Патент USA US2106460код для вставки
Jan. 25, 153's; A.‘ LEPETIT 2,106,460 OPTICAL DEVICE ‘FOR MEASURING-‘ANGLES, SUCH AS SEXTANTSV ‘ f Filed March 13, 1937 4 She'ets-Sheet 1 ' Jan. 25; 1938. A. LE'PE‘TIT ' 2,106,460 - our“; DEVICE FOR mums-name mamas, suca AS- SEXTANTS med uarpn?ls, 1937 _ . 4 Sheets-LSheet 2? I "29-5 = 45, O K Jan. 25, 1938. ‘ y' A.‘ LEPETIT 2,106,460 ' OPTICAL DEVICE FOR MEASURING (ANGLES; SUCH AS SEXTANTS Filed March 13, 1937 ' 4 Sheets-Sheet a Jan. 25, 1938. -i ' A. LEPETIT 2,106,460 V OPTICAL DEVICE FOR MEASURING mews, 'S'UCHAS SEXTANTS ‘ ' ' ~ Filed March 1:5,.’ 193? £79.10.‘ " . 4 Sheets__-Sheet .4‘ 2,106,460 Patented ‘Jan. 25,‘ 1938 UNITED STATES (PATENT OFFICE ‘ 2.19am OPTICAL DEVICE FOR MEASURING ANGLES, _ . SUCH AS SEXTANTS. ‘ Albert Lepetit, Montronge, France Application March 13, 1937, Serial No. 180,653 In France March 16, 1938 4 Galina. (Cl. 88-2.!) This invention has for its object improvements in and relating to optical devices for measuring _ angles, such as sextants. The purpose of the improvements according to 5 the invention is more particularly to increase the precision of optical devices adapted, in a general manner, for measuring angles, and to facilitate the use of the same. ‘ A ?rst object of the invention is to combine all 10 the parts of the device in a unit requiring a minimum of space. ' Another object of the invention is to arrange all Figure 17 is a side view along line i‘I--| ‘I of Figure 16, and ' Figure 18 is a partial sectional view along line lU-IO of Figure 8. * . The optical device shown in the accompanying 5 drawings comprises two main groups of parts (Figure 1) which are located-in two chambers designated A and B. Said chambers are pro vided in'the same casing and separated from another by the partition l9. ' 10 The group in chamber A comprises the air-level i and its illuminating device L-I-l-S as‘well the controlling parts of the device in order that as the operating mechanism for the mirror. . they may be located immediately within reach of The group in chamber B comprises the optical 16 the ?ngers of the operator. system which permits of bringing the image of 15 A device permitting of attaining the preceding the observed star to coincide with the image of objects comprises the features which appear from the bubble of the air-level. This optical system the following description as well as from the‘ap comprises two mirrors 6-1 and an object-glass 8; pended claims. _ > ‘ for this purpose the second mirror 1 comprises. m A preferred embodiment of the invention is _a mechanism formed of a toothed sector 9 and 20 ' shown by way of example in the accompanying a worm III, the toothed sector 9 being fast on drawings, in which the rotation axis 11 of the mirror ‘I. A drum II, Figure ,1 is an optical diagram of the whole which is graduated in tens of grades and a knob unit. " Figure 2 is a-partial opticaldiagram showing the arti?cial illumination of the level. - Lastly, an intermediate optical system formed, > _ Figure 3 is a partial sectional view along line -3—-3 of Figure l. . Figure 4 is a side view of the device, with the '0 casing removed’, showingi~ the chamber which contains the level and the operating mechanism ' for the main mirror. Figure 5 is another side view (with the casing a movable mirror. ‘ The use of this device is as follows: _ . line 6-6 of Figure 4. _ Figure 7 is a partial sectional view along line 'I-JI of Figure 6. observes the star whichis, for instance, in the direction f1. At the same time he turns the mir ' ror' ‘I by means of the mechanism 9, l0, 12 so that 35 Figure 6 is a partial cross sectional view along 45 for instance, of two total re?ecting prisms l3, It or of- a single double re?ecting prism, permits or causing the rays of light in the group of chamber A to pass into the group of chamber B. 30. The observer places his eye at O in Fig. 1 and . < removed) showing the optical system with the ‘0 II, which is graduated in grades and minutes,_ permit of measuring the rotation of the mirror ‘I. 25. ' - the image of the bubble of the level‘, which is successively re?ected by the prisms l3 and “and the mirrors 8 and l coincides with the image of the star. Figure 8 is an outer side view with broken parts, . ' _ showing more particularly the tracing device. The observer repeats