Патент USA US2106329код для вставки
Jan. 25, 1938. E. J. scoTT 2, 106,329 APPARATUS FOR TREATING MATERIALS Original Filed May 25, 1927 @ Patented Jan. 25, 1938 , 2,106,329‘ UNITED STATES YPAATENT OFFICE. 2,103,829 APPARATUS FOR TREATING MATERIALS Ephriam J. Scott, Forest Hills, Masa, minor to C. C. H. Thomas I . Application May 25, 1927, Serial No. 194,018 Renewed March 21, 1938 7 Claims. (Cl. 25-41) . This invention relates to improvements in the While my process may be practised with any manufacture of building elements of concrete suitable vibrating means, I prefer to vibrate the and other materials and more particularly the mixture orbitally in a vertical path. Such vi invention appertains to an improved method and brating movement serves to roll the particles or means for intermixing, writing, and compacting ingredients on one another in a general orbital the ingredients of the material. direction and in a vertical plane and this rolling The object of the invention is to provide a of the particles, augmented by ‘the frictional method and means of the above nature charac action of the walls of the mold in forcing and terized by simplicity in character and e?iciency pounding the particles together'serves to thor- ' in operation and by which the product obtained oughly unite and compact the particles and im is superior both as respects strength, and uni part to the mixture the necessary compactness formity. and distribution of the ingredients to obtain the My invention, in its preferred form, involves qualities of high strength and uniformity. subjecting the mixture to a rapid and vigorous For the purpose of illustrating my invention I vibration so that the ingredients are thoroughly have shown the same embodied in a speci?c ap intermixed, united and compacted and the prod paratus but it will be understood that the appa~ ratus disclosed is merely for the purpose of illus uct obtained is of high strength, and uniformity. I am aware that it has been proposed to use vi bration in the moulding of the ingredients of building materials such as concrete, but in all methods and apparatuses employed hitherfore, In the drawing: - ratus constructed in accordance with my inven not been vigorous and the resulting product has not had any great strength or compactness. Moreover, in the vibrating processes and appara tuses hitherto used, the result of the action to which the mixture has been subjected is to cause tion; _ nonuniform and the ingredients unevenly dis tributed therethrough. 20 Figure 1 is an end elevational view of an appa so far as I am aware, the speed of vibration has the material to settle, the smaller particles to congregate at the bottom so that the product is Ll tration and that my invention is not to be con sidered as con?ned to any details shown. Figure 2 is a side elevational view of this appa ratus, showing the preferred form of the vibrat ing means in section; and 25 I Figure 3 is an end elevational view of said vibrating means. Referring now more particularly to the draw ing which shows by way of example and illus tration the preferred embodiment of this inven According to my invention, I subject the mix tion and to the details of which I do not intend ture to a very rapid and vigorous vibration to obtain a product of great strength, and com to be confined,’ the invention is exempli?ed in an pactness, and employ a vibrating movement that tends to maintain the various ingredients evenly distributed throughout the mixture. In order to obtain the rapid and vigorous vi porting member l0 where the ingredients of the 1 bration necessary to secure the ‘desired qualities in the product. I preferably support the mold or other supporting member (in or on which the mixture is vibrated) for free movement and to this end I employ a yielding 0r ?oating support which permits the supporting member to be vi brated very rapidly and without any substantial resistance to the vibration. The yielding support also acts as a shock ab sorber and prevents the transmission of the vi brations of the vibrating member to the frame. thereby lessening the wear and deterioration on the machine arising from the vibrations. The yielding support also provides a construction in which the power loss is minimized, which requires a, minimum amount of power for operation and which has a very high e?iciency. apparatus which comprises a mold or other sup mixture or the previously mixed material are adapted to be placed and vibrated. It will be understood that this invention is not con?ned to vibrating’ the mixture within a mold, that the. mixture may be placed in or on any member, whether, a mold, table, or other supporting member and vibrated. The supporting member In is designed to be vibrated at a very rapid speed and in order to permit such rapid vibra tion it is adapted for free movement and is pref - erably yieldingly and ?oatingly mounted by means of resilient members or springs H on the frame I2 of the apparatus. The supporting member may take any preferred or desired form but for the purpose of illustration I have shown it in the form of a mold adapted directly for the formation of a hollow concrete building unit such as is now quite frequently employed in building constructions. The bottom of the mold is closed’ by means of a pallet l3 on top of which the mix 9,106,899‘ ture is adapted to..be placed or poured, the pallet being held in position by a bar II or similar means. - . . While the vibrating means may take any suit able form and be of any desired character with out departing from the invention, I have shown the apparatus equipped with a vibrating means which comprises ‘a shaft It carried on bearings ll attached to the side of the mold box to impart 10 vibration to the mold by the application of force upon the side face of the mold. The shaft II_ is adapted to be rotated at a rapid speed by any The vibration is such asto slide and roll the ingredients of the mixture on and against one - another and force and pound them