close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2105947

код для вставки
Jan. 18, 1938.
P, H_ MAURER
2,105,947
AUTOMATIC STARTING MECHANISM
Original Filed Aug. 7, 1933
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
INVENTOR
400M!) 1%. mad/"er
A TTORNE Y
Jan. 18, 1938.
p_ HMAURER
2,105,947
AUTOMATIC STARTING MECHANISM
original Filed Aug. "r, 1953
I
2 Sheets-Sheet‘ 2
sm.v2p.4e) d
L0
By
witness
'
0.5
,6”
A TTORNE Y
Patented Jan. 18, 1938
2,105,947
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFiCE
2,105,947
AUTOMATIC STARTING MECHANISM
Paul H. Maurer, Elmira, N. Y., assignor to Eclipse
Machine Company, Elmira Heights‘, N. Y., a
corporation of New York
Application August 7, 1933, Serial No. 684,007
Renewed October 7, 1936
7 Claims. (Cl. 290-37)
This invention relates to automatic starting switch 6 is provided comprising the battery 3,
mechanism for internal combustion engines and lead .9, manual switch .1 l, which is preferably the
more particularly to devices for controlling the ignition switch of the engine, lead I2, solenoid
operation of starting mechanism in accordance
E3 of the magnetic starting ‘switch, and lead M
a, with the operating condition of the engine to be which is grounded through the armature of an
started.
engine~driven generator G to complete the con
It is an object of the present invention to pro
trol circuit. The generator G is employed to
vide a novel starter control which is simple and charge the battery 3 in ‘the usual manner, the
economical in construction and efficient and necessary connections being not illustrated since
11(3) reliable in operation.
they form no part of the present invention. It
It is another object to provide such a device will be understood that the connection of the
which insures accurate and dependable control control circuit to the generator G is in such a
of the starting operation
direction, that the generator opposes the ?ow of
It is a further object to provide such a de
battery current through the control circuit and
1:, vice having a liberal range of adjustment for thereby deenergizes the solenoid l3 when suffi 15
varying its controlling functions.
cient voltage has been built up in the generator.
It is another object to provide such a device,
According to the present invention, a ?eld
the controlling characteristics of which are sub
winding [5 of the generator G is connected by a
stantially unaffected by variations in external lead Hi to the lead l2adjacent the ignition switch
H. It will thus be seen that the ?eld winding
90 operating conditions and in the operating condi~
tions of the associated components of the power
I5 is immediately energized by the full voltage NO
plant.
of the battery 3 upon closure of the ignition
Further objects and advantages will be appar
switch H.
»
ent from the following description taken in con
A resistance element I1 is inserted in the lead
.. nection with the accompanying drawings in
l2 to the solenoid l3 and is designed to reduce
which:
the current ?owing through the lead I2 to a mere
Fig. 1 shows semi-diagrammatically a pre
holding value for said solenoid. In order to
ferred embodiment of the invention in conjunc
effect closure of the starting switch 6, a make
tion with a conventional type of internal com
and break device l8 of any suitable type is bridged
bustion engine, the clutch pedal of which is used around the resistance I‘! and is operated by the
3.0
to control the ‘initiation of the starting opera
ion;
Fig. 2 is a similar view of a second embodiment
trated, the make and break device [8 comprises
of the invention in which the accelerator pedal of
a rotary contact 19 connected by a lead ‘2| to
one side of the resistance 11, and a ?xed brush
member 22 connected by a lead 23 to the other
the engine is utilized as a control element;
Fig. 3 is a similar view of a third embodiment
of the invention in which certain of the control
ling functions are performed in response to the
intake vacuum of the engine; and
40
Fig. 4 is a diagram showing graphically the
results secured by separate ?eld excitation as
compared with the normal generator output.
Referring ?rst to Fig. 1 of the drawings, there
is illustrated an internal combustion engine indi
45 cated generally by numeral 4, and provided with
a manually operable member 2 in the form of a
clutch pedal of conventional type for controlling
the transmission of power therefrom. A start
ing system for the engine is illustrated compris
50 ing a battery 3, grounded at 4, connected by a
lead 5 to a magnetic starting switch 6 which
in turn is connected by a lead 1 to a starting
motor SM which is grounded at 8 to complete the
55
clutch pedal 2 to close the bridging circuit when
the clutch pedal is depressed. As here illus
starting circuit.
