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Патент USA US2105996

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Jan. 18, 1938.
E. W. BYERS
2,105,996
FLASHING
Filed April 17, 1937
.ZZZ/GTWI
z wi?yers,
Patented Jan. 18, 1938
2,105,996
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,105,996
FLASHING
Edwin W. Byers, Chicago, Ill.
Application April 17, 1937, Serial No. 137,425
8 Claims. (Cl. 108-—26)
This invention relates to ?ashing for use at teeth engage the mortar or other material there
the edges of roofs, corners or other parts of a
about, thus preventing both longitudinal and lat
building or other structure in order to prevent eral movement of the flashing. The degree of
the entrance of moisture.
curvature of the anchoring device should pref
The use of metal ?ashings is well known. It is
erably be such as to give a springing action to
also known to use ?ashings consisting of fabrics assist in engaging the teeth.
or a composition of fabric with metal. Metal
While the anchoring device described above is
?ashings heretofore in use have suffered from the adapted to be used with an all-metal ?ashing, the
disadvantage that they are di?icult to hold in
preferred embodiment of the invention consists
of a ?ashing formed from‘ a continuous metal
1.0 _. place. This is particularly true of metal ?ash
ings adapted to be inserted into old walls, as dis
sheet material having at one .end an anchoring
tinguished from through-wall ?ashings in new device as described above and inserted into a
buildings. Many of the fabric ?ashings hereto~ raggle or wall and joined outside of or along the
fore provided are unsuitable because they wear
wall to a water-repellent fabric material, prefer
ably a bituminous coated ?brous material having
157 out too quickly. Thus, fabric ?ashings in which
the fabric itself is imbedded into the wall tend a granular inert mineral surface, for example, a 15;
to wear out and tear apart at the angle where slate-surfaced felt. These two materials are
they enter the wall. In addition to the foregoing preferably joined in such a way that the water
disadvantages, many ?ashings require auxiliary repellent ?brous material underlies a portion of
20: anchoring devices in order to hold them in place. the sheet metal so that said ?brous material is 2.0
The use of such devices is inconvenient and un
not exposed at its upper edge and lies ?at along
desirable.
the wall. The joining of these two materials is
It is an object of the present invention to pro
preferably effected by means of pressed-in metal
vide new and improved ?ashings which are read
portions extending through slits in the fabric
ily anchored in place either in new walls or in material, preferably transverse slits or cuts, in
old walls and which do not involve the use of a direction away from the normal pull of the 25
auxiliary anchoring devices. A further object is fabric material. Thus, when the fabric mate
the provision of a new and improved type of rial is hanging vertically, as would usually be the
?ashing consisting of a combination of two or case in a roo?ng construction, the pressed-in
, more materials, one of which is a sheet metal,
' Another object is to provide a ?ashing consisting
of a sheet metal joined to a fabric material in
such a manner that only the metal is inserted
into the raggle or wall and the fabric is joined
v to the metal in such a way as to cause the mini
'mum amount of wear. An additional object is
the provision of a ?ashing of the type just de
scribed consisting of a combination of metal and
fabric in which the fabric is a heavier type of
4:0
fabric than ordinarily used in ?ashings and is
not adapted to be readily bent and inserted into
a wall. A still further object is the provision of
rial and upwardly and the two materials are 301
pressed or clamped together. Such a juncture
between the two materials avoids the necessity of
sharply bending the fabric material, which is
practically impossible in the case of a very heavy
material such as a slate-surfaced felt, and at the 35.
same time it is unnecessary to employ auxiliary
tying or fastening devices.
Other features of the invention will become
apparent from a reading of the following speci?
cation in the light of the accompanying. drawing,
a new and improved continuous metal-fabric
in which
Figure 1 is a side sectional view showing the
?ashing ‘in which the fabric is joined to the
preferred type of ?ashing in place in a roo?ng
metal without the aid of auxiliary tying or fas
tening devices and without the necessity for
bending the fabric. Other objects will appear
construction;
as the description proceeds.
50,‘
metal portions extend through the fabric mate
.
In accordance with the invention the new type
of ?ashing herein described comprises
a metal
.
