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Патент USA US2106396

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Jan. 25, 1938.
>
J, A_ TOPHNG
2,106,396
ROOF CONSTRUCTION
Filed Sept. 28, 1953
2 Sheets-Sheet
) INVENTOR
‘
‘
'
_
ATT
NEYS
Jan. 25, 1938.
2,106,396
J. A. TOPPlNG
ROOF CONSTRUCTION
Filed Sept. 28, ‘1953
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
40
INVENTOR
fo/ew A Tao/0W6
BY
g?pmdv
& ATTO
SW
NEYS '
Patented Jan. 25, 1938
2,106,396
UNITED STATES PATENT‘ OFFICE
2,106,396
ROOF CONSTRUCTION
John A. Topping, Bronxville, N. Y.
Application September 28, 1933, Serial No. 691,295
15 Claims.
This invention relates to a covering for a sur
face exposed to the weather and more particularly
to a roof construction in which the covering ele
ments are laid in overlapping arrangement.
5
Covering elements of various types are com
monly laid upon surfaces exposed to the weather
in courses with the exposed edges of the elements
in one course overlapping upon a subjacent
course. It has also been proposed to lay the ele
10 ments in such courses with a lateral edge thereof
overlapping upon the element laterally adjacent
thereto in the course. Such constructions have
utilized covering elements of different types in
cluding elements made of roo?ng ‘felt impreg
' nated with weatherproof material such as asphalt
and having a coating of weatherproof material
thereon to bind upon the element a surfacing
material such as granular slate.
The present invention may utilize elements of
any of the types and compositions known in the
art and is concerned with a particular form of the
elements and their arrangement in relation to
each other to provide a weather resisting and
water tight construction, as do the constructions
In of the prior art, but to produce certain new effects
and textures in the assembled covering which re
sults from the mechanical form of the element
and from the mechanical arrangement of the ele
ments with respect to each other.
39
In the covering construction of my invention I
may utilize units embodying designs or portions
thereof of elements used in the prior art and in
particular I may utilize a form of edge having
some of the features of that disclosed in my prior
:15 Design Patent No. 81,768. Such a form, of edge
has an outline providing outwardly projecting
portions from the outermost point or tip of which
(Cl. 108—7)
tionship of the position of the outermost points or
the outer tips of the outwardly projecting por
tions, referred to above, of the coursewise edge of
one element to the inwardly positioned point or
recess or corner of an element laterally adjacent
thereto; also the relation of the element in one
course with respect to the elements in an adjacent
course. In the following description when refer
ring to the outermost points of the outwardly
projecting portions of the elements I do not intend 10
that necessarily such a projecting portion shall
have a sharply de?ned point. Within the spirit
of the invention this point or tip may be rounded
or have other modi?cations of the outline of the
laterally and inwardly extending portions of the
edge. Likewise, the inwardly positioned point
need not be a sharp intersection between two in
wardly extending portions of the outline to form
a sharp corner but such a corner or recess may be
rounded or otherwise modi?ed while maintaining 20
the general feature of a serrated outline providing
outwardly projecting portions and recesses upon
the coursewise edge of the element.
As will beunderstood from the description in
connection with the drawings, in a speci?c em 25
bodiment of the invention I so lay the elements in
the course and so laterally overlap one element
upon the other in the course that the outermost
point or tip of an outwardly projecting portion
substantially‘ coincides with the inwardly posi
tioned point or corner of the element adjacent in
the course. ' I may within the scope of my inven
tion make certain modi?cations of this particular
embodiment without obtaining exact coincidence
of said points. However, when the elements are
laid in the laterally overlapped arrangement in
the course the general line of the course is main
the coursewise or exposed edge extends in a lateral
tained substantially by positioning like points on
direction to a point positioned inwardly of the
4-1‘. element with respect to said outermost'point of
the projection. I thus utilize for the exposed
coursewise edge of the element what may be de
successive adjacent elements on lines substan
tially parallel to the line of the course.
My invention, therefore, in one phase may be
expressed as a construction embodying the fea
ture of the relationship of the points or tips of
scribed as a serrated edge.
