Патент USA US2106177код для вставки
Jan.‘ 25, 1938. v. J. IHULTQUISIT 2,106,177 BUILDING UNIT Filed Dec; 15, 51936 5 Sheets-Sheet l Jan. 25, 1938. v. J. HULTQUIST 2,106,177 BUILDING UNIT Filed Dec. 15, 1936 3 Sheets-Sheet GUM; Jan- 25, .1938- v. J. HULTQUIST ‘ 2,106,177 BUILDING UNIT Filed Dec. 15, 1956 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 2,106,177 ‘Patented Jan. 25, 1938 , UNITED STATES‘ PATENT OFFICE . 2,106,171 BUILDING UNIT Victor J. Hultquist, Alcoa, Tenn. Application December 15, 1936, SerlalNo. 116,022 (Cl. 72-30) Figure 8-is a view in plan, partly in longitudinal This invention is directed to an improvement section, showing the arrangement of the modi?ed in building units, preferably of block form, con type of unit wherein the housing recess is utilized ' 8 Claims. structed with a view to provide maximum strength and load bearing qualities in use, with 5 particular regard to a construction which will merely for dead air space. employ the minimum amount of material to avoid undue weight. .' - ~ . It will of course be understood that the build ing unit of this invention is to be constructed of any appropriate or desired material; can be made in‘ any desired relative dimensions; and that, ex cept in the particulars hereinafter speci?cally re ferred to, 'each unit is a duplicate of every other 10 unit. ‘ The primary object of the invention is the pro Qvisionof a unit formed with appropriate chan 10 nels and depressions which in their association with corresponding channels and depressions in The improved unit, which will ordinarily be adjacent units will a?ord passages for the recep tion of reinforcing elements and for the reception of cement grout or ?lling to form a substantial interlock between adjacent units and to unite all the units of the wall or other structure into'a substantially monolithic construction. employed largely as a building block, is’ here shown as rectangular in shapeythoughobviously the shape as well as therelative vertical and hori zontal dimensions are-to be governed by the par; A further object of the invention is the provi- I sion of a unit in which the channels and ‘depres ticular service for which the block is designed._ The material employed is such as‘ to‘ permit con venient molding or casting of the unit, particu larly with a view ‘to affording substantial and 20 '20 sions are formed vertically, horizontally, and an practically identical duplication of all units em gularly, with respect to the position of the unit-to thereby develop maximum resistance to shearing ployed for a particular service. The block I has duplicate upper and lower sur stresses both between the vertical and horizontal, ' ' faces 2 and 3 and duplicate end surfaces 4. contact faces of the component wall units when the assemblageis completed. The outer and inner surfaces of the block 5 and 8 are ' A further object of the invention is the provi sion of the inner or outer face of the unit as a . receptor for illuminating means, through the pro, differently formed as will appear as the descrip tion proceeds. The upper and lower surfaces 2 and 3 are each formed with a longitudinally'rang ing channelv 1, semicircular in form and arranged ‘in the mid-width of. the unit. Similar side chan 30' face of the unit, together with means for closing nels 8 and 9 extend in parallelism to the central 3O the recess with glass or‘ the like to a?ord direct channel ‘I, on opposite sides of the central chan illumination or with a metal panel ‘which may be neland substantially equi-distant from the cen covered with a plaster .coating to complete the , tral channel and the front and rear faces 5' and 6. unbroken appearance of the unit; . ' Thev hannels ‘I, 8, and 9 open through the end The invention is illustrated in the accompany surfaces of the unit so to register with similar ' vision of an enlarged recess in the particular ing drawings, in which: 40 ' _ ' Figure l is a perspective viewshowingseveral units arranged in building relation, each unit being shown as provided with the necessary re inforcement rods, the grout being omitted and each unit being arranged to serve as an illumii nating element. I Figure 2 is an end view of one of the units. - Figure 3 is a view, partly in plan and partly in the line of section being longitudinal section, taken below the diagonal channels. Figure 4 is a vertical section taken on the _ transverse median line of the unit, the lamp being shown in the housing recess and the transparent channels in adjacent bio on the same level and also register with similar channels in superim posed and underlying units to afford‘ in the as sembled units an uninterruptedseries of circular channels extending horizontally through the‘ wall or other structure. The channel ,1 is connected with the channels 8 and 9 by short transverse channels in which serve not only for moreetfec tive bonding or interlocking, but also. have a de?nite function in connection with reinforc— ing rods or elements, as will later