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Патент USA US2105984

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' 2,105,984
Patented Jan. 18, 1938 u '
PATENT OFFICE‘
UNITED STATES
z,1o5,9s4
woop STAINING
Charles G. Moore, Lakewood, and Milton Zucker
Cleveland, Ohio, assignors to The Glidden
Company, Cleveland, Ohio, a corporation of
Ohio
No Drawing. Application October :1, 1929,
u
' Serial No. 403,908
6 Claims.
'
(01. 134-48)
In the former system ofewood ?nishing by var- . desirable features of water soluble‘stains how
ever may be made available without objectionably
nish, the staining of the wood was a relatively
simple operation. Benzol-soluble dyes (which ' raising'the ?ber of the wood. In accordance with
can be made su?iciently light-resistant for-‘fur; ' our ‘invention, the water requisite for the solu
5 niture work and the like) were mixed to the
desired shade, and applied. .These readily dried,
and the pores of the wood were then ?lled with
a ?ller compositionconsisting of pigment mixed
with oil, drier and aliphatic hydrocarbon thin
tion of the‘dye is mixed with organic solvents VI
such as to control the tendency to raise the ?ber.
The organic solvents seem to exert a protective
10 ners.
tioning the water and organic solvents, so that
all the water evaporates before the organic sol
action on'the ‘wood; ?ber, preventing the water
from soaking into the cells. By properly propor
The varnish coats which were then ap
plied also contained aliphatic hydrocarbon or
turpentine. In no case was a solvent for the dye
present in the top coats, and the dye remained
in the wood and_no trouble was encountered.
1'5 With the advent of wood lacquers however, a new
series of solvents came into use,.including_alco
hols, esters and the aromatic hydrocarbons, ben
. zol, toluol. and xylol. The use of lacquers over the
old type of stains was found to result in some of
vent, there will be no ?ber-raising, as there is
nothing left in the wood to produce such e?ect.
The evaporation rates of the various solvents
' depend largely upon the temperature; the evap-v
oration‘rate of water however, varies also with
the relative humidity of the atmosphere. A
_mixture of water with an organic solvent will,
20 the dye leaving the wood and going-into solution
in the top coating. This produced two bad effects.
In mixed color stains, the dyes often tended to
therefore, raise the ?ber of the wood at one
temperature and humidity and not at another, 20
unless properly proportioned. The proportion is
thus such for: theingredients that there'will be
bleed unevenly into the lacquer coating, thereby‘ no ?ber-raising at any working temperature or
resulting in a change of color; and the acid in
25 the benzol dyes ‘often, rotted the lacquer ?lm, de
humidity. j We have further found that‘di?erent
woods will act in different ways with respect to
stroying its toughness and adhesion. Attempts stain solutions, some showinga greater tendency
were made to dissolve the dyes in alcohol, but ‘no
' colors were obtainable that were thus soluble and.
to‘raise the ?ber-than others.- Close grained
woods such as walnut give little trouble; but an
at the same time sumciently resistant‘ to light. , open grained/wood like ?gured mahogany is very
30 Water-soluble acid dyes, which had been used di?icult to handle. Another point requiring con
to a limited extent oh very high grade varnish sideration is the fact that the water-soluble dyes
arenot as soluble inorganic solvents. The pro
work, were next brought into use in this connec
tion. These colors (of the diazo type for the portioning therefore must be such as to not only
greatest part) have a relativelygood resistance hold the ?ber down, but also have the least
35 to the action of light, and do not tend to bleed ‘,tendency to precipitate the dye. Furthermore,
into the lacquer ?lm, being largely insoluble in extremely high-boiling solvents can not be used,
lacquer solvents.‘ "These stains however, have ‘a
very serious disadvantage, which has prevented
their more general use. When water or an aque
' _40 ous solution is applied to wood, it is absorbed
since these evaporate too slowly and leave the
wood greasy, and ‘thus not‘ready for the ?ller.
These greasy residues are also often hygroscopic,
and they may pick up. enough water from the air
to not only saturate the substance, but also to
raise the ?ber. As solvents which may be used
with water to produce desirable results, we may
and the ?ber of the wood is raised. The ?lling
operation follows the staining. Unless the wood
is perfectly smooth for the ?lling operation, the
?ller does not wipe off well, and gray marks are ‘ employ glycerol, glycol, the‘ glycol ethers and‘
esters, di-ethylene glycol, and its ethers and es! 45
45 ‘left in the uneven portions of. the ‘wood where pig
ment has covered the stain. The ?bers raised by .