Figure 2 is a front view of the preferred type 45
of ?ashing;
Figure 3 is a side sectional view along'the line
3—-3v of Figure 2, with parts broken away; and
Figure 4 is a front View of a modi?ed form of
minating in a series of teeth. These teeth are
cut from the metal, forming a continuation there
of, and are preferably in the form of a continu
?ashing illustrating a different arrangement of 5.0
teeth in the anchoring portion.
The ?ashing illustrated in Figures 1, 2 and 3
comprises a metal sheet material l0 having an
end portion l2 angularly bent at an acute angle
ous row of teeth, although they may be spaced at
and terminating in a series of teeth I4.
intervals.
If desired, groups of two or more teeth
shown, the sheetmetal material I0 is joined to a
may be spaced at intervals. This end portion
containing the teeth is preferably, although not
necessarily, ‘curved in such a manner that the
Water-repellent ?brous material It by means ‘of
pressed-in metal portions l8,.20. The pressed-in
sheet material, preferably copper, having an end
portion angularly bent at an acute angle and ter
As
55.
metal portion l8 passes through a transverse slit 60
2
10
15
20
25
2,105,996
It will be understood that numerous variations
or cut in the ?brous material at point 22, and is
bent upwardly along the back of said material
may be made without departing from the inven
opposite the direction of pull. The metal and
?brous materials are preferably clamped tightly
together in a manner such that the metal grips
or bites into the ?ber, as illustrated, and forms a
prising the turned up end portion l2 and teeth
[4 may be applied to an all-metal ?ashing, e. g.,
unitary, composite structure with no substantial
projections at the point of juncture. No auxil
iary tying or fastening devices are required.
In Figure 1, the composite ?ashing is shown
in place in a roo?ng construction. As shown,
the metal portion 24 is inserted into a raggle 2B,
lying along the bottom thereof, with end portion
l2 turned upwardly and curved from acute angle
28, whereby teeth l4v engage the top of raggle 26.
After the ?ashing is in place, pressure gum caulk
ing 30, mortar, a bituminous material or the
like, is forced into raggle 26.
The roof structure proper is subject to consid
erable variation and the type of roof shown in
the drawing is merely illustrative. As shown, the
top of the roof deck or insulation 32 underlies
composition roo?ng material 34, for example, a
bituminous roo?ng composition. This latter, in
turn, underlies a base ?ashing 36 which may be
of any suitable construction ordinarily employed
for this purpose. The ?brous portion I 6 of the
unitary composite ?ashing is adapted to lie ver
tically along the wall or base ?ashing, and pref
30 erably terminates at or near angle 38 in sheet
metal portion In of the ?ashing. It will be ob
served that no portion of the ?brous material I6
is bent and the upper end thereof underlies the
metal portion of the composite ?ashing.
This
35 arrangement avoids the disadvantages often
found in fabric ?ashings which enter the Wall at
or near the point 38, because such ?ashings tend
to wear out at this point. Moreover, it is prac
tically impossible with a fabric ?ashing which
is bent at this point to employ a material there
for such as slate-surfaced felt which is rela
tively heavy and which tends to break when
bent at a sharp angle. It is an important aspect
of this invention to provide a composite, unitary,
continuous ?ashing containing as one component
thereof a bituminous coated ?brous material
having a granular inert mineral surface, such, for
example, as slate-surfaced felt.
I
In Figure 3 the springing action of the end
50 portion or anchoring device I2 is illustrated by
the positions a, a’, the former showing the posi
tion of the end portion l2 and the teeth l4
before, and the latter after, insertion into the
raggle.
The modi?ed form of ?ashing illustrated in
Figure 4 is similar to the ?ashing shown in Fig
ures 1, 2 and 3 except that the teeth 40 are not
continuous throughout the entire width of the
?ashing. Otherwise the method of fastening the
60 metal to the ?brous portion of the ?ashing, shown
55
by the pressed-in portions 42, 44, is the same.
The ?ashings shown in Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4
may be joined laterally in any suitable manner,
for instance, by means of a soft copper joint
65 cover, not shown, overlapping the intersections
between any two ?ashings and coextensive longi
tudinally with both the metal portion and the
fabric portion of the composite ?ashing. This
metal joint cover may pass from the teeth I 4
70 along the intersection between two ?ashings and
between the metal and fabric portions, ?nally
being turned up on the back of the bottom of
the fabric portion, for instance, at point 46. Any
other suitable method of joining the ?ashings
75 together may be utilized.
tion.
