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Патент USA US2106048

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Jan. 18, 1938.
Filed NOV. 12, 1932
2 Sheets-Shea?l l
Jan. 18, 1938.
Filed NOV. 12, 1932
a "_
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patente .iam 19
il N
Aibert '.l‘. Candy, Jr., @ak li’arli,- lil., assigner to
Candy da Company, Enc., Chicago, iii., a. cor
poration of Iliinois
Application November 12, 1932, Serial No.. 642,378
2 Claims.
(ci. 17a-«264i
My invention relates to coded Wire, many of
its aspects constituting an improvement upon my
application Serial No. 593,370., filed February 16,
1932, now issued as Patent No. 1,891,501 of De
cember 20, 1932.
One object of my invention is to provide a
series of wires for code work or the like wherein
the different colors used may be confined to only
a few readily distinguished colors but still pro
vide for a large number of readily distinguished
wires. I solve this problem preferably by the
use of two color coatings-an under coating and
the system, the speed with which special orders
may be turned out, the freeing of factory pro
duction from interruption by small special or
ders, and the reduction in stocks which need be
carried on hand to provide prompt delivery on
the less common requirements.
Another feature of 4my invention is the im
proved method and apparatus for coating wire,
which is peculiarly Well adapted for the coating
system of my invention.
Another feature of my invention is a coded
wire and the method and apparatus for coating
it, wherein the wire instead of being` given an
an outer coating of different colors and in dif
ferent combinations. The under coating may all over outer coating, is given longitudinal 15
stripes of contrasting color.
15 normally be entirely covered by the outer coat
The foregoing, together with further objects,
ing, in which case, to identify a given wire, the
features and advantages of my invention are set
workman may scrape off a small spot of the outer
forth in the following description of specific em
coating to reveal the color of the under coat
ing. If eight different colors are employed, this ` bodiments thereof, wherein:
Fig. 1 is an elevation of a length of wire coded 20
20 gives a total of sixty-four different combina
according to the preferred form of my invention
tions. If a third color coat is used giving com
binations of three colors, the total number of and shown with successive layers removed to dis
distinguishable Wires in the series is increased close the construction;
Fig. 2" is a view of a length of cable compris
to some five-hundred.
ing wires._ similar to that shown in Fig. 1, the 25
I prefer to employ color coatings of a wax
like material which is opaque but a very thin wires in one end of the cable being splayed out
film.V This permits the scraping away of the into a flat.> side-by-side relation to show by
outermost coat to reveal the color of the under legends their several color combinations, the
outer coating being shown as removed from the
coat without perceptibly lessening the effective
tip of each wire for the purpose of illustrating
ness of the insulation >or weatherproofing. Many
prior attempts to code wire by color have had the color combination of the Wire;
Fig. 3 is a view of a wire similar to Fig. 1 but
the objection that the effectiveness of the insu
showing a modified form of my invention where
lating and Weatherprooñng had to be greatly im
paired in order to determine the identity of the the outer layer of contrasting color is applied
as a pair of spaced longitudinal streaks;
35 Wire. While this was not particularly objection
Fig. 4 is a cross section of the wire of Fig. 3
able at the ends of a cable, it was highly objec
tionable in identifying a wire at some mid point
of a cable where it was proposed to tap into the
circuit of the wire. To cut into the weather
40 prooilng or insulation Yof a wire to determine its
identity only to discover it was not the desired
Wire, left the wire in a defective condition.
Another advantage of my wire coating is that
it permits a wire warehouse to fill special orders
45 for the more complex color-combinations by put
ting an additional coating on wire already made
up and in stock. Thus a request for small quan
tities of red over blue, yellow over blue and black
over blue could readily be filled by taking blue
‘0 coatedwire from stock and running it through'
applicators to apply the necessary outer_coating.
Methods of coding heretofore in use have re
quired that the wire be built initially to the
ultimate requirements.
A -valuable advantage `
of my invention therefore is the adaptability of
but on an enlarged scale;
Fig. 5` is a somewhat diagrammatic longitudi
nal vertical section through an applicator for
applying the coatings of the-wire;
Fig. 6 is a cross section of the applicator of
Fig. 5 when adapted to apply the outer coating
to the wire of Fig. 1; and
Fig. 'I is a similar cross section view showing
the cross section of the applicator when adapted
to apply the outer streak to the wire of Fig. 3.
The wire shown 1n Fig. l (which happens to
be wire No. 22 of Fig. 2) comprises a copper
conductor 25, insulation 2B, fabric braid 21, im
pregnation 28, under coating 29_ and outer coat 50
ing 30.“ The superficial film of colored parañin
usual on wire of this general type may be dis
pensed with, if, as I prefer, the coatings be made
of a composition having sumcient wax-like in
gredient to present a non-sticky and somewhat 55
slippery surface. The Wire-_except for the fact
it has two color coatings-may be the same as,
and made by the same method and apparatus as,
disclosed in detail in my before-mentioned
patent. Brieily described, the assembled conduc
tor, rubber insulation and braid is first dipped in
a composition which may consist of stearin pitch,
resin or synthetic resin, paraffin or other waxes
and ñller which impregnates and coats the braid.