against the sidu of the mold so that they are thoroughly in termixed and united. Furthermore by reason of the fact that settling is largely prohibited by the character of the vibration the resulting product has great uniformity. As above pointed out, the vibration is very vigorous and rapid and conse quently the ingredients of the mixture are thor oughlly compacted during the operation and'as will more clearly appear hereafter, a superior suitable or desired means and for this‘ purpose product for a given composition or consistency is , may have a pulley II which is driven by a belt obtained particularly where the material oper 16 II from any suitable source. On the shaft l5 and preferably on each end thereof, I dispose a vibrating member which comprises a disc if hav- , ing a weight ‘20 at a point at its periphery, the disc being keyed or otherwise secured to the shaft ll so as to rotate therewith. Loosely mounted on the shaft I! and in proximity to the discs are arms 2| having weights 22 at their free ends. These arms vare adapted to be adjustably posi tioned with respect to the discs and to this end each arm is provided with a slot through which extends a pin or similar member 22. Each disc has a plurality of slots 24 arranged in a general ated on is semi-liquid or damp, such as concrete. After the material has been vigorously shaken and vibrated so that the ingredients and particles have been thoroughly mixed, the product is sepa rated from-its lateral support or the lateral sup port is removed. While this result may be ob 20 tained in any desired way, in the apparatus, I have shown it is derived by lifting up and elect ing the pallet, II. The means whereby this pal; let may be lifted and elected preferably includes a_movable member 28 from which rods, 21, pro 25 ject upwardly through guides 22 carried by the frame i2 of the apparatus. The movable mem ber 2| is preferably provided with rollers 2! may extend, so that the arms 2i are adapted to bearing and supported on the surfaces of cams be adjusted and coupled to the discs in various 3. carried on a shaft ll which extends horizon 30 adjusted positions. The slots in the discs are tally through and is supported in the frame of preferably disposed tangentially or with their the machine. The shaft II is‘ adapted to be ro long axes perpendicular to the radii intersecting tated and to this end a lever arm 32 is provided. their centers,"while the ends of the pins have When rotated, the earns 30 raise or elevate the headed members 25. The headed members are movable member 2! withthe result that the top 35 elongated to permit their passage through the ends of the members 21 strike the pallet l3 and slots when the axes of the headed members are elect it out of the mold I‘. This election of L coincident with the axes of the slots, and when course occurs‘after the mixture has been sum the pins are turned the headed members lock ciently vibrated and compacted. ’ circular direction and into which the pins 23 The This apparatus is particularly designed for 40 40 them against movement _ longitudinally. headed members are heavier on one side of‘ the uniting and compacting the ingredients of semi pins than at the other and when the shaft is rotating centrifugal force throws the heavier sides radially outward, whereby the pins are locked at all times during rotation of the shaft. In order to‘ change the positions of the arms relative to the discs, it is only necessary to take out ,the ,pins 24 in which,case the arms 2| are adapted to be easily rotated ‘on the shaft i5 and 60 may be coupled to the discs by inserting the pins liquid, plastic, and semi-plastic or damp mate rials such as concrete. A characteristic feature of the invention is the extreme intimacy with which the particles are interlocked and interconnected. 45 In the case of concrete, the invention has pe culiar advantages both when applied to a mix of wet consistencyyand to mix of dry or damp con sistency and covers a wide. range of consistency in its possible application. The lateral support, 50 through the slots in the arm and through any may be removed immediately from a mix of wet desired slots in the discs. - or mushy consistency after vibration and prior The vibration of the supporting member or to any set in the material without substantially 'mold III is obtained by reason of the dynamic any slumping in the product occurring. Never, prior to my invention has a concrete mix of such 65 forces setup by revolution of the weighted mem bers 20 and 22 which are communicated to the consistency retained itsv molded shape upon im mold through the bearings of the shaft l5. These mediate removal of the lateral support prior to weighted members are of approximately the same any set in the material except where the height weight and the maximum vibration occurs when of the product has been four inches or less. _ By 60 they are both on the same side of the shaft i5 and abutting one another. The amount of vi bration may be reduced, however, by adjusting the arm 2| to reduce the unbalanced weight on one side of the shaft, i5, and it is apparent that 65 when the weight 22 is diametrically opposite the weight 20, a balanced condition prevails in which no vibration occurs. The amplitude of vibration may thus be varied by adjusting the position of the arms 2| as above explained with respect to 70 the discs. ' , The vibrating movement of the mold member my invention, a concrete mix of wet or mushy 60 consistency may be molded by vibration and the lateral support removed immediately after vibra tion and prior to any set in the concrete without slumping in the product where the height of the product is ?ve inches and even eight inches or 65 ‘higher. A mix of dry or damp consistency when molded by‘ vibration according to my invention also retains its molded shape upon immediate re moval of the lateral support after vibration. A dry or damp mix characterized by substantially 70 zero or negative slump has never, prior to my in- , follows an orbital path in a substantially vertical vention, been molded into shape by vibration plane. This movement of the mold member causes thorough moulding, uniting, and compact without the material being so loosely united that the product disintegrates upon immediate re moval of the lateral support prior to any set in ii 76 ing of the ingredients composing the mixture. 