The invention, however, is not concerned with
$3.. .7 the design of the element or elements used in the
construction nor with the design of the edges of
such elements, nor is the invention concerned
with the particular design or designs produced or
made possible by the assembly of covering ele
5'3 ments in the arrangement and relationship pro
posed by my invention. Designs maybe produced
in the coverings assembled according to the in
vention but such designs may be modi?ed and
different designs may be produced while main
'>3 taining the particular form of the element and
relationship of the elements and of their exposed
edges as proposed according to my invention.
The feature of myinvention which makes pos
sible different effects and effects which heretofore
60 ;have been obtained is concerned with the rela
the outwardly projecting portions of the elements
and the inwardly positioned‘ points of the later 45
ally adjacent element. In another phase the in
vention may be expressed as the combination of
such relation of the outwardly projecting points
and inwardly positioned points with the place
ment of the elements with respect to each other
so as to de?ne a single course of elements. Still
other features relate to the serrated outline pro
viding means to position an element in a course
with respect to an element adjacent in the course
and to position the courses laterally with respect 55
to each other. As will be seen from the drawings
a complete coverage of the surface to. be protected
is obtained. With the elements of suitable pro
portions a double or triple coverage of the surface
is possible while laying the elements in courses so
2
2,106,396
arranged as normally to provide a coverage with
the usual head lap.
It will be noted that the lateral overlapping
arrangement combined with the serrated edge
may provide design effects characterized by ex
posure below the overlapping portion of one ele
ment of a part of the overlapping portion of the
that the corners l2 and I4 where the coursewise
edge meets the lateral edges are of rounded form.
This effect may be obtained in various ways in
different types of covering elements. In cover
ing elements which have a coating of asphalt or
adjacent element.
other mastic material thereon as a binder to se
' -
The features of the invention above describe
10 and others will be more clearly understood from
the description to follow taken in connection with
the drawings in which
Figure 1 shows a single element having two
projecting portions on the exposed edge.
Figure 2 shows an element having one project
ing portion intermediate’ to two projecting por
tions which have their outermost points or tips
at the lateral edge of said element.
Figure 3 shows an assembly of ‘the units of Fig
20' ure
1 and
.
Figure 4 shows an assembly of the units of Fig
ure 2.
t
Figure 5 shows a modi?ed assembly of units.
In Figure 1 the element is provided with a ser
rated edge of the type disclosed in my prior De
sign Patent No. 81,768. The element I has out
wardly projecting portions 2 and 3 placed inter
mediate the lateral edges 4 and 5 of the element.
The coursewise edge of said element is thus pro
30 vided with an outline having portions 6, ‘l, 8 and
9 extending from the outermost points or tips
l0 and H of said projections laterally to points
[2, l3 and 14 positioned inwardly of the element
with respect to said outermost points or tips
35 1m and u. It will also be noted that in the ele
ment shown in Figure 1 portions of the lateral
edges 4 and 5 converge toward the edge to be
exposed, that is, the coursewise edge of the ele
ment.
I may, however, use an element which
:has parallel lateral edges or lateral edges at least
one of which is substantially at a right angle or
at some other angle extending transverse to the
general direction of the coursewise edge.
In producing individual covering elements of
45 the form utilized in my invention I may ?rst cut
from a sheet strips having tabs separated by cut
outs or spaces and having an edge outline shown
in my prior Design Patent No. 81,768. These
strips conveniently may be produced by the
50 process disclosed and claimed in my prior appli
cation, Ser. No. 654,600, ?led February 1, 1933.
I then may out said strip between the tabs and
transversely of the strip to produce individual
elements of the form shown in Figure 1 in which
‘at the innermost ends of the converging portions
of the edges 4 and 5 are formed small curved cor
ners or offsets l5. These curved corners, as will
be clear from the illustration in my prior appli
cation, Serial No. 654,600, ?led February 1, 1933,
results from rounding the inner corners of the
cutouts between tabs of the strip shingle shown in
my prior Design Patent No. 81,768. This corner
I5 by gauging or positioning it in relation to,
for example, the edge of a superimposed course,
jecting portions does not form a sharp corner
but is somewhat rounded. Also it will be noted
cure upon the surface of the element a granular
surfacing material, such rounding of the corners 10
and tips may be obtained when the coating is
applied by dipping the element in a bath of the
mastic material. Particularly when the element
has been previously coated and surfaced, the
second coating and surfacing produce a thick 15
butt element having the edges thereof rounded or
relieved of a sharp edge. In such dipped elements
capillary action carries the coating around the
intersection of the face and edge surfaces of the
element to form the rounded edges and corners. 20
The exposed portion only of the element is
usually dipped. Thus are sealed the edge surfaces
of the element which otherwise has the base ma
terial, such as the felt, exposedv to the weather.