appear. A vertical opening ll extends through the unit from top to bottom'centrally' of its length and breadth. The end surfaces of the unit, also in 50 plate applied to utilize the unit as an illuminatingv duplicate formation, are each provided with ‘a unit. _ vertically rangingchannel l2 arranged at the Figure 5 is a view in elevation from the inner _ mid-width of the unit, which channel is of semi side of the unit. > ' circular form in cross section and registers at its Figure 6 is a view in elevation from the inner‘ ~ upper and lower ends with the respective ends of 55 -55 side of the unit, the lamp and connecting-means the upper and lower faces 2 and the glass plate being. omitted. ' ' the channels ‘lin ' Figure '1 is an end view, partly in section, of and 3 of the unit. a unit constructed in accordance with theinven tion, wherein the housing recess is blockedoi‘i as 60 when not desired for use‘as an illuminating unit. - ' Inclined channels it and M, of semicircular formiin cross section, lead from ‘open communi cation with the channeis B "and 9 in each upper 60 2 . 2,106,177 and lower face of the unit to and in open com munication with the channel I2. The channels If and I4 communicate with the channel, I 2 in I‘I, ?owing down into the channels I! and chan nels I3 and II, and so being distributed through out- and ?lling all channels. It is of ‘course ‘to spaced relation longitudinally, that is the chan-\ be noted that the cement grout when hardened nels I8 and I4 leading from the upper surface 2 being an integral rounded element interlocks of thepunit leads'into the channel I2 materially the blocks one with the other on their upper, above the mid-length thereof while the chan lower and‘ end surfaces. These cement grout nels I3 and I4 leading from the lower surface 3 of the unit communicate with the channel I2 10 materially below the mid-length thereof. The'units are assembled in the usual offset building relation wherein an upper unit is ar ranged above and equally spaced on opposite sides of the line of juncture of two lower units, 15 as clearly shown in Figure 1. The units in any horizontal row are of course in end contact. It is to be particularly noted that the units are laid in assembled or building relation without the use of the usual ‘mortar or cement between them. When assembled in building relation, it will of elements form in effect reinforced keys which interlock the units and provide the function of a truss in each course or layer of the units. The multiple courses are further tied together by the vertical‘ reinforcements‘ as well as their vertical and diagonal grout columns. The result is to form a wall, for example, that can be assembled of simple units inv an economical manner and yet when'completed will have the strength equiva lent to reinforced poured concrete mass of equal thickness. - ' v The diagonal channels I3 and I4 are impor tant for it is apparent that when grout is poured 20 course. be apparent that the channels of each unit ‘ into the registering channels II and I2, ?rst will register with similar channels in the. meet , tending toward ?lling horizontal channel ‘I, then ing surfaces of adjacent blocks to provide circular _ ?owing through channels I0‘, into channels I, un channels in the assembled units. As a superim posed unit overlies the meeting. ends of two "un-i derlying units, it is apparent that the hole II til all the channels are ?lled, that the air nat urally entrained in channels 8 is displaced by the 25 grout and escapes through the lower diagonal in the center of each unit is in exact registry ' channels I3 and I4 into and through channels with the circular channel formed by the meeting I2 and II, which act as vents. Furthermore, registering channels I2 in the ends of‘ the units‘ the diagonal channels I 3 and I4, when ?lled with supporting the superimposed unit. Therefore, grout, provide Y-shaped keys, which o?er the 30 the openings II and the meeting channels I2, greatest resistance to shearing stresses that are which latter when in registry form a hole corre sponding to opening'l I, provide an uninterrupted opening extending‘ vertically through the forma tion built by the units and that there is obviously such a through opening in the center and at a each end of each unit. set up between the vertical end faces of the wall units. Furthermore, on account of the position of these diagonal keys, there is materially in creased resistance as compared with vertical keys 35 against overturning moments acting upon the unit. The meeting half round channels I2 in the ends of the-unit which form a continuation of the central hole II of the superimposed unit are ‘open to the channels 8 .and 9- on the upper surface 2 of the unit and to the channels 8 and 9 on the lower surface 3 of the unit, through an upper set of inclined channels I3 and I4 which 45 are convergent downwardly and through a lower I An important detail of the present invention is the formation of the units to receive and sup port lighting elements and to provide for the 40 passage, of telephone or other service cables. To provide for this result, one-face of the block is formed to provide an enlarged housing recess I8. This recess opens through the inner face of the unit and preferably terminates short of set of channels I8 and I4 which‘ are divergent , the longitudinal median line, and may have an downwardly. Of course the'channels 8 and 9 and outline shape corresponding to the shape of the the incline!