the water must therefore-be sanded down. In
[order to do this properly, a'wash coat of shellac
1' (about one-half pound per gallon of alcohol)
50 must be applied. This sti?ens the wood ?bers ‘so
that the sand) paper willcut them easily. It can
readily be seen that this shellacking and sanding
ters, ethyl lactate, methyl and ethyl alcohols,
iso-propyl alcohol, acetone, etc. Sumcient slow
evaporating solvent must be added to the water
to prevent raising of the ?ber; while more rapidly
evaporating solvents such as alcohol and acetone
are used with these to speed the drying and re
duce the cost.; Glycerol and the .glycols should
requires time and labor, so, that the cheaper and ' in general not be used in amounts exceeding
2-3%, since larger amounts will leave a greasy
better water ‘stains .were' not used extensively. ‘
,55 In accordance with our present invention, the residue. The glycol ethers such as the mono
9,105,984
' 2
methylan'd mono-ethyl ethers oi’ ethylene glycol,
V. Instead of ‘using a high percentage oi'me
may be used in any proportion. Ethyl lactate ' dium-high boiling solvents such as ethyl lactate or '
may also be used in almost any amount.
mono-ethyl ether of ethylene glycol, it is possible
' As illustrative of the invention, the following
examples may be noted:
I."A very desirable combination may be made’
to replace some of this by a mixture of very high
boiling solvent and alcohol, for instance
2% parts ot‘dye,
up of
54 part of water soluble dye,
2 parts of water,
10
v
I
2 parts of glycerol,
>
.
3 parts of methanol denatured alcohol, all pro
weight.
portions being by weight.
‘The dye. is dissolved in the water, the ethyl
and will not raise the ?ber on any wood at work
ing humidity. It is a tri?e slow in evaporating,
'
'
}
4
'
_
'
'
gredients or steps stated in any of the following
claims, or the equivalent of such, be employed.
We therefore particularly point out and dis
.
'70 parts 01' the mono-ethyl ether of ethylene
25
.-
7 ‘ as regards the details described, provided the in
, 2% parts of dye,
15 parts of water,
'
resultant hygroscopicity and ?ber-raising at very '
11. Another desirable embodiment of our in
vention may comprise
'
high humidities (more than 85%).
Other modes of applying the principle'ot the
invention may be employed, change'being made 20
but does not leave a greasy residue.‘ -
20‘
‘
This stain composition is very nearly the equal
of that of Example Ii. It is important however
not to raise the percentage oi glycerol, since fur 15
ther addition will cause a slight greasiness, with
15 lactate is added, and then the alcohol. This com
‘4 position has very good solvent action on dyes,
'
'
58 parts or mono-ethyl ether of ethylene glycol,
-25 parts of alcohol, all proportions being by 10
'
5 parts of ethyllactate,
,
15 parts 01' water,
tinctly claim as our invention:.-
glycol (known in the trade as cellosolve) , -
-
l. A dye solution for use as a wood stain, con
15 parts of methanol denatured alcohol, all
sisting of a dye dissolved in water, an organic
sblvent miscible with water, and ethyl lactate.
proportions being by weight. ~
I‘ This composition is superior inspeed'of evapo
2. A'dye solution for use as a' wood stain, con
30 ration,‘but does not keep dyes in solution quite . sisting 01' a dye dissolved in water, ethyl lactate, 30
as well.
-
"
.
,
and alcohol.
III. Where the stain is not to be subjected to
unusual conditions of humidity, or where only‘
close-grained'w'oods are to be used, it is safe to
35 replace more oi.’ the high‘ boiling thinner with.
alcohol. For instance a good stain for walnut
4. A dye solution for use as a wood stain, ‘con
sisting of about. 1/4, part of dye ‘dissolved in two
parts of water, about 5 parts of ethyl lactate,
and about'3 partsoi methanol denatured alcohol.
.
15 parts of water,
40.
5. A dye solution for use as a wood stain, con- -
, -
sisting of about 2% parts of dye dissolved in 15
50 parts oi‘ mono-ethyl ether of ethylene glycol,
35
parts of water, about '70 parts__'o! mono-ethyl
of alcohol, all proportions being by
w
g
.
.
v
sisting of a dye dissolved in water, mono-ethyl
ether of ethylene glycol, and alcohol.
veneer may comprise
21/2 parts 01' dye,
.
3. A dye solution for use as a wood stain, con
ether of ethylene glycol, and about 15 parts 01
'
‘r methanol denatured alcohol.
. This s'tain may raise the grain on such woods
as mahogany at relative humidities of 60% or
higher, and on particularly bad pieces of wood
it may raise the ?ber on a rather dry day.‘
’
IV. It is also possible to make up these stain
- solutions in concentrated .iorm, and reduce them
for use to the desired color strength with a mix- ‘
ture of‘
50 parts by volume oi.’ mono-ethyl ether of
-
-
:
sisting of a dye dissolved in water, a high boiling ‘5
organic miscibilizing solvent selected {mm the
group consisting of ethyl lactate and mono-ethyl
ether of ethylene glycol, and alcohol.
‘cm a; Moons.
mm'on zoom.
50 parts by volume of alcohol,_and
ethylene glycol.
_
6,-A dye solution for use as a wood stain con»
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