As the portion overlapped by a superimposed
course is not so exposed, and as, in the case of
elements having a second coating applied by dip
ping, the ?rst coating provides the protection and,
if desired, the means for binding a surfacing ma
terial upon said overlapped surface, the second
coating is not required upon said overlapped por
tion.
Elements of the outline used in my inven
tion and having their exposed portions dipped in
coating may be made by severing a tabbed strip
as described above. When they are ?rst dipped
and then severed all the exposed surfaces may be
sealed. As the severing cut is made in the por
tion which is to be overlapped by a superimposed
course, the edge surfaces formed by said sever
ing cut made after clipping the elements are not
sealed. However, the base material or felt does
not become subjected to any substantial action
of the weather because for the most part these
unsealed edges are covered by overlapping courses.
In Figure 2 the outline of the coursewise edge
is composed of the portions l6, l7, l8 and H] ex
tending from the tips 20, 21 and 22 and connect
ing to the corners 23 and 24 of the recesses be
tween the outwardly projecting portions 25, 26
and 21.
In the particular embodiment illustrated
in Figure 2 the corners and tips are not rounded
but are formed by the sharp intersection of the
rectilinear edges l6, l'l, l8 and I9 and of the
lateral edges 4 and 5 with the edges l6 and 19
respectively. The lateral edges 4 and 5 of said
element are shown parallel to each other but like
the element of Figure 1 may be at right angles
to or in other relation to the general line of the
coursewise edge of the element. The tips 20, 2i
and 22 and the corners 23 and 24 may be rounded
as in Figure 1 if so desired.
In Figure 3 is shown an assembly of elements
of the type illustrated in Figure 1. It will be
noted from Figure 3 that the elements are laid in
may serve as a guide in laying the elements in
courses which courses are in overlapping ar
the assembled covering to assist in positioning
rangement and that the elements in the courses
are laid with the lateral edges thereof overlap
ping upon the element adjacent thereto in the
course. It will be seen from Figure 3 that the tip
or outermost point H of the outwardly project 70
each element at the proper angle with the line
of the course as will be described hereafter and
also to assist in determining the desired exposure
of one course below an overlapping course.
In the form illustrated in Figure 1 the outer
most tips l0 and II of the outwardly projecting
portions 2 and 3 are not formed with a sharp
point but are somewhat rounded. Likewise it
75 will be noted that the recess l3 between the pro
ing portion 3 is substantially superimposed and
coincident with the corner [2, that is, with an
inwardly positioned point of the element adja
cent thereto in the course.
Moreover, it will be
noted that the elements in each course are so
3
2,106,396.‘?
arranged with respect to each other as to de?ne ’ ment'in the vsubjacent course, while at the same
the course. This is accomplished by positioning time the inwardly positioned point l3 of the ele
corresponding points in adjacent elements on
lines substantially parallel to the line of the
course, for example, the tips ll of the outwardly
extending portions 3 on each successive element
ment being laid may be brought in coincidence
with the lateral edge 5 of the subjacent element.
Other points of the elements may be used to lay
in the course are substantially on a line parallel
to the course. Similarly, the outermost points or
to those of the subjacent course.
tips H] of the outwardly projecting portions 2 as
spectively on lines extending generally parallel
tilted position the edge surface of the lateral
edges thereof which are raised with respect to the 10
line of thecourse, that is, of the edges 5 in Fig
to the course. Thus the elements are slightly
tilted with respect to the line of the course so
ures 3 and 4, may face in' a direction upwardly
or above the line of the course and become sub
that the general direction of the edge tobe eX
posed, that is the coursewise edge of the element,
is at a slight angle to the line of the course. The
ject to the action of water ?owing down over the
edge of a superimposed element. The water may
run along said edge ‘5 and then on to the face of‘
corner or offset l5 may be used to gauge the tilt
of the element as mentioned above. This tilt or
the subjacent element. When “dipped” elements
are used, said edge is protected against this water
angular position is a characteristic feature of
action upon the felt such as would occur in the
case of ordinary elements cut from a sheet and
well as the inwardly positioned points l3 are re
15
20 the mechanical arrangement of the elements of
my invention.