3 anoaaao the concrete. By reason of the rapid and vigorous vibration, my invention when applied to a dry or damp mix of the above character so interlocks and unites the particles that no disintegration of the product occurs upon its immediate with drawal from the mold after vibration. . A further and important characteristic of my invention is the great strength obtained in the concrete product. For any given proportions of ingredients there is obtained by my process a concrete product of greater strength than any concrete product using ‘the same proportions. Concrete includes three main ingredients, name ly, cement, water, and aggregate. For given materials, the strength of concrete is deter mined solely by the ratio of the volume of mix Ll 2. An apparatus for treating a material com prising a mold for the material having open top and bottom, a pallet positioned in said mold for vertical movement and providing a bottom there for and a carrying platform for the material. a frame, resilient means on said frame for sup porting said mold, means for vibrating the mold, and means adapted for cooperation with the bot tom of the pallet for pushing said pallet up wardly through said mold to eject the material carried thereby. 3. An apparatus for treating a material com prising a frame, a mold for the material hav ing open top and bottom, resilient means sup porting said mold by and above said frame, a pallet positioned in said mold for vertical move ing water to the volume of cement so long as the mixture is plastic and workable. By my in ment and providing a bottom therefor and a vention I am enabled to form a concrete prod vibrating the mold, and means associated with uct with less water than hitherto required for the same set of materials. Thus, because of the tom of the pallet for pushing said pallet upward fact that I use less water, I obtain a product of ly through said mold to eject the material car greater strength than any product hitherto ob ried thereby. tained using the same set of materials. This is particularly by reason of the fact that my process enables me to work or mould the material in a less plastic state. By virtue of my invention I am 4. An apparatus for treating a material com prising a frame, a mold for the material hav ing open top and bottom, resilient means sup also enabled to form a product with more ag ' gregate for a given amount of cement and water than has hitherto been moldable by vibration. Thus with my apparatus a product may be ob tained having the proportions of one part 0! cc ment to one or more parts of aggregate with water not to exceed an amount which will cause a slump of one-half an inch when subjected to a slump test in a hollow truncated cone having a base of six inches, a top of three inches, and a height of twelve inches. Such concrete has never before been moulded by vibration. It is desirable when the product is being eject ed out of the mold box to vibrate the latter slightly to loosen the material from the interior sides of the mold and to allow ejection more freely and with less resistance by friction and consequently with less consumption of power as well as less danger of spoiling or distorting. While my invention is particularly applicable to molding concrete and allied materials, I con sider that it may‘ be applied to other uses and for other purposes. For example, features of the invention may be employed in vibrating molds in foundries and the like. Other uses and ap plications of the invention will be apparent and will readily occur to those skilled in the various arts. ' Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Pat ent is: 1. An apparatus for treating a material com» prising a mold for the material, a frame, springs carried by the frame for supporting the mold. means for vibrating the mold, and means for ejecting the product from the mold after vibra tion. carrying platform for the material, means-for the frame adapted for, cooperation with the bot 20 porting said mold by and above said frame, a pallet positioned in said mold for vertical move ment and providing a bottom therefor and a carrying platform for the material, bearings car 30 ried on a side of the mold, a rotating shaft in said bearings, an unbalanced weighted member carried by and rotating with the shaft, and means adapted for cooperation with the bottom of the pallet for pushing said pallet upwardly 35 through said mold to eject the material'carried thereby. 5. Molding apparatus comprising a mold, a plurality of resilient supports for the mold, said supports being substantially C-shaped, and means 40 for vibrating the mold. 6. In apparatus for the molding of plastic ma terials like concrete, a mold for receiving the material, a supporting frame, a resilient means interposed between the mold and the frame 4 whereby the mold can be vibrated substantially independently of the frame, means for applying vibration to the mold, and means for removing the formed mass of material from the mold, said last means including elements mountedv upon the frame. 7. In apparatus for the molding of plastic materials like concrete, a mold consisting of side walls having an open top, a supporting frame, resilient means interposed between the mold and the frame whereby the mold can be vibrated sub- ' stantially independently of the frame, a pallet positioned in the mold and forming a bottom carrying platform for material introduced there in, means for applying vibratory movement to the mold, and means mounted on the frame for elevating the pallet relative to the mold to eject a formed mass of the material. EPHRIAM J. SCOTT.