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Патент USA US2106177

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Jan.‘ 25, 1938.
Filed Dec; 15, 51936
5 Sheets-Sheet l
Jan. 25, 1938.
Filed Dec. 15, 1936
3 Sheets-Sheet
Jan- 25, .1938-
‘ 2,106,177
Filed Dec. 15, 1956
3 Sheets-Sheet 5
‘Patented Jan. 25, 1938 ,
. 2,106,171
Victor J. Hultquist, Alcoa, Tenn.
Application December 15, 1936, SerlalNo. 116,022
(Cl. 72-30)
Figure 8-is a view in plan, partly in longitudinal
This invention is directed to an improvement section, showing the arrangement of the modi?ed
in building units, preferably of block form, con
type of unit wherein the housing recess is utilized
8 Claims.
structed with a view to provide maximum
strength and load bearing qualities in use, with
5 particular regard to a construction which will
merely for dead air space.
employ the minimum amount of material to avoid
undue weight.
It will of course be understood that the build
ing unit of this invention is to be constructed of
any appropriate or desired material; can be made
in‘ any desired relative dimensions; and that, ex
cept in the particulars hereinafter speci?cally re
ferred to, 'each unit is a duplicate of every other 10
The primary object of the invention is the pro
Qvisionof a unit formed with appropriate chan
10 nels and depressions which in their association
with corresponding channels and depressions in
The improved unit, which will ordinarily be
adjacent units will a?ord passages for the recep
tion of reinforcing elements and for the reception
of cement grout or ?lling to form a substantial
interlock between adjacent units and to unite all
the units of the wall or other structure into'a
substantially monolithic construction.
employed largely as a building block, is’ here
shown as rectangular in shapeythoughobviously
the shape as well as therelative vertical and hori
zontal dimensions are-to be governed by the par;
A further object of the invention is the provi- I
sion of a unit in which the channels and ‘depres
ticular service for which the block is designed._
The material employed is such as‘ to‘ permit con
venient molding or casting of the unit, particu
larly with a view ‘to affording substantial and 20
'20 sions are formed vertically, horizontally, and an
practically identical duplication of all units em
gularly, with respect to the position of the unit-to
thereby develop maximum resistance to shearing
ployed for a particular service.
The block I has duplicate upper and lower sur
stresses both between the vertical and horizontal, ' ' faces 2 and 3 and duplicate end surfaces 4.
contact faces of the component wall units when
the assemblageis completed.
outer and inner surfaces of the block 5 and 8 are
A further object of the invention is the provi
sion of the inner or outer face of the unit as a
. receptor for illuminating means, through the pro,
differently formed as will appear as the descrip
tion proceeds. The upper and lower surfaces 2
and 3 are each formed with a longitudinally'rang
ing channelv 1, semicircular in form and arranged
‘in the mid-width of. the unit. Similar side chan 30'
face of the unit, together with means for closing nels 8 and 9 extend in parallelism to the central
the recess with glass or‘ the like to a?ord direct channel ‘I, on opposite sides of the central chan
illumination or with a metal panel ‘which may be neland substantially equi-distant from the cen
covered with a plaster .coating to complete the , tral channel and the front and rear faces 5' and 6.
unbroken appearance of the unit;
' Thev hannels ‘I, 8, and 9 open through the end
The invention is illustrated in the accompany
surfaces of the unit so
to register with similar
' vision of an enlarged recess in the particular
ing drawings, in which:
Figure l is a perspective viewshowingseveral
units arranged in building relation, each unit
being shown as provided with the necessary re
inforcement rods, the grout being omitted and
each unit being arranged to serve as an illumii
nating element.
Figure 2 is an end view of one of the units. -
Figure 3 is a view, partly in plan and partly in
the line of section being
longitudinal section,
taken below the diagonal channels.
Figure 4 is a vertical section taken on the
_ transverse median line of the unit, the lamp being
shown in the housing recess and the transparent
channels in adjacent bio
on the same level and
also register with similar channels in superim
posed and underlying units to afford‘ in the as
sembled units an uninterruptedseries of circular
channels extending horizontally through the‘ wall
or other structure. The channel ,1 is connected
with the channels 8 and 9 by short transverse
channels in which serve not only for moreetfec
tive bonding or interlocking, but also. have a
de?nite function in connection with reinforc—
ing rods or elements, as will later appear.