A control circuit for the magnetic starting
side‘ of said resistance. The rotary contact I9 is
normally out of engagement with the brush 22
but is moved into engagement therewith when
the clutch pedal is depressed, by suitable means 40
such as an arm 20 connected by a link 24 to the
clutch pedal 2.
In the operation of this embodiment of the
invention, and starting with the parts in the
positions illustrated, closure of the ignition switch
H causes battery current to ?ow through the
control circuit and energizes the solenoid I3 to
a holding value, but since this current traverses
the resistance 11, the solenoid I3 is not suf
?ciently energized to close the starting switch.
At the same time battery current flows through
the lead IE to the ?eld winding 15 of the gen
erator and energizes said ?eld winding by virtue
of the full battery voltage applied thereto. To
effect the starting operation, the operator is then 55
2
2,105,947
called upon merely to depress the clutch pedal 2
in the usual manner prior to engaging the trans
mission gears. This moves the rotary contact
[9 into engagement with the brush 22 whereby
the resistance l‘! is bridged out and the solenoid
E3 is fully energized, causing closure of the start
ing switch and initiation of the cranking op
eration. Release of the clutch pedal 2 does not
interrupt the cranking operation since, as above
10 pointed out, suf?cient current traverses the con
trol circuit including the resistance IT to hold the
starting switch closed whereby cranking continues
irrespective of the position of the clutch pedal.
When the engine starts, the voltage developed by
15 the generator G rises sufficiently to cause deen
ergization of the solenoid I3 whereupon the
starting switch opens, and is thereafter prevented
from closing as long as the engine is self-op
erative.
20
The opening and closing voltages of the start
ing switch may be adjusted in any suitable way
if desired. As here shown, the closing voltage
is regulated by adjusting the compression of a
spring 25 which holds the switch open; while
25 the opening voltage is similarly regulated by ad
justing the compression of a loading spring 26
which is compressed by the ?nal movement of
the switch plunger after closure of the switch
contacts.
30
It will be readily appreciated that one im
portant advantage in the use of the resistance
II to maintain the energization of the starting
system irrespective of the position of the clutch
pedal is that it permits the operator to move
35 the car by the starting mechanism when so
desired. This is sometimes very important as,
for instance, when an engine stalls while the
car is in a position of danger, and is of course
impossible with the conventional type of clutch
40 pedal controlled starting device.
It will be understood that when this embodi
ment of the invention is used in installations
embodying an automatic clutch control, the make
and break device [8 may be connected either
45 to the automatically operated clutch controlling
element or to the clutch pedal only. The latter
arrangement is shown in Fig. l in which the
clutch operating lever 21 is arranged to be moved
either by an automatic clutch control element
50 30 or by the pedal 2, and the link 24 is con
nected directly to said pedal. This arrangement
has the advantage that in case of generator
failure, the starter will not be actuated when the
clutch is thrown out automatically, but only when
55 the operator depresses the clutch pedal 2.
The novel and improved results ?owing from
the excitation of the ?eld winding l5 directly
from the battery through the ignition switch Il
may best be appreciated by reference to Fig. 4
60
of the drawings which shows graphically the
results secured by such separate ?eld excitation
as compared with the normal generator output.
In this ?gure the curve Ia shows the terminal
voltage of the generator with the ?eld excited in
the normal manner during the acceleration of
the generator. Curve lb shows the same during
the deceleration of the generator, the differences
between curves la and lb being due to the usual
70 effect of hysteresis. Curve 2a shows the ?eld
current of the generator when the ?eld is excited
in the normal manner, during acceleration of
the generator, and curve 21) for the correspond
ing curve during deceleration of the generator.
75 Curve 3 shows the generated voltage when the
65
?eld is excited directly from the battery through
the ignition switch, and curve 4 shows the cor
responding ?eld current.
It will be apparent from a study of these curves
that the voltage available from the generator
at low speeds when separately excited is uniform
and free from the effect of hysteresis, and much
higher than with a conventional generator, and
the variation in such voltage responsive to the
changes in such low engine speeds is also much 10
greater. As a matter of fact, the voltage gen
erated has been found to be substantially in
direct proportion to the engine speed irrespec
tive of whether the generator is being accelerated
or decelerated, and irrespective of temperature 15
changes of the generator, etc. When it is con
sidered that the controlling function of the gen
erator preferably takes place on that portion of
the curve below 300 R. P. M., it will be readily
appreciated that the vastly increased range of 20
voltage made available by separate excitation of
the generator ?eld permits much superior regu
lation of the starting operation without necessi
tating critical adjustments of the controlling
25
elements.