~ As shown in Figures 1 and 2 the edge of the
element which is to be overlapped by a super
imposed course is also made with a serrated out
25 line.
As wil be understood from the disclosure
in my prior application Serial No. 654,600, ?led
the elements in one course in different relations
As the elements of my invention are laid in a
having the cut edges unsealed. On the other
hand the other lateral edge being inclined, is not
so positioned as to face the action of the water
and to carry the water therealong. The action of
.the water thereon, therefore, is less severe. Ac 25
cording to 'my invention, therefore, I may relate
February 1, 1933, the formation of the strips by
the elements in one course with respect to those
a cut of serrated outline transversely of a sheet
in a superimposed course so that the sealed por
produces in such a strip complementary edges for
the edge to be overlapped by a superimposed
course and for the coursewise edge to be exposed
of the element. When, as described above, in
dividual elements are produced from such strips
tion of the lifted lateral edge 5 only is exposed.
by cutting the strips transversely thereof between
35 the tabs, the complementary edges are retained
upon the elements. In this way there is formed
an individual shingle or element which not only
has the mechanical form of my invention but pro
vides means which when such individual elements
are laid in courses, may be utilized as guides for
laying the elements in proper relation to each
other in each course and also for properly re
lating the elements in one course to those in a
subjacent course.
For example, when the tip ll
45 of the outwardly projecting portion 3 is substan
tially superimposed and coincident with the cor
ner I2 of the element adjacent in the course, the
The upper portion thereof, being overlapped by 30
the superimposed course need not be sealed.
If then the lateral edge 4 has a small part
ofthe unsealed portion thereof‘below the edge
of a superimposed element, the action of water
upon the base felt will be negligible or may not 35.
occur at all depending upon the thickness of the
elements and the section of the edge. It there
fore becomes possible so to tilt the elements that
the unsealed, that is the undipped, part thereof
is slightly exposed at points where the lateral 40
edge, such as the edge 4 in the drawings, inter
sects the edge of an overlapping course.
When
the overlapped unsealed portion of the element
is black or dark in appearance the shadow effect
is accentuated.
This particularly may be the 45
case when the corner 15 becomes exposed just
below the edge of an overlapping course. More
inwardly positioned point 34 of the edge to be
over, the sealing coating need not be applied
overlapped by a superimposed course may be
brought into substantial coincidence with the
outwardly projecting corner 30 or a point 35
thereof on the laterally adjacent overlapped ele
ment. Thus may be insured the proper relation
over the surface to be exposed to a greater ex
tent than is necessary to cover the portion to 50
of one element to the other in the course.
More
be exposed of the lifted lateral edge 5, and of
course the face to be exposed of the element.
Thus a saving of coating is effected while provid
ing an assembled covering having those edges
55 over, if the element already in position in the
and faces which are subjected to water action 55
course has been positioned with the proper tilt protected therefrom.
or inclination to the line of the course, the co
In the particular embodiment illustrated in
incidence of the corner 30 or of point 35 with Figure 3 the portion 6 of the serrated outline of
point 34 will test the proper tilt for the element the element 1 is shown as substantially in line
60 being laid and overlapped upon the adjacent ele~ ~ With the portion 8 of the overlapping element.
ment. One feature of my invention, therefore, This alignment results from the placement of the
resides in an individual element or shingle hav
successive elements with corresponding points on
ing edges of serrated outline for the coursewise lines substantially parallel to the line of the
edges, said outlines being substantially comple
course, as described above, ‘when elements of
' mentary and providing means for positioning ele—
similar outline are used. In the embodiment
ments in laterally overlapping arrangement in
courses one with respect to the other in proper
alignment. Moreover it will be understood that
in laying the next successive course the points of
the element being laid may be placed in a given
relation to the points of the elementson the sub
jacent course. For example, the lateral edge 4
of an element being laid may be brought into sub
stantial coincidence with projecting portion 36
75 ;or with the point 3| on the upper edge of an ele
shown in Figure 1 the mechanical arrangement
and the form of the edge of the elements also
provide the feature that a-portion of the under
lying element adjacent in the course is ex
posed below the lower edge, that is, below the
portion 9 of the overlapping element. Thus by
the mechanical arrangement of elements having
the serrated outline disclosed in my prior Design
Patent No. 81,768 I produce a modi?cation of the
design secured by- the ordinary assembly of ele 75
4
2,106,396“
ments of the type illustrated in said prior patent, ‘corresponding points in the di?erent elements
which ordinary assembly is shown in my prior in parallelism with the line of the course.