A vertical opening ll extends through the unit
from top to bottom'centrally' of its length and
breadth. The end surfaces of the unit, also in
50 plate applied to utilize the unit as an illuminatingv duplicate formation, are each provided with ‘a
vertically rangingchannel l2 arranged at the
Figure 5 is a view in elevation from the inner _ mid-width of the unit, which channel is of semi
side of the unit. >
circular form in cross section and registers at its
Figure 6 is a view in elevation from the inner‘ ~ upper and lower ends with the respective ends of 55
-55 side of the unit, the lamp and connecting-means
the upper and lower faces 2
and the glass plate being. omitted.
' ' the channels ‘lin
' Figure '1 is an end view, partly in section, of and 3 of the unit.
a unit constructed in accordance with theinven
tion, wherein the housing recess is blockedoi‘i as
60 when not desired for use‘as an illuminating unit.
Inclined channels it and M, of semicircular
formiin cross section, lead from ‘open communi
cation with the channeis B "and 9 in each upper 60
2 .
and lower face of the unit to and in open com
munication with the channel I2. The channels
If and I4 communicate with the channel, I 2 in
I‘I, ?owing down into the channels I! and chan
nels I3 and II, and so being distributed through
out- and ?lling all channels. It is of ‘course ‘to
spaced relation longitudinally, that is the chan-\ be noted that the cement grout when hardened
nels I8 and I4 leading from the upper surface 2 being an integral rounded element interlocks
of thepunit leads'into the channel I2 materially the blocks one with the other on their upper,
above the mid-length thereof while the chan
lower and‘ end surfaces. These cement grout
nels I3 and I4 leading from the lower surface 3
of the unit communicate with the channel I2
10 materially below the mid-length thereof.
The'units are assembled in the usual offset
building relation wherein an upper unit is ar
ranged above and equally spaced on opposite
sides of the line of juncture of two lower units,
15 as clearly shown in Figure 1. The units in any
horizontal row are of course in end contact. It
is to be particularly noted that the units are laid
in assembled or building relation without the use
of the usual ‘mortar or cement between them.
When assembled in building relation, it will of
elements form in effect reinforced keys which
interlock the units and provide the function of a
truss in each course or layer of the units. The
multiple courses are further tied together by the
vertical‘ reinforcements‘ as well as their vertical
and diagonal grout columns. The result is to
form a wall, for example, that can be assembled
of simple units inv an economical manner and yet
when'completed will have the strength equiva
lent to reinforced poured concrete mass of equal
The diagonal channels I3 and I4 are impor
tant for it is apparent that when grout is poured 20
course. be apparent that the channels of each unit ‘ into the registering channels II and I2, ?rst
will register with similar channels in the. meet , tending toward ?lling horizontal channel ‘I, then
ing surfaces of adjacent blocks to provide circular _ ?owing through channels I0‘, into channels I, un
channels in the assembled units. As a superim
posed unit overlies the meeting. ends of two "un-i
derlying units, it is apparent that the hole II
til all the channels are ?lled, that the air nat
urally entrained in channels 8 is displaced by the 25
grout and escapes through the lower diagonal
in the center of each unit is in exact registry ' channels I3 and I4 into and through channels
with the circular channel formed by the meeting I2 and II, which act as vents. Furthermore,
registering channels I2 in the ends of‘ the units‘ the diagonal channels I 3 and I4, when ?lled with
supporting the superimposed unit. Therefore, grout, provide Y-shaped keys, which o?er the 30
the openings II and the meeting channels I2, greatest resistance to shearing stresses that are
which latter when in registry form a hole corre
sponding to opening'l I, provide an uninterrupted
opening extending‘ vertically through the forma
tion built by the units and that there is obviously
such a through opening in the center and at
a each end of each unit.
set up between the vertical end faces of the wall
units. Furthermore, on account of the position
of these diagonal keys, there is materially in
creased resistance as compared with vertical keys 35
against overturning moments acting upon the
The meeting half round channels I2 in the
ends of the-unit which form a continuation of
the central hole II of the superimposed unit
are ‘open to the channels 8 .and 9- on the upper
surface 2 of the unit and to the channels 8 and 9
on the lower surface 3 of the unit, through an
upper set of inclined channels I3 and I4 which
45 are convergent downwardly and through a lower
An important detail of the present invention
is the formation of the units to receive and sup
port lighting elements and to provide for the 40
passage, of telephone or other service cables. To
provide for this result, one-face of the block is
formed to provide an enlarged housing recess
I8. This recess opens through the inner face
of the unit and preferably terminates short of
set of channels I8 and I4 which‘ are divergent , the longitudinal median line, and may have an
downwardly. Of course the'channels 8 and 9 and outline shape corresponding to the shape of the
the incline!‘ ,Qannels I3 and I4 are, when the
units are in s. ,embled relation, circular in‘ ‘cross
section by means of the similar registering chan
nels in adjacent units.
