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Патент USA US2106329

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Jan. 25, 1938.
E. J. scoTT
2, 106,329
APPARATUS FOR TREATING MATERIALS
Original Filed May 25, 1927
@
Patented Jan. 25, 1938
,
2,106,329‘
UNITED STATES YPAATENT OFFICE.
2,103,829
APPARATUS FOR TREATING MATERIALS
Ephriam J. Scott, Forest Hills, Masa, minor to
C. C. H. Thomas
I
.
Application May 25, 1927, Serial No. 194,018
Renewed March 21, 1938
7 Claims. (Cl. 25-41)
.
This invention relates to improvements in the
While my process may be practised with any
manufacture of building elements of concrete suitable vibrating means, I prefer to vibrate the
and other materials and more particularly the mixture orbitally in a vertical path. Such vi
invention appertains to an improved method and brating movement serves to roll the particles or
means for intermixing, writing, and compacting ingredients on one another in a general orbital
the ingredients of the material.
direction and in a vertical plane and this rolling
The object of the invention is to provide a of the particles, augmented by ‘the frictional
method and means of the above nature charac
action of the walls of the mold in forcing and
terized by simplicity in character and e?iciency pounding the particles together'serves to thor- '
in operation and by which the product obtained oughly unite and compact the particles and im
is superior both as respects strength, and uni
part to the mixture the necessary compactness
formity.
and distribution of the ingredients to obtain the
My invention, in its preferred form, involves qualities of high strength and uniformity.
subjecting the mixture to a rapid and vigorous
For the purpose of illustrating my invention I
vibration so that the ingredients are thoroughly
have shown the same embodied in a speci?c ap
intermixed, united and compacted and the prod
paratus but it will be understood that the appa~
ratus disclosed is merely for the purpose of illus
uct obtained is of high strength, and uniformity.
I am aware that it has been proposed to use vi
bration in the moulding of the ingredients of
building materials such as concrete, but in all
methods and apparatuses employed hitherfore,
In the drawing:
-
ratus constructed in accordance with my inven
not been vigorous and the resulting product has
not had any great strength or compactness.
Moreover, in the vibrating processes and appara
tuses hitherto used, the result of the action to
which the mixture has been subjected is to cause
tion;
_ nonuniform and the ingredients unevenly dis
tributed therethrough.
20
Figure 1 is an end elevational view of an appa
so far as I am aware, the speed of vibration has
the material to settle, the smaller particles to
congregate at the bottom so that the product is
Ll
tration and that my invention is not to be con
sidered as con?ned to any details shown.
Figure 2 is a side elevational view of this appa
ratus, showing the preferred form of the vibrat
ing means in section; and
25
I
Figure 3 is an end elevational view of said
vibrating means.
Referring now more particularly to the draw
ing which shows by way of example and illus
tration the preferred embodiment of this inven
According to my invention, I subject the mix
tion and to the details of which I do not intend
ture to a very rapid and vigorous vibration to
obtain a product of great strength, and com
to be confined,’ the invention is exempli?ed in an
pactness, and employ a vibrating movement that
tends to maintain the various ingredients evenly
distributed throughout the mixture.
In order to obtain the rapid and vigorous vi
porting member l0 where the ingredients of the 1
bration necessary to secure the ‘desired qualities
in the product. I preferably support the mold or
other supporting member (in or on which the
mixture is vibrated) for free movement and to
this end I employ a yielding 0r ?oating support
which permits the supporting member to be vi
brated very rapidly and without any substantial
resistance to the vibration.
The yielding support also acts as a shock ab
sorber and prevents the transmission of the vi
brations of the vibrating member to the frame.
thereby lessening the wear and deterioration on
the machine arising from the vibrations. The
yielding support also provides a construction in
which the power loss is minimized, which requires
a, minimum amount of power for operation and
which has a very high e?iciency.
apparatus which comprises a mold or other sup
mixture or the previously mixed material are
adapted to be placed and vibrated. It will be
understood that this invention is not con?ned to
vibrating’ the mixture within a mold, that the.
mixture may be placed in or on any member,
whether, a mold, table, or other supporting
member and vibrated. The supporting member
In is designed to be vibrated at a very rapid
speed and in order to permit such rapid vibra
tion it is adapted for free movement and is pref -
erably yieldingly and ?oatingly mounted by
means of resilient members or springs H on the
frame I2 of the apparatus.
The supporting
member may take any preferred or desired form
but for the purpose of illustration I have shown
it in the form of a mold adapted directly for the
formation of a hollow concrete building unit such
as is now quite frequently employed in building
constructions. The bottom of the mold is closed’
by means of a pallet l3 on top of which the mix
9,106,899‘
ture is adapted to..be placed or poured, the pallet being held in position by a bar II or similar
means.
-
.
.
