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Jan. 18, 1938. . e. SUNDBACK - 2,106,129 METHOD OF MAKING SEPARABLE FASTENERS ' Filed Feb. 4, 1955 F1911 v 2 Sheets-Sheet l Jan._ 18, 1938. asuNDBAcK 2,106,129 ' METHOD OF MAKING SEPARABLE FASTENERS Filed Feb. 4, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet INVENTOR. Gideon Sundbac/k 2,106,129 " . srA'rEs 1‘ TENT orrica . 2,106,129 . METHQD 0F MAKINERSSEPABABLE FASTEN- _' Gideon Snndback, Meadville, Pa., assignor to Talon, Inc., Meadville, Pin, a corporation of Pennsylvania Application February 4, 1935, Serial No. 4,794 12 Claims. (Cl. 29-148) My invention relates to the art-‘of making fastener stringers, particularly for fasteners of the type'having multiple series of spaced ele ments attached along the corded edge of _a ?exi ' ble tape. A, pair of suchyfastener stringers are usually ?tted with a slider for engaging and dis engaging the fastener elements. -, - This application is a continuation in part of my copending application, Serial No. 414,156, 10 ?led December 14, 1929, now Patent No. 1,992, 253, dated February 26,‘ 1935,- in which there is disclosed a new and improved form of wire fastener element, for the making of which my invention is especially adapted. It is to be un 15 derstood, however, that the method invention claimed in this application vis not limited to any particular form of element since the interlock ing construction as well as other features may be varied in many ways. Slide fastener stringers have been manufac tured by various methods in most of which a ?at metal blank is cut out with spaced clamping jaws for attaching the element to a stringer, and with a head at the other end. After the blank is out it is usually placed in a suitable die and by op eration of a reciprocating punch a projection and recess are formed on the head end. An important object of this invention is to provide a slide fastener whose elements are smooth and free from so-called tool marks and other uneven surfaces. the bend in a wire fastener element whether the wire be round or square, in such'a way that the placing of metal will not materially weaken the fastener element at the bend. It will be under stood that this might easily proveto be the weak point of the fastener since the clamping effect of the jaws depends on the strength of the element at the bend. I My invention also contemplates a new sequence of steps in making fastener stringers. Instead 10 of forming the elements with the desired inter locking projections and recesses before attaching them to the tape, the blanks are ?rst secured ?rmly to the tape in properly spaced relation, and then the interlocking projections or recesses, 15 or both, areformed. In this way the problem of locating and holding the small elements while being operated upon by punches and dies is sim pli?ed. ‘ iVarious other objects and advantages of my 20 invention will appear during the following speci ?cation and will be particularly pointed out in the claims. ' In the accompanying drawings, I have shown for purposes of illustration. two embodiments 25 which my invention may assume in practice. In these drawings: _ 7 Figs. 1 and 2 are diiferent views .of a wire blank used in making a fastener element from 30 round wire; Fig. 3 is a plan view of a small section of has been punched out of sheet metal, during the fastener stringer after the wire blanks are se cured thereto and‘before the interlocking means operation in which the recess and projection are are In the ordinary die forming of a blank which 35 simultaneously formed, the metal swells in all formed; ' > Fig. 4 is a transverse section through the 35 stringer in Fig. 3; v - directions, causing uneven outer surfaces. This is particularly true after the die vhas become somewhat worn. Furthermore, the original surface of a blanked Fig. 5 is a perspective view showing diagram matically the tools for, forming the interlocking 40 element or of one which has been ‘severed from a formed wire may be uneven or, at least have un matically the tools for forming the interlocking even and sharp corners. By using the original surfaces of a wire as the ?nished external sur faces of the, fastener elements-I am able to secure a smoother fastener than has been known before. In my improved method the projection and recess are formed in distinct and separate oper ations. One advantage of this is that the entire 50 thickness of the metal is not placed under heavy forging pressure which