this observation several times for one and the same star; each time ,he Figures 9 and 10 are a front elevational view and a rear elevational view respectively of the makes an observation he traces a mark on a paper whole device. _ knob l2 and he reads the graduation of the drum . . a Figures 11 and 12 are two axial sectional views of the illuminating devices for the le‘ , ; g - . Figure 13 is another axial sectional view of one of the illuminating devices, showing the diagram 0 or celluloid sheet which is fast on the graduated ll. ' > ' After he has made these various observations, the observer takes the mean of the readings which have been marked on the paper fast on knob l2; matical connections of the lamp. ' thus he obtains the mean height of the star ‘in Figure 14 is a partial sectional view along line tens of grades, grades and minutes. 50 ll-M ofFigure 4. ,7 > V The same series of measurementsfcan be made Figure 15 is "a partial sectional view .ong line on a plurality of-diiferent stars. ' . . l5—l5 of Figured. _ The air-level I is formed so that the diameter - Figure 16 is a partial sectional view along line , lG-lii of Figure 15. of the bubble is practically invariable whatever the surrounding temperature may be. This prop- 55 ' 2 2,108,480 erty o?ers a great advantage through facilitat ing the measurements'and their‘ precision. The level i is illuminated during the day by 10 15 20 25 2). Thus, the second socket 221 receives the‘ rays comingv from the lamp l5 along f3 and leads them‘ along P (Fig. 12) toward the level I. means of the device 2 which directs the rays of The combination of both sockets 2|, 221 thus light onto a prism 3 which re?ects them onto permits instantaneously to adapt the device to the level. _ ‘ observations made with day-light or to observa During the night, the device 2 is replaced by tions which are made during the night with an an electric lamp l5 (Figure '21) which illuminates ~artificial light. the level I through the medium of a mirror It An electric lamp l5 placed in a socket 23 (Fig and the prism 3. ure 13) which is carried by a second socket 24 10 An operculum 4 is inserted in the way of the concentric with the ?rst socket between which rays of light between the illumination device 2 sockets is inserted an insulating‘ material 25; and the level I; said operculum 4 is provided both poles of lamp i5 are in electric contact with holes 41 4a 43 (Figure 3) which determine with both concentric sockets 23, 24 either directly the line of sight through materializing the diam (in the case of socket 23) or by means of a rod 15 eter of the bubble. The operculum 4 is pivotally 23~(in the case of socket 24). The outer socket 24 engages a blade spring 21 mounted on an axis l4 so as to be able either to intersect the pencil of light which illuminates the which is insulated from the casing and thus sup level I for the observation during the night, or, plies the current, while the inner socket 23 is in on the contrary, to vanish and to free the pencil contact with the body through the medium of the 20 of light which illuminates the level during the ?xed socket 28 on which said socket 23 is adapt day. The operation is made from the outside of ed; thus this inner socket 23 insures the comple the casing by means of a handle I11 (see Figures tion of the circuit. Through this arrangement any ?ying conduc 3 and 4). Both positions of the operculum are shown, the tor for the connections is avoided, such a con 25 one in full lines and the other in broken lines in ductor being particularly troublesome in the use Figure 3. ' of devices of this kind. . Figure 4 and the following ?gures show the In Figure 13 the battery 23 which supplies cur material realization of 'the above mentioned rent to lamp I5 has been diagrammatically 30 scheme. '- ' All the parts of the device are carried by a casing II which comprises two main chambers separated by a partition I! (see Figures 4 to, '7). The chamber I31 receives the parts of the group 35 A, that is to say the air-level l with its illuminat ing device, the prism l3 and the operating mech anism for the mirror ‘I. ~ The chamber l3’ receives the optical system of bers I31, l3z (Fig. 6). ,The current supplied to lamp i5 is controlled ' by a rheostat 30 inserted between said lamp l5 and the battery 23 (Figures 4, 8, 9, 10, 13, and 14). ‘ Thus the image of the level I and the image group B, that is to say the prism i4, the mirror of the star can be caused to have the same 3, the object-glass 3 and the swinging mirror ‘I. The auxiliary optical system formed of the brightness, which facilitates the measuring op 40 prisms l3, I4 or of a double re?ecting prism de viates the pencil of light in order to bring the The mechanism comprising the worm l3 and the toothed sector 9 (Figures 1 and 4) and con same intoythe optical plane of sight 23 (Figure 6) trolling the turning movement of mirror ‘I for 45 of the second chamber l3‘; thus the optical trans fer from the ?rst chamber to the second chamber is insured. , ' The illuminating device of the level I comprises a mounting secured to casing l3 which mounting 50 in turn comprises: 'A ?xed socket 22 open at the outside of the cas ing being seated in an opening provided in the wall of the casing and open to the interior of said casing through a window 22!. , ' 55 I A tubular element 331 held by a collar 33' and extending through the wall of casing II which is provided with. a ?xed central socket 23. A tubular element 333 connecting the socket 22 with the tubular element 531. A ?rst removable socket -2l which carries striated glass-plates 2i1 and 2|a which are in clined with respect to the axis of the said socket. The streaks of the glass pieces 2“ and 2|‘ act as multiple prisms so that the rays which fall onto the striated glass pieces 2F and 2|2 are re ?ected in a~parallel relation with the axis along 1' (Fig. 11) towards the level I. whatever the incidence of the pencil of rays fa: (Figure 11) may be. 70 '30 shownon the side of the said lamp l5. In fact, this battery 29 is located in a third chamber I33 of the casing l8, said chamber I33 being located on the side of said ?rst two cham A second removable socket 221 (Figure 12) is adapted to be substituted for‘ the said ?rst socket 2| for the illumination during the night; this second socket 221 carries the mirror It which is located above a. window 22 which receives the rays 75 of light supplied by the electric lamp it (Figure erations. ' - bringing the latter in the desired direction is com 45 bined with a wear compensation device formed of a spring 3! fast with a ?xed axis ‘I2 which carries the toothed sector 3 (Figures; 15 and 17); the spring 3| constantly'urges the worm ll along 1‘ towards the teeth of the toothed sector. These various parts cooperate to insure the precision of the measurements whatever the direction of the operation may be. ' _ On the other hand, the device for tracing the mark corresponding to a measure is made in the 55 following manner: _ A pencil or stylus 32 (Fig. 8) is pivotally mount edonanaxis33 carriedbyabladespring 34 fast with the casing II. A ball 35 pivotally connected to the end of a lever 33 engages this stylus 32; the lever 33, which is rockingly mounted on an axis 31 fast with casing I3 is again pivotally connected to theend of a rod 33 carryingamsh button 33. - p when this push button 33 is depressed along I‘ the stylus 32 swings along f' and traces a line on the paper 43 carried by the knob l2; during this swinging movement oi’ stylus 32 the blade spring 34 yields so that the pressure of the stylus on v the paper 43 remains constant; thus a regular 70 line is obtained without the stylus 32 being like ly to become damaged. . ‘ The knob I2 is knurled along l21 in order to rotate the worm l3 and thereby operate mirror ‘I. The graduation of knob l2 moves-in front'of'a 75 3; ‘ 2,100,460 ?xed index I!2 which is offset up to a known mounted on said casing and controlling said op amount (one grade) with respect to the stylus. tical device. ‘ ' 2. In an optical apparatus for measuring angles The illumination of knob i2 is insured by a lamp ll (Figures 9 and 18) located'in an elon gated casing 42 which comprises‘outer re?ectors 421 and 42‘; thus the lamp ll insures the si multaneous ‘illumination of knob l2 and the graduated drum ll fast with the movable mir ror ‘I. 10 - The above described device is completed by a set of coloured screens 1431 43' 433 which can be removed by a movement of rotation and which are inserted between the eye 0 and the observed star (sun), which permits of changing the char 15 acter or the intensity of the