Taking for instance a typical installation in
which cranking speed is 200 R. P. M., the speed
at which it is desired to interrupt cranking is
300 R. P. M., and the speed down to which re
cranking is to be prevented is 50 R. P. M. The 30
voltages of a conventional generator correspond
ing thereto, taken from curve la, are 0.24 volt,
0.4 volt and 0.1. volt. The effective voltages
impressed on the relay coil I3 by a 6-volt bat
tery are then 5.76 volts, 5.6 volts, and 5.9 volts. 35
It is necessary, therefore, to design a relay which
will hold closed when the applied voltage is 5.76
volts, which will open when the applied voltage
falls to 5.6 volts, and which will not reclose
until the applied voltage rises to 5.9 volts.
In contrast to this, the corresponding genera
40
tor voltages with a generator in which the ?eld
is excited from the battery according to the
present invention are (curve 3) 2% volts, 3%
volts and 1 volt, so that it is merely necessary
to use a relay which will hold closed at 3% effec
tive voltage, and open at 2%; volts and will not
reclose until the effective voltage rises to 5. This
obviously gives far greater latitude for variations
50
in the characteristics of the component parts.
Referring now to the embodiment of the in~
vention illustrated in Fig. 2, the starting circuit
and the control circuit are similar to those
shown in Fig. 1, the elements being similarly
numbered. In this embodiment of the inven
tion, however, a make and break device 28 is
arranged to be operated by a manual control
member in the form of an accelerator pedal 29
for the engine as by means of a link 3| and an 60
arm 32. The make and break device 28 is ar
ranged preferably though not necessarily as
shown to break the control circuit when the
accelerator pedal 29 is completely released. For
this purpose, the lead I2 is connected to a brush
33, and the make and break device is provided
with a rotary electrode 34 normally out of en
gagement therewith, which electrode is connected
by a lead |2a to the solenoid [3. The brush 33
is arranged to engage this electrode 34 upon
initial depression of the accelerator pedal 29,
and a second brush 35 is arranged to be engaged
by said electrode upon further depression of the
accelerator pedal, the brush 35 being adapted
2,105,947
to ‘bridge the resistance I?! by virtue of a lead
36 connected thereto.
In the operation of this embodiment of the
invention, starting with the parts in their idle
positions as illustrated, closure of the ignition
switch ‘I | energizes the ?eld 15 “of ‘the ‘generator.
Initial depression of the accelerator pedal ‘~29
closes the control circuit through the resistance
l1, energizing theso'lenoid 13 to a holding value.
Further depression of the’acce'lerator *pedail‘causes
electrode 34 to engage the brush 35, thus ‘short
ing out the ‘resistance 11 and causing \full ener
gization of solenoid ‘l 3 to close the-starting switch
6. Cranking of the ‘engine ‘thereupon takes place
15 and is continued irrespective of movement of
the accelerator pedal ‘29 until the engine ‘starts,
unless the accelerator is completely ‘released. ‘In
case of a false start of the engine of ,just will
cient force to demes'h the starter pinion without
20 accelerating ‘the generator su?iciently to ‘open
the starting switch, it ‘is merely necessary for
the operator to release the accelerator pedal
whereupon the starter is deenergized and the
starting operation may't'hen be repeated as above
25 set forth.
It will be appreciatedjhowever, that the greatly
increased e?iciency of the generator control ac
cording ‘to the present invention reduces prac
tically ‘to the vanishing point the ‘problem of pre
30 venting motor spin incase-of false starts, since an
engine explosion which is powerful enough to de
mesh the pinion is practically sure toenergize the
generator sufficiently to open the starting switch
so that .the cranking operation .is automatically
35 repeated.