For instance, the anchoring device com
a single-piece copper ?ashing. As before stated,
the end portion 12 need not be curved but may
be straight, although a curvature in a direction
away from the horizontal portion 24 is desirable
in order to assist the springing action of the
metal and the engagement of the teeth with the
raggle. The dimensions of the ?ashing may ob—
viously vary very widely, the distance of pene
tration into the wall being determined by the
position of the angle at point 38, which is pref 15
erably rounded.
The means of fastening the ?brous sheet ma
terial [6 to the metal sheet material In may be
varied. For instance, the edge 20 does not nec
essarily have to bite into the ?brous material,
as shown, although it is desirable that the two
materials, that is, the metal material and the
?brous material, be clamped together in such a
way as to be relatively immovable with respect
to each other. The horizontal slits 22 are pre 26
ferred, although if desired a vertical arrange
ment may be employed. Vertical slits have a
tendency to tear the fabric or other ?brous ma
terial.
,
The metal sheet material may be copper, gal 80
vanized iron, brass, bronze, aluminum or other
corrosion resistant metals.
The ?brous material forming a part of the
composite ?ashing may be a paper base, cloth,
heavy felt, burlap or other ?brous fabric im
pregnated or coated with a water-repellent ma
terial, for example, asphalt, coal tar pitch or
other bituminous substance. The preferred ma
terial is a heavy felt impregnated with asphalt,
coal tar pitch or the like and surfaced on the 40
wearing surface with granulated slate or other
inert material, preferably a slate surfaced felt
weighing from about 40 to 110 pounds, or more
speci?cally about 90 pounds, per hundred square
45
feet.
The ?ashing herein described can be inserted
into any kind or size of raggle such as a raked ,
out brick joint of any size in an existing brick
wall, a dry joint left in a new masonry wall for
this purpose or a raggle cut into a new or exist
50
ing concrete or stone wall. The ?ashing can be
built into a new wall if so desired. Ordinarily,
the ?ashing is forced into the raggle with the
aid of some wide ?at bladed instrument such as
a thin bar or a wide ?at-edged chisel until it has 55
reached its proper position, then the raggle is
?lled with some plastic material such as a good
caulking compound inserted by hand or prefer
ably by the gun method. Before the ?ashing is
in place it may be “spot mopped” if so desired, 60
or otherwise adhesively secured, at the bottom
edge or at such intervals as may be thought nec
essary to assist in making the bottom edge more
secure and tight to the vertical surface.
The composite unitary ?ashing herein de
65
scribed can be used to good advantage in any
place in new or existing work where a ?ashing
may be required, more easily and safely than
other types of ?ashings now in use. It has all
the advantages of metal ?ashings and is consid 70
erably less expensive. By virtue of the small
surface of sheet metal exposed to the weather
the expansion and contraction due to tempera
ture changes is considerably less than that oo
curring in an all sheet metal ?ashing, thereby 75
3
2,105,996
Cl
avoiding the constant movement in the metal
2. A ?ashing comprising a metal sheet mate
which causes all sheet metal ?ashings to work
loose in the raggle and eventually leak or come
rial having an end portion angularly bent at an
acute angle and curved away from the metal,
and terminating in a series of teeth.
3. A composite ?ashing comprising a continu
out altogether.
The anchoring device of my ?ashing elimi
nates the necessity of wedges or other devices
for locking the ?ashing into the wall. It also
eliminates specially designed strips that are
often built into the wall to receive ?ashings. All
10 that is required is a partially dry joint left in a
brick or stone wall, a raked out joint in an ex
isting brick or stone wall, a small ?llet strip
placed in the forms for a. new concrete wall or
a small, comparatively shallow, raggle cut into
an existing concrete wall.
Where the ?ashing
is forced into the raggle the curved portion con
taining the teeth is pressed downward at the
top surface of the raggle. Once the teeth have
passed the top outside edge of the raggle the
20 springing action of the curved metal forces the
teeth up against the top surface of the raggle
where they engage themselves into any pores or
other irregularities of the surface and resist any
effort to pull the ?ashing out of the raggle.
W'hile resisting any outward movement of the
?ashing, the arrangement of the teeth is such
as to permit the very slight sidewise movement
that may be necessary to accommodate the very
slight movement due to expansion and contrac
30 tion.