- Reinforcing -=elements, such for example as
metal rods‘ I5, are passed downwardly through
the assembled units through the vertical open
ings provided byuthe holes ‘I in certain of the
blocks "ormed by the-registeringchannels at the
meeting ends of the blocks ‘and the central hole
II in the underlying and overlying block. ' Addi
tional reinforcing elements, as 1.0L.’ I6, are passed
horizontally through the assembled units, being
.entered in the openings formed by the register
unit, though ‘obviously this may be varied at‘
will.’ The recesses I 8 of adjacent blocks are in
communication‘ to horizontally ranging openings
I9 leading through the respective‘ end walls of
the housing recess, and of course ‘communicat
ing with‘ similar holes of adjacent blocks. Where
the housing recess is designed for lighting e?ect,v
a lamp. 20 is arranged in a socket 2|, secured on 55
the bottom of the recess, and conductors 22, 23,
are led through the conduits provided by the
openings II. A frame 24- is secured in the
mouth of the housing recess and receives and
supports, preferably removably, an additional 60
frame 25, carrying a glass plate 28.
ing channels 8 and 9 in the upper and lower sur- ‘ ‘ While it is contemplated that the formed
faces 2 and I. The vertical ranging reinforced
rods may be easily centered in their openings,
unitwili provide for the reception'of illuminating
means, it is of course apparent that only certain
and to insure an approximate ‘centering of'the ' units will be. so used, and it may be that none 05
reinforced rods II in their channels, additional ' of the units will be required for this purpose. _
reinforced rods I‘! are placed in one or more sets Where the use of the housing recess is not re
in the transverse channels III to underlie and
support the reinforcing rods I6, as illustrated in
70 'Fig. 1 of the drawings.
Cement grout is then poured into the channels,
?lling the channels II and of course ‘encircling
and embedding the reinforcing rods I5, ?lling
the channels ‘I, 8, and 9,- the cross channels
76 II and embedding the reinforcing rods II and
quired for illuminating or other like purposes,
an expanded metal panel. 21 may be arranged
in a recess 28 surrounding the housing recess, and
a plaster coating applied .to completely close 70
the front of the housing .recess, the closure
being of course ?nished to simulate the face of
the unit.
‘ .The openings I9 form with the housing re
cesses a continuous channel for the reception of oi'and parallel tothe central channel, the ends of
telephone or other cables, as may be necessary, the unit being each-formed with a vertical central
thus affording a convenient means for the run-_ ' channel communicating with the central channels
ning‘ of cables or their replacement even after
on the upper and lower surfaces, and with in
plated that the housing recess may be formed
in both the inner and outer faces of the unit,
thus affording lighting ‘from both sides or other
channel, each of the channels being approximate
ly' semi-circular in cross section, the inclined
the units have been assembled in wall or other ' clined channels communicating with the ends of
each of the side channels and with the vertical’
formation. ‘ Of course, if desired, it is contem-.
channe18 providing: two-Y-shaped keys between
treatment. involving the use of the recesses.
the ends of adjacent channels and affording en 10v
Where, the .housing recess is only formed in the
inner face of the unit, the material of the outer
face may be formed with horizontally ranging
vertical channelsas the side channels are ?lled
trained air escape from the side channels to’ the
holes 28' to not'only lighten the weight of the 15 unit but to afford convenient dead air spaces
3. A building .unithaving the upper and lower
surfaces formed with a centrally longitudinal 15
channel, side ‘channels beyond the central chan
for insulating purposes. Itv will of course be ap
parent that each housing recess also forms an , nel. a vertical hole 'at the approximate center of
the unit anddeading from they central channel of
appreciable ‘dead air space for insulating pur-v
the upper surface to the central channel of. the‘
lower surface, the ends of the unit being formed 20v
The inner and outer marginal edges of each
unit is recessed at 29 to provide spaces of- ap
with a vertical channel establishing communica- -
preciable width and depth at the meeting lines . tion between the central channels on the upper
of all units to- receive mortar or the like. which and lower surfaces and with ‘inclined channels
when appropriately pointed up, acts to seal the establishing ‘communication between the side
., joints between the units, preventing the escape channels of the ‘upper. and lower surfaces and the 25
of grout or moisture. > Flu'thermore, the mortar -
vertical channelLf
as applied simulates the appearance‘ of the con-'
4. A construction as de?ned, in claim 2, where
in the' central and side channels of each upper and
ventional mortar joints.
