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Патент USA US2106460

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Jan. 25, 153's;
A.‘ LEPETIT
2,106,460
OPTICAL DEVICE ‘FOR MEASURING-‘ANGLES, SUCH AS SEXTANTSV ‘
f Filed March 13, 1937
4 She'ets-Sheet 1
' Jan. 25; 1938.
A. LE'PE‘TIT
' 2,106,460
- our“; DEVICE FOR mums-name mamas, suca AS- SEXTANTS
med uarpn?ls, 1937 _
. 4 Sheets-LSheet 2?
I
"29-5
= 45,
O
K
Jan. 25, 1938.
‘
y'
A.‘ LEPETIT
2,106,460
' OPTICAL DEVICE FOR MEASURING (ANGLES; SUCH AS SEXTANTS
Filed March 13, 1937
'
4 Sheets-Sheet a
Jan. 25, 1938. -i
'
A. LEPETIT
2,106,460 V
OPTICAL DEVICE FOR MEASURING mews, 'S'UCHAS SEXTANTS ‘
'
' ~
Filed March 1:5,.’ 193?
£79.10.‘ "
.
4 Sheets__-Sheet .4‘
2,106,460
Patented ‘Jan. 25,‘ 1938
UNITED STATES
(PATENT OFFICE ‘
2.19am
OPTICAL DEVICE FOR MEASURING ANGLES,
_
.
SUCH AS SEXTANTS.
‘
Albert Lepetit, Montronge, France
Application March 13, 1937, Serial No. 180,653
In France March 16, 1938
4 Galina. (Cl. 88-2.!)
This invention has for its object improvements
in and relating to optical devices for measuring
_ angles, such as sextants.
The purpose of the improvements according to
5 the invention is more particularly to increase the
precision of optical devices adapted, in a general
manner, for measuring angles, and to facilitate
the use of the same.
‘
A ?rst object of the invention is to combine all
10 the parts of the device in a unit requiring a
minimum of space.
'
Another object of the invention is to arrange all
Figure 17 is a side view along line i‘I--| ‘I of
Figure 16, and
'
Figure 18 is a partial sectional view along line
lU-IO of Figure 8.
*
.
The optical device shown in the accompanying 5
drawings comprises two main groups of parts
(Figure 1) which are located-in two chambers
designated A and B. Said chambers are pro
vided in'the same casing and separated from
another by the partition l9.
'
10
The group in chamber A comprises the air-level
i and its illuminating device L-I-l-S as‘well
the controlling parts of the device in order that as the operating mechanism for the mirror. .
they may be located immediately within reach of
The group in chamber B comprises the optical
16 the ?ngers of the operator.
system which permits of bringing the image of 15
A device permitting of attaining the preceding the observed star to coincide with the image of
objects comprises the features which appear from the bubble of the air-level. This optical system
the following description as well as from the‘ap
comprises two mirrors 6-1 and an object-glass 8;
pended claims.
_
>
‘
for this purpose the second mirror 1 comprises.
m A preferred embodiment of the invention is _a mechanism formed of a toothed sector 9 and 20 '
shown by way of example in the accompanying a worm III, the toothed sector 9 being fast on
drawings, in which
the rotation axis 11 of the mirror ‘I. A drum II,
Figure ,1 is an optical diagram of the whole which is graduated in tens of grades and a knob
unit. "
Figure 2 is a-partial opticaldiagram showing
the arti?cial illumination of the level. -
Lastly, an intermediate optical system formed,
> _
Figure 3 is a partial sectional view along line
-3—-3 of Figure l.
.
Figure 4 is a side view of the device, with the
'0 casing removed’, showingi~ the chamber which
contains the level and the operating mechanism
' for the main mirror.
Figure 5 is another side view (with the casing
a movable mirror.
‘
The use of this device is as follows:
_
.
line 6-6 of Figure 4.
_
Figure 7 is a partial sectional view along line
'I-JI of Figure 6.
observes the star whichis, for instance, in the
direction f1. At the same time he turns the mir
' ror' ‘I by means of the mechanism 9, l0, 12 so that 35
Figure 6 is a partial cross sectional view along
45
for instance, of two total re?ecting prisms l3, It or of- a single double re?ecting prism, permits or
causing the rays of light in the group of chamber
A to pass into the group of chamber B.