Where special metals are used for decorating
purposes and a ?ashing is required, the felt or
fabric can be omitted and the ?ashing made of
the same decorative metals even to the extent
of forming a part of the design. The self locking
feature of the ?ashing reduces installation labor
costs greatly. Furthermore, it can be installed
very quickly.
Certain fabric ?ashings are on the market and
40 their weakness has been proven to be along the
point at which they enter into the wall.
The
bituminous substance wears out or evaporates
along this line leaving only the base material
which will not exclude water and may become
45 rotten or torn. The preferred type of ?ashing of
the present invention has metal along this line
which will endure for the’life of the metal, resist
water and stand any reasonable amount of me
chanical abuse.
The manner in which the ?brous material is
attached to the sheet metal permits the felt or
fabric to- ?t tightly against the wall or base ?ash
ings. Also ?ashings can be carried to a point
much higher than is usual above horizontal sur
55 faces with but very slight additional expense be
cause of the cheapness of the felt or fabric which
forms the vertical surface as compared to metal.
The shape of the ?ashing is such that it will
“nes ” well for economical shipment and can be
60 factory made in standard lengths and easily
crated.
Corners and laps can be quickly and
easily made with four inch wide strips of plain
sheet metal and aside from the insertion of the
?ashing in the raggles, this is the only ?eldwork
65 necessary to make a complete, permanently wa~
tertight installation.
Having thus described the invention, what I
claim as new and desire to secure by Letters
Patent of the United States is:
1. A ?ashing comprising a metal sheet mate
70
rial having an end portion angularly bent at an
acute angle and terminating in a. series of teeth,
said teeth being adapted to engage a wall surface
and initially hold said ?ashing in place.
ous metal sheet material having at one end an
anchoring device and joined near the other end
to a water-proof fabric material, said anchoring
device comprising an acute angular bend in the
metal sheet material which curves upwardly and 10
terminates in teeth.
4. A composite ?ashing comprising a metal
sheet material having an angular bend therein,
one side of said angular bend being adapted to
be placed substantially horizontally in a wall,
raggle or the like, and. terminating in- an anchor
ing device comprising an acute angular bend,
with teeth formed in the end thereof, and the
other side of said angle being adapted to lie sub
stantially vertically along a wall and being at 20
tached to a water-repellent material.
5. A unitary composite flashing consisting of
a continuous metal sheet material having a sub
stantially uniform bend therein, one side of said
bend being adapted to lie substantially verti
cally adjacent a wall, or the like, and joined to
a water-repellent ?brous material by means of
pressed in metal portions extending upwardly
through slits in the ?brous material and clamped
thereto, and the other side of said bend being 30
adapted to be placed substantially horizontally
in a wall, raggle or the like, and terminating in
an anchoring device consisting of an acute angu
lar bend in the end portion of the metal curved
upwardly with a continuous row of teeth formed 35
in the end thereof.
6. A unitary composite ?ashing consisting of
a continuous copper sheet material having a
substantially uniform bend therein, one side of
said bend being adapted to lie substantially ver
tically adjacent a wall, or the like, and joined to
a slate surfaced felt by means of pressed in metal
portions extending upwardly through slits in the
?brous material and clamped thereto, and the
other side of said bend being adapted to be 45
placed substantially horizontally in a wall, rag
gle or the like, and terminating in an anchoring
device consisting of an acute angular bend in
the end portion of the metal curved upwardly
with a continuous row of teeth formed in the 50
end thereof.
'7. In a wall construction, the combination of
a wall, a raggle in said wall, and a ?ashing com
prising a metal sheet material having a portion
thereof in said raggle and an end portion angu 55
larly bent at an acute angle and terminating in
a series of teeth which engage the walls of said
raggle and are adapted initially to hold said
?ashing in place.
8. In a wall construction, the combination of 60
a wall, a raggle in said wall, and a composite
?ashing comprising a metal sheet material hav
ing an angular bend therein, one side of said
angular bend being adapted to be placed sub
stantially horizontally in said raggle and termi
65
nating in an anchoring device. comprising an
acute angular bend with teeth formed in the end
thereof engaging the top of said raggle, and the
other side of said angle being adapted to lie
substantially vertically along said wall and be 70
ing attached to a water repellent material.
EDWIN W. BYERS.
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