‘ ,Qannels I3 and I4 are, when the units are in s. ,embled relation, circular in‘ ‘cross section by means of the similar registering chan nels in adjacent units. , - Reinforcing -=elements, such for example as metal rods‘ I5, are passed downwardly through the assembled units through the vertical open ings provided byuthe holes ‘I in certain of the blocks "ormed by the-registeringchannels at the meeting ends of the blocks ‘and the central hole II in the underlying and overlying block. ' Addi tional reinforcing elements, as 1.0L.’ I6, are passed horizontally through the assembled units, being .entered in the openings formed by the register unit, though ‘obviously this may be varied at‘ will.’ The recesses I 8 of adjacent blocks are in communication‘ to horizontally ranging openings 50 I9 leading through the respective‘ end walls of the housing recess, and of course ‘communicat ing with‘ similar holes of adjacent blocks. Where the housing recess is designed for lighting e?ect,v a lamp. 20 is arranged in a socket 2|, secured on 55 the bottom of the recess, and conductors 22, 23, are led through the conduits provided by the openings II. A frame 24- is secured in the mouth of the housing recess and receives and supports, preferably removably, an additional 60 frame 25, carrying a glass plate 28. ing channels 8 and 9 in the upper and lower sur- ‘ ‘ While it is contemplated that the formed faces 2 and I. The vertical ranging reinforced rods may be easily centered in their openings, unitwili provide for the reception'of illuminating means, it is of course apparent that only certain and to insure an approximate ‘centering of'the ' units will be. so used, and it may be that none 05 reinforced rods II in their channels, additional ' of the units will be required for this purpose. _ reinforced rods I‘! are placed in one or more sets Where the use of the housing recess is not re in the transverse channels III to underlie and support the reinforcing rods I6, as illustrated in 70 'Fig. 1 of the drawings. ' Cement grout is then poured into the channels, ?lling the channels II and of course ‘encircling and embedding the reinforcing rods I5, ?lling the channels ‘I, 8, and 9,- the cross channels 76 II and embedding the reinforcing rods II and quired for illuminating or other like purposes, an expanded metal panel. 21 may be arranged in a recess 28 surrounding the housing recess, and a plaster coating applied .to completely close 70 the front of the housing .recess, the closure being of course ?nished to simulate the face of the unit. _ I ‘ .The openings I9 form with the housing re To a 2,108,177 cesses a continuous channel for the reception of oi'and parallel tothe central channel, the ends of telephone or other cables, as may be necessary, the unit being each-formed with a vertical central thus affording a convenient means for the run-_ ' channel communicating with the central channels ning‘ of cables or their replacement even after on the upper and lower surfaces, and with in plated that the housing recess may be formed in both the inner and outer faces of the unit, thus affording lighting ‘from both sides or other channel, each of the channels being approximate ly' semi-circular in cross section, the inclined the units have been assembled in wall or other ' clined channels communicating with the ends of each of the side channels and with the vertical’ formation. ‘ Of course, if desired, it is contem-. ‘lo channe18 providing: two-Y-shaped keys between treatment. involving the use of the recesses. the ends of adjacent channels and affording en 10v Where, the .housing recess is only formed in the inner face of the unit, the material of the outer face may be formed with horizontally ranging vertical channelsas the side channels are ?lled trained air escape from the side channels to’ the with holes 28' to not'only lighten the weight of the 15 unit but to afford convenient dead air spaces grout. . . H ‘ ‘ ~ 3. A building .unithaving the upper and lower surfaces formed with a centrally longitudinal 15 channel, side ‘channels beyond the central chan for insulating purposes. Itv will of course be ap parent that each housing recess also forms an , nel. a vertical hole 'at the approximate center of the unit anddeading from they central channel of appreciable ‘dead air space for insulating pur-v poses. 