30.
The observer places his eye at O in Fig. 1 and . <
removed) showing the optical system with the
‘0
II, which is graduated in grades and minutes,_
permit of measuring the rotation of the mirror ‘I. 25.
'
-
the image of the bubble of the level‘, which is
successively re?ected by the prisms l3 and “and
the mirrors 8 and l coincides with the image of
the star.
Figure 8 is an outer side view with broken parts,
.
'
_
showing more particularly the tracing device.
The observer repeats this observation several
times for one and the same star; each time ,he
Figures 9 and 10 are a front elevational view
and a rear elevational view respectively of the
makes an observation he traces a mark on a paper
whole device. _
knob l2 and he reads the graduation of the drum . .
a
Figures 11 and 12 are two axial sectional views
of the illuminating devices for the le‘
, ;
g
-
. Figure 13 is another axial sectional view of one
of the illuminating devices, showing the diagram
0
or celluloid sheet which is fast on the graduated
ll.
'
>
'
After he has made these various observations,
the observer takes the mean of the readings which
have been marked on the paper fast on knob l2;
matical connections of the lamp.
' thus he obtains the mean height of the star ‘in
Figure 14 is a partial sectional view along line tens of grades, grades and minutes.
50
ll-M ofFigure 4. ,7 >
V
The same series of measurementsfcan be made
Figure 15 is "a partial sectional view .ong line on a plurality of-diiferent stars.
' .
.
l5—l5 of Figured.
_
The air-level I is formed so that the diameter
-
Figure 16 is a partial sectional view along line
, lG-lii of Figure 15.
of the bubble is practically invariable whatever
the surrounding temperature may be. This prop- 55 '
2
2,108,480
erty o?ers a great advantage through facilitat
ing the measurements'and their‘ precision.
The level i is illuminated during the day by
10
15
20
25
2). Thus, the second socket 221 receives the‘
rays comingv from the lamp l5 along f3 and leads
them‘ along P (Fig. 12) toward the level I.
means of the device 2 which directs the rays of
The combination of both sockets 2|, 221 thus
light onto a prism 3 which re?ects them onto permits instantaneously to adapt the device to
the level.
_
‘
observations made with day-light or to observa
During the night, the device 2 is replaced by tions which are made during the night with an
an electric lamp l5 (Figure '21) which illuminates ~artificial light.
the level I through the medium of a mirror It
An electric lamp l5 placed in a socket 23 (Fig
and the prism 3.
ure 13) which is carried by a second socket 24 10
An operculum 4 is inserted in the way of the concentric with the ?rst socket between which
rays of light between the illumination device 2 sockets is inserted an insulating‘ material 25;
and the level I; said operculum 4 is provided both poles of lamp i5 are in electric contact
with holes 41 4a 43 (Figure 3) which determine with both concentric sockets 23, 24 either directly
the line of sight through materializing the diam
(in the case of socket 23) or by means of a rod 15
eter of the bubble. The operculum 4 is pivotally 23~(in the case of socket 24).
The outer socket 24 engages a blade spring 21
mounted on an axis l4 so as to be able either to
intersect the pencil of light which illuminates the which is insulated from the casing and thus sup
level I for the observation during the night, or, plies the current, while the inner socket 23 is in
on the contrary, to vanish and to free the pencil contact with the body through the medium of the 20
of light which illuminates the level during the ?xed socket 28 on which said socket 23 is adapt
day. The operation is made from the outside of ed; thus this inner socket 23 insures the comple
the casing by means of a handle I11 (see Figures tion of the circuit.
Through this arrangement any ?ying conduc
3 and 4).
Both positions of the operculum are shown, the tor for the connections is avoided, such a con 25
one in full lines and the other in broken lines in ductor being particularly troublesome in the use
Figure 3.
'
of devices of this kind.
.
Figure 4 and the following ?gures show the
In Figure 13 the battery 23 which supplies cur
material realization of 'the above mentioned rent to lamp I5 has been diagrammatically
30
scheme.