Design Patent No. 76,843. Within the scope of
Figure 5 illustrates, in the different courses
my invention, however, I may modify somewhat shown di?’erent ways of lapping the lateral edges
the angle at which adjacent elements shown in of the elements in the course, that is righthand
Figure 3 are laid with respect to the line of the and lefthand laps, and also certain combinations
course so that the edge 6 of one element is not
exactly in line with the edge 8 of the overlapping
element. Moreover, without departing from the
10 feature of the invention by which the elements
are laid at an angle to the line of the course,
I may somewhat modify the design produced by
laying the adjacent elements with edge 6, for
example, intersecting edge 9 of the overlapping
15 element.
In such modi?cations however corre
sponding points on successive laterally adjacent
elements de?ne the line of the course.
Figure 4 shows an assembly of the elements
illustrated in Figure 2 in which the outwardly
20 projecting portions 21 at the righthand end of
the elements have their tips or points 22 super
imposed upon the inward corner 23 of the re
cess between the outwardly projecting portions
25 and 25. Similar to the arrangement shown
25 in Figure 3 the corresponding points on succes
sive adjacent elements are positioned substan
tially on lines parallel to the line of the course.
of courses with elements lapped in different di
rections. In many cases it may be preferable to
lap the elements in opposite directions in alter
nate courses. This construction prevents giving 10
opportunity to the wind to lift all the elements
of the roof, as those in courses lapped in one
direction will not be lifted by a wind from a
direction which would tend to lift those in the
other course. The lapping of lateral edges re 15
duces the degree to which an element may lift.
The overlapped portions or corners may also be
fastened down, the fastening being protected by
the lap.
‘
Figure 5 also shows combinations of the two 20
types of elements illustrated in Figures 1 and 2.
In this ?gure in the lowermost course elements
of the type shown in Figure 2 are laid with the
serrated edge thereof, having the points 40 and
4|, as the coursewise edge to be exposed. The
next overlapping course is formed by elements of
the type of Figure 2 laid with the opposite ser
There is thus produced in the assembly of Fig
rated edge exposed, that is, with the edge having
ure 4 a tilted or inclined position of the elements
the points 20, 2| and 22 as the coursewise edge
to be exposed. It will be noted from Figure 5
that whereas in the lowermost course the ele
ments are laid with the edge 4 thereof overlapped
to the right upon the adjacent element, in the
30 similar to that shown in Figure 3.
It will also
be noted that similarly to Figure 3 the angle of
the tilt may be gauged, for example, by the co
incidence of points 45) and Ill on laterally adja
cent elements and by the position of edge 4
35 with respect to inwardly positioned point 24 or
edge 5 with point 2 I.
In Figure 4 the edge I‘! of the central project
ing portion of one element is arranged substan
tially in line with the edge IQ of the right hand
projecting portion 27 of the overlapping element.
The edge Id of the underlying element thus be
comes exposed below the edge IQ of the over
lapping element and a portion of the lateral
edge I! of the underlying element likewise becomes
exposed. In Figure 4, utilizing the elements of
Figure 2 which have their lateral edges 4 and
5 parallel to each other, because of the inclined
or tilted position of the elements in the course
maintaining general alignment of the elements
in the course, the edges 4 and 5‘ are not at right
angles to the line of the course but are in
clined slightly toward the left in the upwardly
extending direction. In Figure 3, due to the
inclination of the edge 5 to the general line
of the exposed edge of the element I said ex
posed portion of the edge 5 of the overlapping
element becomes positioned substantially at right
angles to the line of the course. In the assembly
shown in Figure 3, however, the exposed portion
60 of the edge 5 may become differently positioned
depending upon the angle at which it is formed
with respect to the general line of the exposed
edge.
It will be noted that in Figure 4 a different
65 character of design is obtained from that which
is illustrated in Figure 3 but that this is accom
plished by the same kind of mechanical arrange
ment of the elements having a serrated course
wise edge. This arrangement comprises the fea
ture of substantially coincidentally positioning a
tip or outermost point of an outwardly extend
ing portion and the corner of a recess or in
next course above the elements are laid with the
edge 4 (the shingle now being inverted) over 35
lapped to the left upon the shingle adjacent in
the course.