After the impregnation has set, the wire is then
passed through a coating applicator having its
discharge die heated above the melting point of
the composition, which deposits a coating of a
composition which may be the same as the coat
15 ing composition except that it contains color
pigment. If desired, the coating 29 may be
omitted and the pigment added to the composi
tion of the impregnation 28, although in practice
I prefer to use the separate thin coating 29 of
opaque material because the cost of the lessened
amount of pigment used more than offsets the
cost of the additional process. After the coating
29 has set, the wire is again passed through an
applicator which applies the thin outer coating
30 in a similar manner. The outer coating 30
may be the same as the under coating 29 except
that it is of different color.
The wire No. 22 (Fig. l) when used may be
combined with similar wires of diiîerent color
30 combinations into associated groups or into a
formal cable 3l of the type customarily used in
automatic elevator installations. In addition to
the usual tensile wires 32 which are not conduc~
tors, the cable 3l as here shown comprises a
group of twenty-four wires consecutively num
bered in Fig. 2. Each of these has a different
color combination as shown by the legends and
as indicated by the lining on the wires. It will
be observed that white over black and black over
white, for example, are two different combina
tions (or »more accurately permutations). In
practice blacliI over black, white over white, red
over red, etc. would be. indistinguishable from a
single coating of black, white, red or the likn In
such instances the wire having but a single naating of that color could be substituted in the code
In practice, also, it may be preferable to em
ploy single colors for the ñrst few, or most fre
quently used, wires, employing color combina
tions only after the single color possibilities are
While in the illustration shown I
have shown the use ñrst of black over each oi
the several colors, then white over each of the
several colors, then red over each of the several
colors, etc., I appreciate that in many instances
it will be preferable to employ iirst each of the
several colors over black, then each of the sev
eral colors over white, then each of the several
colors over red, etc. In the latter instance the
orders could be iilled from a warehouse having a
stock on hand of only two or three colors of
single coated wire, over which the necessary ad
ditional color coatings could be applied to lill the
It is very desirable that where coatings are
applied for the purpose of color primarily, they
shall be as thin as possible.
70 the
One reason is that
color pigments are relatively expensive and
amount of colored composition applied per
of wire should be a minimum. Another rea
is that it is advantageous to keep the over
all diameter of the various wires the same so
that wires with two color coatings will be of
75 substantially the .same over-all diameter as those
having only one.
In fact it is a feature of the
method and apparatus here shown for apply
ing the outer coatings that the outer coating
can be applied without sensibly increasing the
over-all diameter of the wire with only the
under coating.
The applicator shown in Figs. 5 and 6 is gen
erally similar to that disclosed in my previously
mentioned pending application to which ref
erence is made for a more detailed discussion.
Referring to Fig. 5, the applicator comprises
a block halved into upper and lower parts 33
and 34 held together by cap screws 35 and hav
ing mating channels constituting a longitudinal
opening 36 of rectangular section extending from
end to end. One end of the opening 36 is closed
by a plug 37 having a bore 38. The wire to be
coated is positioned by sheaves not shown to
coincide with the axis of the anterior bore 38.
The opposite end of the opening 36 is closed by a
plug 39 having a bore 40 constituting a discharge
die. The cavity formed within the opening 35
between the plugs 3l and 39 is ñlled with the
melted coating composition 4l (except for an
air pocket which may incidentally be trapped _
at the top). Melted liquid composition is fed
to the applicator from an upper reservoir or
melting hopper (not shown) through a valved
feed pipe 42.
The applicator is heated by a plurality of car- Il
tridge-like electric heaters 43. Some of these are
preferably placed adjacent the discharge plug
39 to insure that the bore 40 of the discharge
die is kept heated to a temperature about the
melting point of the composition despite the coole '
ing effect of the relatively cold wire passing
through the applicator. I1" desired an auxiliary
plug or sleeve 44 may be inserted in the opening
36 in> abutment with the discharge plug 39 fur
ther to increase the heat conductivity to the dis
charge bore and prevent eddy currents adjacent
the inner end of the discharge bore so that the
friction of the wire on the melted composition
within the larger bore of the auxiliary sleeve 44
tends to crowd the material against the belled or
chamfered mouth of the discharge bore to in
sure a continuous flow of liquid thereinto.
The'anterior bore 38 is of such diameter rela
tive to the on-coming wire that it presents no
undue friction or scraping thereof but still is i,
suil‘iciently snug ñt so that the liquid composi
tion, under its head pressure from the reservoir,
will be checked by the friction between compo
sition and the wire to prevent the composition
from ilowing out the anterior bore when wire is
passing through it.
The diameter of the discharge bore 40 may be
that of the incoming wire plus the coating to be
deposited on it, as in my previously mentioned
application; but I find it is also possible, and in
many respects preferable, to make the discharge
bore 4D the same diameter as the incoming wire.
In that event it is preferable to make the bore
shorter than disclosed in my prior application.