While the vibrating means may take any suit
able form and be of any desired character with
out departing from the invention, I have shown
the apparatus equipped with a vibrating means
which comprises ‘a shaft It carried on bearings
ll attached to the side of the mold box to impart
10 vibration to the mold by the application of force
upon the side face of the mold. The shaft II_
is adapted to be rotated at a rapid speed by any
The vibration is such asto slide and roll the
ingredients of the mixture on and against one -
another and force and pound them against the
sidu of the mold so that they are thoroughly in
termixed and united. Furthermore by reason of
the fact that settling is largely prohibited by the
character of the vibration the resulting product
has great uniformity. As above pointed out, the
vibration is very vigorous and rapid and conse
quently the ingredients of the mixture are thor
oughlly compacted during the operation and'as
will more clearly appear hereafter, a superior
suitable or desired means and for this‘ purpose
product for a given composition or consistency is ,
may have a pulley II which is driven by a belt
obtained particularly where the material oper
16 II from any suitable source.
On the shaft l5
and preferably on each end thereof, I dispose a
vibrating member which comprises a disc if hav- ,
ing a weight ‘20 at a point at its periphery, the
disc being keyed or otherwise secured to the shaft
ll so as to rotate therewith. Loosely mounted
on the shaft I! and in proximity to the discs are
arms 2| having weights 22 at their free ends.
These arms vare adapted to be adjustably posi
tioned with respect to the discs and to this end
each arm is provided with a slot through which
extends a pin or similar member 22. Each disc
has a plurality of slots 24 arranged in a general
ated on is semi-liquid or damp, such as concrete.
After the material has been vigorously shaken
and vibrated so that the ingredients and particles
have been thoroughly mixed, the product is sepa
rated from-its lateral support or the lateral sup
port is removed. While this result may be ob 20
tained in any desired way, in the apparatus, I
have shown it is derived by lifting up and elect
ing the pallet, II. The means whereby this pal;
let may be lifted and elected preferably includes
a_movable member 28 from which rods, 21, pro 25
ject upwardly through guides 22 carried by the
frame i2 of the apparatus. The movable mem
ber 2| is preferably provided with rollers 2!
may extend, so that the arms 2i are adapted to bearing and supported on the surfaces of cams
be adjusted and coupled to the discs in various 3. carried on a shaft ll which extends horizon 30
adjusted positions. The slots in the discs are tally through and is supported in the frame of
preferably disposed tangentially or with their the machine. The shaft II is‘ adapted to be ro
long axes perpendicular to the radii intersecting tated and to this end a lever arm 32 is provided.
their centers,"while the ends of the pins have When rotated, the earns 30 raise or elevate the
headed members 25. The headed members are movable member 2! withthe result that the top 35
elongated to permit their passage through the ends of the members 21 strike the pallet l3 and
slots when the axes of the headed members are elect it out of the mold I‘. This election of L
coincident with the axes of the slots, and when course occurs‘after the mixture has been sum
the pins are turned the headed members lock ciently vibrated and compacted.
’
circular direction and into which the pins 23
The
This apparatus is particularly designed for 40
40 them against movement _ longitudinally.
headed members are heavier on one side of‘ the uniting and compacting the ingredients of semi
pins than at the other and when the shaft is
rotating centrifugal force throws the heavier
sides radially outward, whereby the pins are
locked at all times during rotation of the shaft.
In order to‘ change the positions of the arms
relative to the discs, it is only necessary to take
out ,the ,pins 24 in which,case the arms 2| are
adapted to be easily rotated ‘on the shaft i5 and
60
may be coupled to the discs by inserting the pins
liquid, plastic, and semi-plastic or damp mate
rials such as concrete. A characteristic feature of
the invention is the extreme intimacy with which
the particles are interlocked and interconnected. 45
In the case of concrete, the invention has pe
culiar advantages both when applied to a mix of
wet consistencyyand to mix of dry or damp con
sistency and covers a wide. range of consistency
in its possible application. The lateral support, 50
through the slots in the arm and through any may be removed immediately from a mix of wet
desired slots in the discs.
- or mushy consistency after vibration and prior
The vibration of the supporting member or to any set in the material without substantially
'mold III is obtained by reason of the dynamic any slumping in the product occurring. Never,
prior to my invention has a concrete mix of such 65 forces setup by revolution of the weighted mem
bers 20 and 22 which are communicated to the consistency retained itsv molded shape upon im
mold through the bearings of the shaft l5. These mediate removal of the lateral support prior to
weighted members are of approximately the same any set in the material except where the height
weight and the maximum vibration occurs when of the product has been four inches or less. _ By
60 they are both on the same side of the shaft i5
and abutting one another. The amount of vi
bration may be reduced, however, by adjusting
the arm 2| to reduce the unbalanced weight on
one side of the shaft, i5, and it is apparent that
65 when the weight 22 is diametrically opposite the
weight 20, a balanced condition prevails in which
no vibration occurs. The amplitude of vibration
may thus be varied by adjusting the position of
the arms 2| as above explained with respect to
70
the discs.