In the third course from the bottom
the elements are laid in the same manner as
in the lowermost course.
In the uppermost course
the shingles are laid with the edge having the 40
points 20, 2| and 22 as the coursewise edge to be
exposed and have the edges 4 overlapped to the
left upon the adjacent shingle.
As will be seen from Figure 5, in the lower
most and in the third course from the bottom, the 45
points 4| of an overlapping shingle are substan
tially coincident with the corner 4!] of the over
lapped shingle. Like points on each shingle are
arranged in a line parallel to the coursewise di
rection and the shingles are tilted in the course 50
in the manner described above.
In the second course from the bottom of Fig
ure 5 the shingles are laid with the points 23 in
substantial coincidence with the points 22 of the
overlapped adjacent shingle. As like points in 55
the different shingles are arranged on a line
parallel to the course, the points 20, that is, the
corner portions 25, become positioned below the
overlapped shingle. Thus the lines l8 are offset
in a direction transversely of the course from 60
the lines IQ of the overlapped adjacent shingle.
It will be noted that the shingles in the three
lower courses thus become tilted in the same
direction with respect to the coursewise direction.
In the uppermost course the shingles are laid 65
with the points 20 substantially coincident with
the points 24 of the overlapped shingle and with
the points 22, that is, the corner 2'! extending and
exposed below the serrated coursewise edge of
the adjacent overlapped shingle. As the shingles 70
are arranged in the course with like points upon
wardly positioned point with respect to each
the same coursewise line, the shingles thus become
tilted in the direction opposite to that of the
other and also the feature of inclining or tilting
the strips in the course to substantially align
three lower courses.
It will be noted from Figure 5 that because of 75
5
2,106,896
the variations in the mechanical arrangement
with respect to each other of the shingles hav
ing the serrated coursewise edge to be exposed,
motifs of di?erent outline and character are
formed in the roof construction. These different
motifs are produced by the difference in the di
rection in which the lateral edges of the shingle
are overlapped upon the adjacent shingle and
by the utilization of the two different serrated
10 edges of the shingle as Well as by the variations
in the points selectedjor coincidence in the over
lapped arrangements. It also will be noted that
in the forms utilized in Figure 5 the lateral edges
4 and 5 of a shingle in one course in many cases
15 fall upon a point of the serration of the edge to
be overlapped of the shingle in an adjacent course.
‘Thus, for example, the edges 5 of the shingles in
the third course from the bottom fall upon the
point 44 of the shingle inthe second course from
20 the bottom. Similarly, the edge 4 of the shingle
in the second course from the bottom falls upon
the point 2i of the shingle in the lowermost
course. As has been explained above, this sub
stantial coincidence of the lateral edges with
25 points on the serrated edges of shingles in the
subjacent course assist in guiding the laying of
the shingles in the roof.
In other modi?cations combinations of elements
of the type of Figure 1 with those of Figure 2
30 may be made in the same course.
The combi
nations shown are merely illustrative and many
variations may be made without departing from
the spirit of my invention. The invention is not
limited to elements having a felt base covered
35 with a plastic coating but may utilize elements
an inwardly extending part thereof on one ele
ment is substantially in line with the part of ‘the
outline of the adjacent element which is adjacent
the lateral edge of said adjacent element.
3. A roof‘ construction comprising a plurality 5
of roo?ng elements laid in overlapping courses
and with a lateral edge of one element over
lapping the element laid adjacent thereto in the
course, said elements havingthe exposed course-'
wise edges thereof of serrated outline providing
outwardly projecting portions, said outline hav
ing a part thereof extending from the outermost
point‘ of an outwardly projecting portion in a
lateral direction to a point positioned with ‘re
spect thereto inwardly of the element, said ele 15
ments being laid in the roof with the outermost
point of an outwardly projecting portion of one
element substantially coincident with aninwardly
positioned point of the adjacent element'and with
corresponding points in the elements 'in each 20
course substantially on a line parallel to the line
of the course, said lateral edges of said elements
converging in the direction of said exposed edge.