would cause swelling and distortion of the outer surfaces of the fastener member. _ ' Another object of theinvention is to provide a method of making the'recess and projection at 56 recess; I I‘ Fig. 6 is an elevation view showing diagram projection; ' r _ ' Fig. 7 is a longitudinal section through a small portion of a fastener showing the construction of a typical fastener element .formed from 45 round wire; 7 Y Fig. 8 is a transverse section through the fastener showing the projection side of the ele ment; I ' Fig. 9 is _a front view of a fastener element; 50 Fig. 10 is a plan view of a completed fastener made in accordance with my invention with the top portion of the slider removed to facilitate illustration; ' _ ‘ ' . Fig. 11 is a cross-section through the ‘die with 55 9,106,199 > recess in two separate operations, the shape line ll-ll of Fig. 5'; and size of the one is ‘not controlled by the m Fig. 12 is across-section through the same die on line l2—l2 of Fig. 5; _ v the fastener‘element and stringer in position on other. This method results in a fastener as shown ‘ Figs. 13 and 14 are various’steps in a modified method wherein a wire of square cross-section is preformed and cut 011; Fig. 15 shows the wire in cross-sectiogmwith in Fig. 10, having interengaging recesses and projections l6 and i1 respectively, and sloping front end surfaces l8, whichv assist in guiding the members into engagement with one another. ' the preforming tools diagrammatically illustrat- ' Any suitable slider may be provided for operat 10 . ,ed; - ‘ Fig. 16 is a perspective view of the preformed wire. element ready for bending; . Fig. 1'7 shows the next step of the method wherein the blank is bent to U-shape; ' Fig. 18 shows the step of forming the recess and also the step of forming the projection; Figs. 19 and 20 show the following step of form-I, ing the fastener. The one illustrated comprises 10 opposing wings 28 united to a wedge-shaped neck 28 and operated by a pull tab 30. In the modi?ed method shown in Sheet 2 of the drawings a di?erent shape of raw mate rial is used in forming the fastener members. 15 The formation of the U-shaped projection at the bend in such a way as not to diminish the [strength materially, is however, common to both - ing the clamping jaws; Fig. 21 shows the step of spreading the jaws Fig. 22 shows the last step of. closing the jaws 2,0 and on‘ the beaded edge of a tape; and _ Fig. 23 is a view of a slide fastener made ac-. methods. \ - In the second method’ I start with a wire 3| of square cross-section, it being understood that the corners‘ will have a substantial radius in order that they will be smooth‘ to the touch. ._A section of this shape may readily be formed. ‘Referring to Figs. 1 and 2, a blank II is cut by extruding ‘or by simple rolling operations. -25 The ?rst steps are the cutting of the wire into from a piece of round wire and formed with suit cording to the second embodiment of the inven tion. . ‘ A ‘ . able means such as indentations l2 adjacent the ends of the blank to engage around the corded edge of the tape when the member is clamped “to the stringer. In ‘this’ form the wire blanks may be tumbled to remove all burrs and hoppered individual lengths and the‘ preforming ofthe , wire to provide recesses '32 having an unsym metrical shape, as illustrated.v ‘This preformlng mayibe done. before cutting .of the blanks or 30 afterwards, by suitable reciprocating tools, such by any suitable mechanism such as described in » as illustrated at .33 and 30 or by rotary die my Patent No. 1,653,320. The indentations I! members. These recesses are formed so as to may, if desired, be formedsat some latter stage -35 of production such as described in said patent. extend across one corner of the wire section and the forming ofthese recesses leaves a portion 35 step comprises bending the wire blank around. .of metal 36 in the middle which has been some what enlarged during the forming of the re 'the corded edge 20 of a stringer 2| and thus securing the blanks ?rmly tov the stringer in the ment into the'shape shown in Fig. 17, the por During this operation it will be understood that one leg ll of the bent member thicker than the' may be‘ advanced intermittently between recipro cating die parts 22, 23. The ‘tools 22 are shaped so as to hold the blank'?rmly while the tools 23 out the recesses 38, 39 are, of course, slightly 50 o? center with respect to the fastener element. The punch and die are indicated