a reflecting electrode including a plurality of rod members disposed in cooperative relation to said cathode and grids and parallel to said cathode, and a magnetic coil encompassing said grids for causing electrons emanating from said cathode to traverse spiral 20 orbits in passing to said grids. 8, A Barkhausen oscillator comprising a cath ode, an output electrode having perforated ele 9. A Barkhausen oscillator comprising a cath 10 ode including a plurality of elements disposed in cluding a plurality of grids extending radially with respect to said boundary, a reflecting elec trode including a plurality of rod members dis 15 posed between said grids and parallel to said ele ments, an electrode within said boundary, and means for producing a magnetic field in the vicinity of said elements and grids so that elec trons emanating from said cathode are caused to 20 traverse spiral orbits in passing to said grids. HALLAM E, MENDENHALL.