4. A roof construction comprising'a plurality
of roo?ng elements laid in overlapping courses 25
and with a lateral edge of one element‘ over
lapping the element laid adjacent thereto in the
course, said elements having the exposed course
wise edges thereof of serrated outline providing
outwardly projecting portions, said outline‘hav
ing a part thereof extending fromthe outermost
point of an outwardly projecting portion in‘ a
lateral direction‘ to a’ point positioned with re
spect thereto inwardly of the element, said ele
ments being laid in the roof with the outermost ’
of different compositions and materials of which
point of an outwardly projecting portionjof one
the shape and arrangement are substantially as
element substantially coincident with an inwardly
' described above.
What is claimed as new is:
40
l. A roof construction comprising a plurality of
roo?ng elements laid in overlapping courses and
with a lateral edge of one element overlapping
the element laid adjacent thereto in the course,
said elements having the exposed coursewise
45 edges thereof of serrated outline providing out
wardly projecting portions, said outline having a
part thereof extending from the outermost point
of an outwardly projecting portion in a lateral
direction to a point positioned with respect there
50 to inwardly of the element, said elements being
laid in the roof with the outermost point of an
outwardly projecting portion of one element sub
stantially coincident with an inwardly positioned
point of the adjacent element and with corre
55 sponding points in the elements in each course
substantially on a line parallel to the line of the
course.
'
2. A roof construction comprising a plurality of
roo?ng elements laid in overlapping courses and
60 with a lateral edge of one element overlapping
the element laid adjacent thereto in the course,
said elements having the exposed coursewise edges
thereof of serrated outline providing outwardly
projecting portions, said outline having a part
65 thereof extending from the outermost point of an
outwardly projecting portion in a lateral direc
tion to a point positioned with respect thereto
inwardly of the element, said elements being laid
in the roof with the outermost point of an out
70 wardly projecting portion of one element sub
stantially coincident with an inwardly positioned
point of the adjacent element and with corre
sponding points in the elements in each course
substantially on a line parallel to the line of the
75 course, the outline of said edge being such that
positioned point of the adjacent element and with
corresponding points in the elements in each
course substantially one line parallel to the line 40
of the course, at least one of said lateral edges
of said elements extending at an'angle greater
than a right-angle with respect to the general
direction of the exposed edge of said element.
5. A roof construction comprising a plurality 45
of roo?ng elements laid in overlapping courses
and with a lateral edge of one element over
lapping the element laid adjacent thereto in the
course, said elements having the exposed course
wise edges thereof of serrated outline providing 50
outwardly projecting portions, said outline hav
ing a part thereof extending from the outermost
point of an outwardly projecting portion in a
lateral direction to a point positioned with re
spect thereto inwardly of the element, said ele
ments being laid in the roof with the outermost
point of an outwardly projecting portion‘ of one
element substantially coincident with an inwardly
positioned point of the adjacent element and with
corresponding points in the elements in each 60
course substantially on a line parallel to the line
of the course, at least one of said lateral edges
of said elements extending ‘at an angle greater
than a right-angle with respect to the general
direction of the exposed edge of said element by 65
an amount to position at substantially right an
gles to the course‘ said lateral edges of said ele
ments exposed by overlapping upon’ adjacent
elements.
-
g
‘
6. A roof construction ‘comprising a plurality 70
of roo?ng elements laid in overlapping courses
and with a lateral edge of one element over- .
lapping the element laid adjacent thereto to form
a single horizontally extending course of said ele
ments, each of said elements having the exposed 75
6
2,106,396
coursewise edges thereof of serrated outline pro
viding a plurality of similar outwardly projecting
direction transversely of said coursewise edge,
the portions of the serrations respectively adja
portions, said outline having a part thereof ex
tending from the outermost point of an outwardly
cent said lateral edges extending at opposite an
gles to the general direction of said coursewise
edge, the point of the serrations of said course
Wise edge adjacent but removed from one lateral
edge being positioned at a distance from said
lateral edge of the element substantially equal
to the lateral overlap of one element with respect
projecting portion in a lateral direction to a point
positioned with respect thereto inwardly of the
element, said elements being laid in the roof with
the outermost point of the outwardly projecting
portion adjacent one end of each element sub
10 stantially coincident with the inwardly positioned
point adjacent the adjacent overlapped end of
the element adjacent in the course and exposing
the portion of said overlapped adjacent element
below the overlapping portion of the overlapping
element.
'7. A roof construction according to claim 1 in
which the outwardly extending portions are in
termediate the ends of the elements.