at ‘2, 43. This punching out operation leaves the surfaces on the inside of the legs 40 and ll )very rough In this embodiment of the invention the next cesses. After bending‘ of this preformed ele proper spaced relation for the ?nishedfastener ‘tionof metal" is leftv at the bend and can be utilized for forming the projection. The form elements. The, member in this form comprises U-shaped element. with clamping sides or legs _ ing of the projection and recess is indicated in l3, l1 and a bend l5. It is now necessary to form Fig.18, and is'carried out by suitable forming the interlocking projection and recess at the tools 36, 31, which act similarly to the form ing tools 21. 24 respectively in the ?rst method. 45 bend II. There stepsmay occur simultaneous The next step as illustrated in Fig. 19, com or either may precede the other. 's Fig. 5 illustrates the forming of the recess. prises punching out the- recesses 38, 39 leaving ' the tape 2| with its attached U-shaped blanks‘ other leg ‘I. *‘ The'punch and die which cut are shaped to/support the blank during forming and to form the inclined'surfaces or indentations N. The recess is formed by a ‘suitable punch 24 with burred “edges which tend‘ to make the legs 65 having a forming end 25 which moves into the _ more securely grip the corded edge-of the tape when clamped thereto, holding the fastener members in place, thus eliminating any danger . cent elements on the stringer. By reason of this’ kind of movement the material which is displaced. of the members slipping out of place along the to form the recess It, moves inwardly toward the corded edge. It is now necessary to spread inside of the bend as seen in Fig. '7 whereby the these legs or at least one of them before plac ing the" members on‘ the cordededge of the resulting structure is not weakened. _ . The forming of the interlocking projection is tape. In the spreading operation, preferably 'shown in Fig. 6. The side operating tools 28 and - only the leg 40 is bent as shown in Fig. 21. The and 26a enter: between the‘ blanks along the ?nal step comprises ' closing of this leg 43 65 stringer and support each of the elements in around the corded edge of the tape 2| by any turn while the projection is being formed.’ The suitable tools, one of which is illustrated at M. tool for forming the projection is indicated by It has .a somewhat different appearance from blank at an acute angle between a pair of adja . the numeral 21 and is provided with a suitable 70 forming edge which pushes downwardly the ma terial on the outer front surface of the blank ps0 as to form “a projection l'l. 'Only a small amount of material need 'be moved in this oper the fastener of Fig. 10 in- that the sides will. be ?at and smooth. All rough corners and-burrs. 70 however, can be removed by tumbling of the. members ‘either in the form shown in Fig. 16 or a Fig. 17. In this fastener the preforming of the e ation?so that, the resulting ‘member is ‘not mate wire leaves side sloping surfaces 43 which make rially weakened. By forming the projection and the fastener more easily ?exible without becom rs . 3 2,106,129 ing disengaged. The slider for operating this fastener is indicated by the numeral 46. . ing a piece of material from original uniform. - ' cross-‘section to concentrate material at the cen-' . tral portion of said‘ piece of material, bending While I have specifically shown and described said piece of material to U-shape with said eon in this application two embodiments which my invention may assume in practice, it will be un centrated portion at the bend,‘ the legs of said 5 . derstood that these embodiments are merely for U-shaped member constituting means for em-. the purposes of illustration and descriptiojisand ‘bracing and'clamping the edge of a stringer, and that various other forms may be devised within I deforming material at said bend after the bend-' ing operation to provide an interlocking projec the scope of my invention as de?ned in the fol . 10, lowing claims. What I claim as my invention is: l. The method of making fastener elements comprising forming attaching means on each tion and recess. a ' ~ 10‘ 8.