'-
'
All the parts of the device are carried by a
casing II which comprises two main chambers
separated by a partition I! (see Figures 4 to, '7).
The chamber I31 receives the parts of the group
35 A, that is to say the air-level l with its illuminat
ing device, the prism l3 and the operating mech
anism for the mirror ‘I.
~ The chamber l3’ receives the optical system of
bers I31, l3z (Fig. 6).
,The current supplied to lamp i5 is controlled
' by a rheostat 30 inserted between said lamp l5
and the battery 23 (Figures 4, 8, 9, 10, 13, and 14). ‘
Thus the image of the level I and the image
group B, that is to say the prism i4, the mirror
of the star can be caused to have the same
3, the object-glass 3 and the swinging mirror ‘I.
The auxiliary optical system formed of the
brightness, which facilitates the measuring op 40
prisms l3, I4 or of a double re?ecting prism de
viates the pencil of light in order to bring the
The mechanism comprising the worm l3 and
the toothed sector 9 (Figures 1 and 4) and con
same intoythe optical plane of sight 23 (Figure 6)
trolling the turning movement of mirror ‘I for
45 of the second chamber l3‘; thus the optical trans
fer from the ?rst chamber to the second chamber
is insured.
,
'
The illuminating device of the level I comprises
a mounting secured to casing l3 which mounting
50 in turn comprises:
'A ?xed socket 22 open at the outside of the cas
ing being seated in an opening provided in the
wall of the casing and open to the interior of said
casing through a window 22!.
,
'
55 I A tubular element 331 held by a collar 33' and
extending through the wall of casing II which is
provided with. a ?xed central socket 23.
A tubular element 333 connecting the socket 22
with the tubular element 531.
A ?rst removable socket -2l which carries
striated glass-plates 2i1 and 2|a which are in
clined with respect to the axis of the said socket.
The streaks of the glass pieces 2“ and 2|‘ act
as multiple prisms so that the rays which fall
onto the striated glass pieces 2F and 2|2 are re
?ected in a~parallel relation with the axis along
1' (Fig. 11) towards the level I. whatever the
incidence of the pencil of rays fa: (Figure 11)
may be.
70
'30
shownon the side of the said lamp l5.
In fact, this battery 29 is located in a third
chamber I33 of the casing l8, said chamber I33
being located on the side of said ?rst two cham
A second removable socket 221 (Figure 12) is
adapted to be substituted for‘ the said ?rst socket
2| for the illumination during the night; this
second socket 221 carries the mirror It which is
located above a. window 22 which receives the rays
75 of light supplied by the electric lamp it (Figure
erations.
'
-
bringing the latter in the desired direction is com 45
bined with a wear compensation device formed
of a spring 3! fast with a ?xed axis ‘I2 which
carries the toothed sector 3 (Figures; 15 and 17);
the spring 3| constantly'urges the worm ll along
1‘ towards the teeth of the toothed sector. These
various parts cooperate to insure the precision of
the measurements whatever the direction of the
operation may be.
'
_
On the other hand, the device for tracing the
mark corresponding to a measure is made in the 55
following manner:
_
A pencil or stylus 32 (Fig. 8) is pivotally mount
edonanaxis33 carriedbyabladespring 34 fast
with the casing II. A ball 35 pivotally connected
to the end of a lever 33 engages this stylus 32;
the lever 33, which is rockingly mounted on an
axis 31 fast with casing I3 is again pivotally
connected to theend of a rod 33 carryingamsh
button 33.
-
p
when this push button 33 is depressed along I‘
the stylus 32 swings along f' and traces a line on
the paper 43 carried by the knob l2; during this
swinging movement oi’ stylus 32 the blade spring
34 yields so that the pressure of the stylus on v
the paper 43 remains constant; thus a regular 70
line is obtained without the stylus 32 being like
ly to become damaged.
.
‘
The knob I2 is knurled along l21 in order to
rotate the worm l3 and thereby operate mirror ‘I.
The graduation of knob l2 moves-in front'of'a 75
3;
‘ 2,100,460
?xed index I!2 which is offset up to a known mounted on said casing and controlling said op
amount (one grade) with respect to the stylus.
tical device.