8. A roof construction according to claim 1 in
20 which the element is provided with at least one
outwardly extending portion at the lateral edge
of the element.
9. A roof construction according to claim 1 in
which the elements in one course have their out
wardly projecting portions intermediate the lat
eral ends of the elements and in another course
have an outwardly projecting portion adjacent
at least one lateral edge of the element.
10. A covering for a surface comprising a plu
30 rality of elements laid laterally adjacent to each
other in general alignment in a course with one
lateral edge of each element overlapping upon
a portion of the element laterally adjacent there
to in the course, said elements; having the por
03 Or tions of the outline of the edges to be exposed
thereof which are respectively adjacent the lat
eral edges of said elements extending at angles
to the line of the course, said angles being oppo
sitely divergent from said line of the course, said
40 elements being arranged with said portion of the
outline adjacent one lateral edge of one element
intersecting said portion of the outline adjacent
the adjacent lateral edge of the adjacent ele
ment, said elements being laid with like points
45 on each element substantially in coursewise align
ment.
11. A roof construction comprising shingles
laid in general alignment adjacent each other
in courses with the lateral edge of one shingle
50 overlapping the lateral edge of a shingle laid
adjacent thereto in the course, said shingles each
having an edge to be exposed formed with a
serrated outline, the portions of said outline ad
jacent the lateral edges of the shingle being sym
C1 Cir metrical about a line in the shingle extending
in the same general direction as the lateral edges
of the shingle, said symmetrical portions of said
outline in the same shingle not being in align
ment with each other, said symmetrical portion
60 adjacent the underlapped lateral edge of the lat
erally underlapped shingle extending below the
symmetrical portion adjacent the overlapping
lateral edge of the laterally overlapping shingle,
said symmetrical portion on one shingle being
65 substantially in alignment with the portion of
the serration adjacent said symmetrical portion
on the adjacent shingle.
12. A roo?ng element de?ning an individual
shingle for laying in overlapping courses and
70 having a coursewise edge thereof of serrated out
line and having lateral edges like-extending in a
to the other in a course, whereby, when said 10
point of the serrations is brought into substan
tial coincidence with the adjacent lateral edge
of an element adjacent in the course and said
elements are aligned in the course, the elements
may be laid in side-lapped arrangement and with
the portion of the serrations adjacent one later
al edge of one element at an angle to the portion
of the serrations adjacent the adjacent lateral
edge of the adjacent element in the course.
13. A roof construction comprising a plurality
of roo?ng elements having lateral edges extend
ing from a coursewise edge to be exposed, said
elements being laid in courses and with a lat
eral edge of each element overlapping the ele
ment laid adjacent thereto in the course, said
coursewise edge of said elements being formed
with the portions thereof which respectively are
adjacent the lateral edges of the element extend
ing at an angle to each other, said elements be
ing positioned in the course with the dimension 30
thereof which is like-extending with the lateral
edges extending at an angle to the direction
of the course other than a right angle but at
such an angle that the coursewise edges of the
laterally overlapping elements intersect.
14. A roof construction comprising elements
having lateral edges generally like-extending in
the element, said elements being laid in courses
with the lateral edge of one element overlapping
upon a portion of the element laterally adjacent
thereto in the course to cover the underlapped
edge of said adjacent element, said elements be
ing so tilted in position in said course that the
side of said element at said overlapping lateral
edge is offset transversely of the line of the
course in the direction toward the course above
and so that the exposed portion of the edge sur
face of said lateral edge faces at least slightly
at an angle to the course and toward said course
above, the edge surface of at least said exposed 50
portion of said lateral edge being coated with
a weather-resisting coating.
15. A roof construction comprising elements
laid in overlapping courses, said elements hav
ing lateral edges generally like-extending in the,
element, said elements being tilted in position
in the course so that the side of the element at a
lateral edge thereof is offset transversely of the
course in the direction toward the overlapping
course and at least the exposed portion of the 60
edge surface of said raised lateral edge faces at
an angle to the course at least slightly toward
said overlapping course, the edge surface of at
least the exposed portion of said raised lateral
edge of the element being sealed with a weather—
resisting coating, the edge surface of the other
lateral edge of said element along at least a part
of the exposed face thereof being free of said
sealing coating.
70
JOHN A. TOPPING.
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