‘ The method of making a fastener element for attachment to a ?exible stringer in the manu facture of slide fasteners, which comprises forg fastener member for securing it to a tape, a por- . ing a uniform piece of material from" uniform 15 tion of the member being adapted to project cross-section to concentrate material at the cen- 15 beyond the attaching means, punching out a re tral portion thereof “and to provide indentations cess in one side of such projecting portion of said member, and deforming material from an outer on opposite sides of said enlarged portion, bend ing said piece of material to U-shape with said enlarged portion at the bend, the legs of said U-shape member constituting means for embrac- 20 ing and clamping the edge of a stringer, and de surface of said member to provide a projection 20 opposite said recess. ' ' 2. The method of making a fastener‘ element forming material at said bend after the bending operation to provide an interlocking projection comprising forming a clamping portion adjacent one end of the element, providing interlocking means at the other end by steps including punch-a on one side and an interlocking recess on the 25 ing out a recess on one side of said element with opposite side. facture of slide fasteners, which comprises forg ing a uniform piece of material from uniform cross-section to concentrate material at the cen- 3° tral portion thereof and to provide indentations _ ‘ on opposite sides of said enlarged portion, bend forming material from adjacent the vbend toward said clamping portions to form a recess, and form-i 35 ing an interlocking projection, on the bend of said wire. ' ‘ ' ing said piece of material to U-shape with said enlarged portion at the bend, forming recesses‘ ' in the'opposed faces of the leg portions of said bent member to provide means for engaging the comprising bending a piece of substantially round beaded edge of a ?exible stringer. 10. The combination de?ned in claim 10 with wire to form parallel side portions and a con the further step of spreading said legs apart to 4. The method of'making a fastener element 40 25 for attachment to a ?exible stringer in the manu tion toward the clamping portion? .1" 30 3. The method “of making a fastener elemen comprising bending a piece of wire to form clamp ing portions between the ends of the wire, de ‘ 9. The method of making a fastener element a punch moving at an acute angle to the plane of said element so as to deform the material from said recess in the plane of said element in a direc necting portion at the bend, deforming material, facilitate assembly with the beaded edge of the 40 wholly from the outer side of said bend on then ?exible stringer. l. ' '11. The combination de?ned in claim 10 where side ‘of said connecting-portion, and punching in the recess in one of said leg portions is deeper ’ out a recess wholly in the other side of said , than the opposite recess to make one leg weaker front of said element to form a' projection on one ’ . 45 connecting portion. 5. The. method of making a fastener stringer against bending stresses than the opposite leg. 12. The method of making fastener elements 45: for attachment to a ?exible stringer in the manufacture of, slide fasteners which comprises of a piece of material, and deforming the mate- ' forging a piece of material of generally square 50 rial of each of said blanks while so ‘attached to cross-section tov provide an enlarged portion at 50' the middle with material concentrated along one form interlocking projections and recesses. 16. The method of making fastener stringers corner of said piece of material, and to_ form in dentations extending across the same corner, and for slide fasteners which comprises securing fas tener member blanks to said stringers along the the opposite sides of said enlarged portion, bend -55 adjacent edges thereof, said blanks being of the ing said piece of material to U—sha'pe in such‘a 65 approximate size and shape of the ?nished fas-_ way that-the parallel legs of the bent member tener element and having the same spacing as the‘ have ?at faces opposite each other and with said elements of a ?nished fastener, and then operat— enlarged portion at the bend, and then forging ing on the projecting portions of each of said the material at said enlarged portion to provide ‘ 60 blanks to complete the formation of interlocking an interlocking projection on one side of the 50 which comprises cutting a plurality of blanks,‘ attaching ‘them in spaced relation to the edge projections and recesses. _ 7. The method of making a fastener element for attachment to 'a ?exible stringer in- the manui 'facture of slide fasteners, which comprises forg member and forming an interlocking recess on the opposite side of said member. GIDEON SUNDBACK.