light which is re ceived. A number of modifications can be made in the device which has been; described above by way of example; more particularly the source of 20 energy can comprise, instead of a battery as ex plained in the foregoing example, a ?exible con ducting cable with a contact plug adapted to be connected with an existing outer circuit. Brie?y stated, the above described arrange such as a sextant; a casing, an air level provided in said casing, a mounting secured to said cas ing and comprising a iixed socket and illuminat ing tube for the night, a removable socket for daylight adapted to be mounted in said ‘?xed socket, inclined striated glass plates secured in said removable socket, constituting multiple 10 prisms for collecting the luminous solar rays and directing them to said air level, an optical device mounted in said casing for receiving and direct ing the image or the bubble of said air level, and a control mechanism provided on said casing and 15 controlling said optical device. 3. In an optical apparatus for measuring angles such as a sextant, a casing, an air level provided in said casing, a mounting secured to said casing and comprising a ?xed socket and illuminating 20 tube for the night, aremovable socket for night illumination adapted to be mounted in said ?xed socket and having a window provided in its wall, an inclined mirror provided in said removable 25 ments permit of assembling in groups all-the ~ socket, an illuminating device for the night pro parts in a single unit requiring a minimum of space. . The said arrangements also facilitate the use of the device, for all the controlling parts (knurled 30 knob i2, push button 39 of stylus 32,-buttons of the illuminating devices, rheostat and the like) are arranged immediately within reach of thev ?ngers oi the observer, which permits of an easy use of the device without the observer having to move his hands with which he holds the device. I claim: » 1. In an optical device i'or measuring angles such as a sextant: a casing, an air-level mounted 40 in said casing, a source of current mounted in said ‘casing, electrical connection means carried by said casing and comprising a socket electrical ly connected with one of the poles of the source vided in said illuminating tube for directing the light rays onto said air level through said window and said inclined mirror,~~a source of current pro vided in said casing for supplying current to said 25 ' illuminating device, an optical device provided in 30 said casing for receiving and directing the image of the bubble of said air level, and a control mechanism mounted in said casing for controlling said optical device. ' I 4. In an optical apparatus for measuring angles such as a sextant, comprising a casing, an air level provided in said casing, a mounting secured to said casing and comprising a ?xed socket and illuminating tube for the night, a removable socket for night illumination adapted to be mounted in said ?xed socket and having in its wall a window,-an inclined mirror provided in‘ said'removable socket, an illuminating device for of current and a blade spring attached to said the night provided in said illuminating tube for ‘directing the light rays onto said air level through 45 45 casing and insulated therefrom and electrically connected with the other pole of the source of said vwindow and by means of said mirror, a current, an illuminating device for the night se - source of current provided in said casing supply cured on casing,~said device comprising an elec-. ing current to said illuminating device, an oper tric lamp connected with two concentric sockets culum having apertures pivoted on said casing and adapted to be placed between said air level 50 insulated one from vanother, one of the said and said illuminating device, an optical device sockets electrically engaging said ilrst mentioned . socket, while the other socket engages said blade mounted insaid casing for receiving and direct spring, said illuminating device illuminating said ing the image of the bubble of said air level, and a control mechanism provided in said casing for air-level, ‘an optical device mounted in said cas 55 ing receiving and directing the image 01' the bub ble of said air-level, and a control controlling said optical device. ' ALBERT LEPETIT.