-' '
It-is a well known fact that where external lower ‘surface of'the unit are in'commu'nication ,
and internal forces act upon a wall,- shearing through transverse channels. ' ~= * .
stresses are set- up between the horizontal and 8 5. A wall made up of a series of building units,
withthe upper and lower surfaces of each'unit
vertical contact faces .of the wall units. It is
also well understood that before a wall or struc ‘formed with longitudinally ranging and‘ cross
ture can fail, there must be some ?exure in the channels registering with opposing surfaces of un
wall or its component parts._ It is also well derlying and superimposed units to provide grout 35
understood that shearing stresses precede ?ex , receiving openings, ‘the ends of each unit being
formed with vertical and diagonal‘ channels estab~ '
ure, therefore in the design of a wall structure
made up of a multiple of individual units; where lishing communications with the channels in the
maximum strength in the ?nished wall is to surfaces of the unit and registering with corre
be developed, resistance to shearing stresses both sponding _ channels ini, the adjacent horizontal v40
between ‘the’ vertical and horizontal contact faces. alined unit to form vertical and diagonal grout
of the component wall units must be-introduced. receiving openings having free intercommuniea-'
In the present invention, the key or grout chan ' tion with underlying and superimpose 5. units and.
nels are so distributed that when the reinforce with adjacent units in horizontal alinement. " _
6. Aconstruction as de?ned in claim 5, includ 45
ing elements are introduced in the grout chan
nels‘, and said channels are ?lled with cement ing the provision of reinforcing elements extend
grout, the grout having hardened and aged, ing horizontally of the assembled unit‘ in the
reinforced keys are formed which,ldue to their channels formed in the surfaces of said units and
form and distribution, offer maximum resistance _ vertically of the assembled units in the channels
- ' formed in the ends of such units.
.50 to shear and ?exure.
It will be appreciated that while the ‘openings
iii are above described-as particularly, designed
to receive lighting units, it is, ofcourse, appar
eat that they may be equally as well employed
7. A construction as de?ned in, claim 5, wherein
reinforcing rods are extended through the channels in the upper and lower'surfaces of the unit
and in the vertical channels at the ends of the
unit, with each of the units formed with a sub- SI SI
ments. Any necessary gases or vapors. to be stantially centrally arranged vertical opening to
used in connection withsuch elements could ob- ' register with thetcooperating vertical channel in
‘a an for the reception of house'heating or
viously be carried in’ pipes extending through‘
-. ' the openings i9‘.
What I claim is:
' .
1. A’buildi'ng unit having the upper and lower
the ends of the units for .theepassage‘of the re
inforcing rods vertically through the series. a
8. A construction as de?ned in claim 5; wherein 60.
reinforcing rods are extended through the chan
nels in the upper and lower ‘surfaces of the unit
nel'and side channels on opposite sidesof the and in the vertical channels at the ends of the ' '
; longitudinally ranging channel, the ends of the . unit, with each of the units formed withv a sub
stantially centrally. arranged vertical opening to as
‘unit being formed with a vertical channel com
municatmg with the ends of the longitudinally ‘register with the cooperating vertical channel
, faces formed with a-longitudinally ranging chan
' ranging channel, and inclined‘ channels'leading ' in the ends of the units for the passage of the re- ‘
from the ends of the side channels and leading
inforcing rods vertically through the series, and
into the vertical :channel, the inclined channels _ wherein the cross channels are‘ designed to receive
rods to underlie and center the rein
70 providing air vent paths from'the side channels - reinforcing‘
forcing rods 'in‘ the , longitudinally ranging
to the vertical channels.
- l
2. A building unit having the upper and lower channels.
j faces formed with a central longitudinally rang
ing channel and with side channels on each side
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