20 - the upper surface to the central channel of. the‘ lower surface, the ends of the unit being formed 20v ' The inner and outer marginal edges of each unit is recessed at 29 to provide spaces of- ap with a vertical channel establishing communica- - preciable width and depth at the meeting lines . tion between the central channels on the upper of all units to- receive mortar or the like. which and lower surfaces and with ‘inclined channels when appropriately pointed up, acts to seal the establishing ‘communication between the side ., joints between the units, preventing the escape channels of the ‘upper. and lower surfaces and the 25 of grout or moisture. > Flu'thermore, the mortar - vertical channelLf as applied simulates the appearance‘ of the con-' 4. A construction as de?ned, in claim 2, where in the' central and side channels of each upper and ventional mortar joints. -' ' ' _ . e‘ It-is a well known fact that where external lower ‘surface of'the unit are in'commu'nication , 30 and internal forces act upon a wall,- shearing through transverse channels. ' ~= * . stresses are set- up between the horizontal and 8 5. A wall made up of a series of building units, withthe upper and lower surfaces of each'unit vertical contact faces .of the wall units. It is also well understood that before a wall or struc ‘formed with longitudinally ranging and‘ cross ture can fail, there must be some ?exure in the channels registering with opposing surfaces of un wall or its component parts._ It is also well derlying and superimposed units to provide grout 35 understood that shearing stresses precede ?ex , receiving openings, ‘the ends of each unit being formed with vertical and diagonal‘ channels estab~ ' ure, therefore in the design of a wall structure made up of a multiple of individual units; where lishing communications with the channels in the maximum strength in the ?nished wall is to surfaces of the unit and registering with corre be developed, resistance to shearing stresses both sponding _ channels ini, the adjacent horizontal v40 between ‘the’ vertical and horizontal contact faces. alined unit to form vertical and diagonal grout of the component wall units must be-introduced. receiving openings having free intercommuniea-' In the present invention, the key or grout chan ' tion with underlying and superimpose 5. units and. nels are so distributed that when the reinforce with adjacent units in horizontal alinement. " _ 6. Aconstruction as de?ned in claim 5, includ 45 ing elements are introduced in the grout chan nels‘, and said channels are ?lled with cement ing the provision of reinforcing elements extend grout, the grout having hardened and aged, ing horizontally of the assembled unit‘ in the reinforced keys are formed which,ldue to their channels formed in the surfaces of said units and form and distribution, offer maximum resistance _ vertically of the assembled units in the channels - ' formed in the ends of such units. .50 to shear and ?exure. It will be appreciated that while the ‘openings iii are above described-as particularly, designed to receive lighting units, it is, ofcourse, appar eat that they may be equally as well employed 7. A construction as de?ned in, claim 5, wherein reinforcing rods are extended through the channels in the upper and lower'surfaces of the unit and in the vertical channels at the ends of the unit, with each of the units formed with a sub- SI SI ele ments. Any necessary gases or vapors. to be stantially centrally arranged vertical opening to used in connection withsuch elements could ob- ' register with thetcooperating vertical channel in ‘a an for the reception of house'heating or viously be carried in’ pipes extending through‘ -. ' the openings i9‘. What I claim is: ' '_ ' . 1. A’buildi'ng unit having the upper and lower the ends of the units for .theepassage‘of the re inforcing rods vertically through the series. a 8. A construction as de?ned in claim 5; wherein 60. reinforcing rods are extended through the chan nels in the upper and lower ‘surfaces of the unit nel'and side channels on opposite sidesof the and in the vertical channels at the ends of the ' ' ; longitudinally ranging channel, the ends of the . unit, with each of the units formed withv a sub stantially centrally. arranged vertical opening to as ‘unit being formed with a vertical channel com municatmg with the ends of the longitudinally ‘register with the cooperating vertical channel , faces formed with a-longitudinally ranging chan ' ranging channel, and inclined‘ channels'leading ' in the ends of the units for the passage of the re- ‘ from the ends of the side channels and leading inforcing rods vertically through the series, and into the vertical :channel, the inclined channels _ wherein the cross channels are‘ designed to receive rods to underlie and center the rein 70 providing air vent paths from'the side channels - reinforcing‘ forcing rods 'in‘ the , longitudinally ranging to the vertical channels. i . - l 2. A building unit having the upper and lower channels. j faces formed with a central longitudinally rang ing channel and with side channels on each side VICI‘QR J. HULTQUIST. '