'
,
The vibrating movement of the mold member
my invention, a concrete mix of wet or mushy 60
consistency may be molded by vibration and the
lateral support removed immediately after vibra
tion and prior to any set in the concrete without
slumping in the product where the height of the
product is ?ve inches and even eight inches or 65
‘higher. A mix of dry or damp consistency when
molded by‘ vibration according to my invention
also retains its molded shape upon immediate re
moval of the lateral support after vibration. A
dry or damp mix characterized by substantially 70
zero or negative slump has never, prior to my in- ,
follows an orbital path in a substantially vertical
vention, been molded into shape by vibration
plane. This movement of the mold member
causes thorough moulding, uniting, and compact
without the material being so loosely united that
the product disintegrates upon immediate re
moval of the lateral support prior to any set in ii
76 ing of the ingredients composing the mixture.
3
anoaaao
the concrete. By reason of the rapid and vigorous
vibration, my invention when applied to a dry or
damp mix of the above character so interlocks
and unites the particles that no disintegration
of the product occurs upon its immediate with
drawal from the mold after vibration.
.
A further and important characteristic of my
invention is the great strength obtained in the
concrete product. For any given proportions of
ingredients there is obtained by my process a
concrete product of greater strength than any
concrete product using ‘the same proportions.
Concrete includes three main ingredients, name
ly, cement, water, and aggregate.
For given
materials, the strength of concrete is deter
mined solely by the ratio of the volume of mix
Ll
2. An apparatus for treating a material com
prising a mold for the material having open top
and bottom, a pallet positioned in said mold for
vertical movement and providing a bottom there
for and a carrying platform for the material.
a frame, resilient means on said frame for sup
porting said mold, means for vibrating the mold,
and means adapted for cooperation with the bot
tom of the pallet for pushing said pallet up
wardly through said mold to eject the material
carried thereby.
3. An apparatus for treating a material com
prising a frame, a mold for the material hav
ing open top and bottom, resilient means sup
porting said mold by and above said frame, a
pallet positioned in said mold for vertical move
ing water to the volume of cement so long as
the mixture is plastic and workable. By my in
ment and providing a bottom therefor and a
vention I am enabled to form a concrete prod
vibrating the mold, and means associated with
uct with less water than hitherto required for
the same set of materials. Thus, because of the
tom of the pallet for pushing said pallet upward
fact that I use less water, I obtain a product of
ly through said mold to eject the material car
greater strength than any product hitherto ob
ried thereby.
tained using the same set of materials. This is
particularly by reason of the fact that my process
enables me to work or mould the material in a less
plastic state. By virtue of my invention I am
4. An apparatus for treating a material com
prising a frame, a mold for the material hav
ing open top and bottom, resilient means sup
also enabled to form a product with more ag
' gregate for a given amount of cement and water
than has hitherto been moldable by vibration.
Thus with my apparatus a product may be ob
tained having the proportions of one part 0! cc
ment to one or more parts of aggregate with
water not to exceed an amount which will cause
a slump of one-half an inch when subjected to
a slump test in a hollow truncated cone having
a base of six inches, a top of three inches, and a
height of twelve inches. Such concrete has never
before been moulded by vibration.
It is desirable when the product is being eject
ed out of the mold box to vibrate the latter
slightly to loosen the material from the interior
sides of the mold and to allow ejection more
freely and with less resistance by friction and
consequently with less consumption of power as
well as less danger of spoiling or distorting.
While my invention is particularly applicable
to molding concrete and allied materials, I con
sider that it may‘ be applied to other uses and
for other purposes. For example, features of the
invention may be employed in vibrating molds
in foundries and the like. Other uses and ap
plications of the invention will be apparent and
will readily occur to those skilled in the various
arts.
'
Having thus described my invention, what I
claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Pat
ent is:
1. An apparatus for treating a material com»
prising a mold for the material, a frame, springs
carried by the frame for supporting the mold.
means for vibrating the mold, and means for
ejecting the product from the mold after vibra
tion.
carrying platform for the material, means-for
the frame adapted for, cooperation with the bot 20
porting said mold by and above said frame, a
pallet positioned in said mold for vertical move
ment and providing a bottom therefor and a
carrying platform for the material, bearings car 30
ried on a side of the mold, a rotating shaft in
said bearings, an unbalanced weighted member
carried by and rotating with the shaft, and
means adapted for cooperation with the bottom
of the pallet for pushing said pallet upwardly 35
through said mold to eject the material'carried
thereby.
5. Molding apparatus comprising a mold, a
plurality of resilient supports for the mold, said
supports being substantially C-shaped, and means 40
for vibrating the mold.
6. In apparatus for the molding of plastic ma
terials like concrete, a mold for receiving the
material, a supporting frame, a resilient means
interposed between the mold and the frame 4
whereby the mold can be vibrated substantially
independently of the frame, means for applying
vibration to the mold, and means for removing
the formed mass of material from the mold, said
last means including elements mountedv upon the
frame.
7. In apparatus for the molding of plastic
materials like concrete, a mold consisting of side
walls having an open top, a supporting frame,
resilient means interposed between the mold and
the frame whereby the mold can be vibrated sub- '
stantially independently of the frame, a pallet
positioned in the mold and forming a bottom
carrying platform for material introduced there
in, means for applying vibratory movement to
the mold, and means mounted on the frame
for elevating the pallet relative to the mold to
eject a formed mass of the material.
EPHRIAM J. SCOTT.
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