The embodiment of the invention illustratedin
Fig. 3 is similar to that .shown in Fig. v1, except
that the make and break device 38 .is normally
closed, and is automatically opened in response
to intake vacuum whereby .a fully automatic
starter control is provided. As vhere shown, this
make and break .device comprises a fixed contact
39 anda movable contact 4| mounted ‘.on a ?exible
diaphragm 42 forming one wall of a chamber 43
suitably connected .to the intake manifold .44 of
the engine. Contact 39 is connected by a lead 45
to ‘one side of the resistance l1, while contact 4| is
connected by a lead 46 to the opposite .side of
said resistance. Contacts 39 and 4| .are normally
"50 in engagement asshown but contact 4| is adapted
to be withdrawn .by intake vacuum oflow value.
In the operation of this embodiment of the in
vention, closure of the ignition switch .|l causes
energization of the generator ?eld winding .|.5
from the battery, and also causes .closure of the
starting switch \6 since the resistance I1 is shorted
out by contacts 39, 4|. As soon as cranking
starts, the vacuum in the intake manifold 44
60 causes contacts 39, 4| to open, but cranking con
tinues by reason of the holding current for the
starting switch which traverses the resistance l1.
When the engine starts, the generator G causes
deenergization of the solenoid |3 whereby the
65 starting switch opens and remains open until
contacts 39 and 4| close by failure of intake
vacuum at the same time that the output of gen
erator G falls below the predetermined minimum
lock-out value. When these conditions are
70 brought about by engine stall, the engine will be
automatically restarted.
In order to prevent an immediate restart in
case of engine stall, which might cause engage
ment of the starting pinion during a back-rock
75 of the engine, a time delay is preferably incor
3
porated in the control. As ‘here illustrated, this
time delay is obtained by means of a disc 41 suit
ably ?xed in the bottom of ‘the chamber 43 and
‘provided with a small aperture 48 communicat
ing with the intake manifold connection. It will
‘be ‘readily appreciated that the reclosure of con
tacts 3'9, 4| will be delayed for the desired interval
after an engine stall, by suitably proportioning
the chamber 43 and selecting a disc 41' having
the proper sized aperture for the particular class 10
of installation.
{It has been iound in certain installations made
according to the present invention that when
the lead 16 from the separately excited ?eld i5
is v‘directly connected to lead I2 of the control 15
circuit as-shown in Figs. 1 and 2, when the ignition
switch 5| | is opened to stop the engine, the break
ing of the battery connection to said ?eld may
cause an inductive surge through the held in a
reverse direction to the magnetizing current. 20
This inductive surge may be of sufficient voltage
to traverse the control circuit including the resist
ance l‘‘! and "actuate the solenoid l3 to close the
starting switch. Thisca-uses a momentary actua
tion-of the starting ‘motor which is sometimes suf~ 25
?cient tocause the starter gear to attempt to en~
gage the ?ywheel of the engine which causes an
undesirable click as the starter pinion strikes the
?ywheel and might in time cause unnecessary
30
wearof the parts.
In order to prevent this effect, the switch. ||
may preferably the formed as shown in Fig. 3 as a
two-‘pole switch, the ?eld lead 16 being connecte
to “one pole 5'1 and the ‘control circuit lead l2 being
connected to the other pole 52. The ignition cir 85
cuit lead may obviously be connected to either of
these poles. ‘The switch | I then constitutes means
for separately simultaneously connecting the con
trol circuit and the v?eld winding to the battery
and for disconnecting the ?eld winding from the
control circuit when the ?eld winding is discon
nected from the battery. Obviously this ar
rangement prevents the induced voltage of the
?eld winding from affecting the control circuit.
Although certain embodiments of the invention
have been shown and described in detail, it will
be understood that other embodiments are pos~
sible and that changes may be made in the ar—
rangement of the parts without departing from 50
thespiriit 10f the invention as de?ned in the claims
appended Ihereto.
What is claimed is:
1. Alpower plant ‘including an internal combus~
tion ‘engine, starting mechanism therefor includ~ ‘.
ing 'a magnetic starting switch, a control circuit
for said starting switch ‘including a battery, a
manual switch vand a make and ‘break device; a
manually operable power control member, means
for operating said make and break device from 60
said control member, a shunt resistor for main
taining the effective energization of the control
circuit irrespective of opening of the make and
break device, an engine-driven generator having
a ?eld winding connected in shunt with the por 55
tion of the control circuit including said make
and break device, and means including said gen
erator for maintaining said control circuit de
energized responsive to self-operation of the
engine at or above a predetermined speed, said 70
shunt resistor being of such value as to cooperate
with the voltage of the generator in opposing ?ow
of battery, current through the magnetic starting
switch to cause said switch to open at a predeter
mined engine speed.