As the wire is pulled rapidly through the ap~
plicator in the direction indicated by the arrows
it enters the applicator through the anterior bore
38 at substantially room temperature. As this
is considerably below the melting point of the
composition 4|, the latter tends progressively to
congeal upon the wire. The wire passes through 70
the applicator so rapidly that only a very thin
layer is congealed. The hot discharge bore 40
insures that the outermost layer of the compo~
sition is melted and therefore of such liquidity 75
that it lubricates the passage of the wire through tions of the under coating. It will be understood
in Figs. 1, 3 and 4A the thicknesses of the
the discharge bore and prevents the accumula vthat
coatings have been considerably exaggerated for
tion of any deposits on the surface of the bore.
The thin fllm of the melted coating material l0 clarity of the drawings.
In Fig. '7 I have shown a cross section of the CII
is deiinitely drawn into the discharge bore 40 be
somewhat similar to Fig. 6 but show
tween the wire and the bore. The thickness of ing only so much of the block halves 33 and 34 as
this ñlm is not added to the radius of the re
lie adjacent the opening 36. This figure shows
sulting Wire but is absorbed by the material of
the wire assembly. This is chiefly by the impres
sion of the braid into the rubber insulation'.
Thus the emerging wire as soon as the liquid
coating has set after it leaves the hot discharge
bore 40, is of the same diameter as the incoming
wire. To a certain extent, depending upon the
characteristics of the rubber insulation and of
the braid, the diameter of the discharge bore 40
may be even less than. that of the incoming wire,
although ordinarily it is of no object to have it
less except it may be necessary to offset the tend
ency of the Wire assembly to come back, after'
compression, toward its normal size.
The reason why I can with my applicator coat
a very thin ñlm of wax-like material on to a wire
having a surface of wax-like material of the
same characteristics in the form of a prior coat
ing or impregnation, without remelting the lat
ter or causing it to run with the coating being
applied, is this: The incoming wire is of room
Here a pair of diametrically opposed longitu
dinal members 45 afford cylindrical surfaces of
90° arcuate cross section extending from the
mouth of the anterior plug 31 tothe opposite end
of the discharge plug 39 and in contact with the
surface of the wire to prevent the liquid coat-_
ing composition being applied, from coming in
contact with certain arcuate portions of the wire.
Thus the coating material is applied only to those
regions of the wire which are not thus masked out
by the members 45. This results in the streak
like coatings 30’ of Figs. 3 and 4. The applied
streak coating 30’ Will be imbedded or compressed
into the wire assembly for the same reason, as
previously described, that the compression die
applies a coating without enlarging the diameter
of the Wire.
As in my previously mentioned application, the
temperature and therefore relatively cool.4 The
The melted coat
ing composition is a poor conductor of heat. The
wire is passing through the body of melted com
applicator is set at an inclination as shown in
Fig. 5 so that after the Wire emerges from the _
position very rapidly. The mass of the Wire es
pecially near its surface absorbs such heat as is
guiding means which might otherwise impair the
slick finish.
30 wire has considerable mass.
conducted through the film of melted material in
surface contact with the wire before the previous
coating or impregnation may be heated up to the
melting point. Even when passing through the
restricting hot discharge die 40', it is only the
coating material adjacent the very surface of
the bore which is kept melted.
Also there are no
factors tending to mix the outer coating with
the inner coating within that Short interval of
time even though the under coating should be
come plastic or even melted.
My coating apparatus and method is applica
ble to an impregnation as Well as a coating, but
applicator it may pass downwardly through the
surface ofV a body of cooling Water and thereby
I claim:
l. The method of coding and identifying indi
vidual conductors of a group of similar insulated
electric conductors which consists in providing
each individual conductor with a colored under 40
coating externally of the insulation and an outer
coating of a different color, some of the conduc
tors having outer coatings of the same color and
inner coatings of different colors, assembling the
conductors in a group and scraping off regions 45
of the exposed coatings to reveal the color of
the under coatings without substantially impair
ing the insulation of the conductor as a whole at
similar material.
bling into a group individually insulated elec
tric conductors, each provided with a colored un
der coating externally of the insulation and an
outer coating of a different color, some of the
conductors having outer coatings of different co1
ors and under coatings of different colors,'and
including the under coating 29'. The outer
coating 30', however, is not applied about the
entire area of the wire but only as one orl more
spaced longitudinal streaks. This has the ad
vantage of a ready identiñcaton of the Wire with
out having to remove any 'of the outer coating.
As shown in the cross section of ~Fig. 4, the outer
coating 30' is preferably impressed into the sur
face of the wire so that its surface is at-the
same radius as the surface of the exposed por
be set before touching a sheave or any other
the benefits, as previously pointed out, are more
marked in the solution of the problem of apply
ing a very thin coating and especially to a wire
which already has an impregnation or coating of
In Figs. 3 and 4 I have shown a modified form
of my invention, The wire is the same up to and
c.: LI
the cross section of the device of Fig. 4 as it is
modified to produce the wire of Figs. 3 and 4. 10
such regions.
2. The method of coding and identifying in 50
dividual conductors of a group of similarly insu
lated electric conductors which consists in assem- ,
scraping off regions of the exposed coatings to
reveal the color of the under coatings without 60
substantially impairing the insulation of the con
ductors as a whole at such regions.
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