‘
'
2. In an optical apparatus for measuring angles
The illumination of knob i2 is insured by a
lamp ll (Figures 9 and 18) located'in an elon
gated casing 42 which comprises‘outer re?ectors
421 and 42‘; thus the lamp ll insures the si
multaneous ‘illumination of knob l2 and the
graduated drum ll fast with the movable mir
ror ‘I.
10
-
The above described device is completed by a
set of coloured screens 1431 43' 433 which can be
removed by a movement of rotation and which
are inserted between the eye 0 and the observed
star (sun), which permits of changing the char
15 acter or the intensity of the light which is re
ceived.
A number of modifications can be made in the
device which has been; described above by way
of example; more particularly the source of
20 energy can comprise, instead of a battery as ex
plained in the foregoing example, a ?exible con
ducting cable with a contact plug adapted to be
connected with an existing outer circuit.
Brie?y stated, the above described arrange
such as a sextant; a casing, an air level provided
in said casing, a mounting secured to said cas
ing and comprising a iixed socket and illuminat
ing tube for the night, a removable socket for
daylight adapted to be mounted in said ‘?xed
socket, inclined striated glass plates secured in
said removable socket, constituting multiple 10
prisms for collecting the luminous solar rays and
directing them to said air level, an optical device
mounted in said casing for receiving and direct
ing the image or the bubble of said air level, and
a control mechanism provided on said casing and 15
controlling said optical device.
3. In an optical apparatus for measuring angles
such as a sextant, a casing, an air level provided
in said casing, a mounting secured to said casing
and comprising a ?xed socket and illuminating 20
tube for the night, aremovable socket for night
illumination adapted to be mounted in said ?xed
socket and having a window provided in its wall,
an inclined mirror provided in said removable
25 ments permit of assembling in groups all-the ~ socket, an illuminating device for the night pro
parts in a single unit requiring a minimum of
space.
.
The said arrangements also facilitate the use of
the device, for all the controlling parts (knurled
30 knob i2, push button 39 of stylus 32,-buttons of
the illuminating devices, rheostat and the like)
are arranged immediately within reach of thev
?ngers oi the observer, which permits of an easy
use of the device without the observer having
to move his hands with which he holds the
device.
I claim:
»
1. In an optical device i'or measuring angles
such as a sextant: a casing, an air-level mounted
40 in said casing, a source of current mounted in
said ‘casing, electrical connection means carried
by said casing and comprising a socket electrical
ly connected with one of the poles of the source
vided in said illuminating tube for directing the
light rays onto said air level through said window
and said inclined mirror,~~a source of current pro
vided in said casing for supplying current to said
25
' illuminating device, an optical device provided in 30
said casing for receiving and directing the image
of the bubble of said air level, and a control
mechanism mounted in said casing for controlling
said optical device.
'
I
4. In an optical apparatus for measuring angles
such as a sextant, comprising a casing, an air
level provided in said casing, a mounting secured
to said casing and comprising a ?xed socket and
illuminating tube for the night, a removable
socket for night illumination adapted to be
mounted in said ?xed socket and having in its
wall a window,-an inclined mirror provided in‘
said'removable socket, an illuminating device for
of current and a blade spring attached to said the night provided in said illuminating tube for
‘directing the light rays onto said air level through
45
45 casing and insulated therefrom and electrically connected with the other pole of the source of said vwindow and by means of said mirror, a
current, an illuminating device for the night se - source of current provided in said casing supply
cured on casing,~said device comprising an elec-. ing current to said illuminating device, an oper
tric lamp connected with two concentric sockets culum having apertures pivoted on said casing
and adapted to be placed between said air level
50 insulated one from vanother, one of the said and said illuminating device, an optical device
sockets electrically engaging said ilrst mentioned
. socket, while the other socket engages said blade mounted insaid casing for receiving and direct
spring, said illuminating device illuminating said ing the image of the bubble of said air level, and
a control mechanism provided in said casing for
air-level, ‘an optical device mounted in said cas
55
ing receiving and directing the image 01' the bub
ble of said air-level, and a control
controlling said optical device.
'
ALBERT LEPETIT.
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