75
4
2,105,947
2. A power plant including an internal combus~
tion engine and a manually operable power con
trol member, starting mechanism for said engine
including a magnetic starting switch, a control
circuit for said starting switch including a make
and break device, connecting means whereby
operation of the control member actuates said
make and break device, a shunt resistor for main
taining the effective energization of the control
10 circuit irrespective of the opening of the make
and break device, an engine-driven generator
having an armature and a ?eld winding, connec
tions whereby the armature voltage of the gen
erator opposes energization of the starting switch,
15 said shunt resistor being of such value as to co
operate with the voltage of the generator in op
posing flow of battery current through the magnetic starting switch to cause said switch to open
at a predetermined engine speed, and manually
20 operable means for simultaneously controlling the
energization of the control circuit and of said
?eld winding.
3. A power plant including an internal com
bustion engine and a manually operable power
25 control member, starting mechanism for said en
gine including a magnetic starting switch, a con—
trol circuit for said starting switch including a
battery and a make and break device, connect
ing means whereby operation of the control
30 member actuates said make and break device to
cause closure of the starting switch, means for
holding the starting switch closed, irrespective
of opening said make and break device, an engine—
driven generator having an armature and a ?eld
35 winding, connections whereby the generator op
poses the ?ow of battery current through the con—
trol circuit, and manually operable means for
simultaneously completing the control circuit and
connecting said ?eld winding directly to the bat
40 tery.
4. A power plant including an internal com
bustion engine and a manually operable power
control member, starting mechanism for said en
gine including a magnetic starting switch, a con
45 trol circuit for said starting switch including a
make and break device, connecting means where
by operation of the control member actuates said
make and break device, a connection bridging said
make and break device having such resistance as
50 to reduce the flow of current in the control cir
cuit to a holding value for the magnetic starting
switch, an engine-driven generator having an ar
mature and a ?eld winding, means including said
generator for opposing energization of the start
55 ing switch during self-operation of the engine,
and a manually operable switch for simultane
ously completing the control circuit and connect
ing said ?eld winding directly to the battery.
5. A power plant including an internal com
bustion engine, starting mechanism therefor in
cluding a magnetic starting switch having an
operating solenoid, a control circuit for said start
ing switch including a battery, a manual switch,
a make and break device and said solenoid; means
for operating said make and break device, a shunt
resistor for maintaining the e?ective energization
of the control circuit irrespective of opening of
the make and break device, an engine-driven 10
generator having a ?eld winding so connected
that when the control circuit is energized, said
?eld winding is in shunt with the portion of the
control circuit including said make and break
device and said solenoid, and means including 15
said generator for maintaining said control cir
cuit deenergized responsive to self-operation of
the engine at or above a predetermined speed,
said shunt resistor being of such value as to co
operate with the voltage of the generator in op
20
posing ?ow of battery current through the mag
netic starting switch to cause said switch to open
at a predetermined engine speed.
6. In combination with an internal combus
tion engine, starting mechanism therefor includ 25
ing a battery and a magnetic starting switch, a
control circuit for said starting switch including
said battery, a manual switch, and a make and
break device, opening means for the make and
break device responsive to self-operation of the
engine, means in shunt with said opening means
for holding the starting switch closed irrespec~
tive of opening of the make and break device, an
engine-driven generator having a ?eld winding,
and means including said generator for deen 35
ergizing said control circuit and maintaining it
inoperative during rotaton of the engine above a
predetermined speed, said ?eld winding being
connected directly to said battery through said
manual switch.
40
7. In combination with an internal combus
tion engine, starting mechanism therefor includ
ing a magnetic starting switch, a control cir
cuit for said starting switch including a battery,
a manual switch and a normally closed make and 45
break device, means responsive to intake vacuum
for opening said make and break device, means
for passing current of a holding value for said
magnetic switch around said make and break
device, and an engine-driven generator having
an armature and a ?eld winding, said armature
being in circuit with the magnetic switch and
make and break device, and said ?eld Winding
being in shunt with the portion of the control cir
cuit which includes the make and break device .
and the magnetic switch.
PAUL H. MAURER.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
764 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа