Патент USA US2106488код для вставки
Jan. 25, 1938. J. C. MQCUNE 2,106,488 _ COMPRESSOR Filed Feb. 24, 1934 Noi 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Jan. 25, 193s. '~ Jg;> MCCUNE. COMPRESSOR.' Filed Feb. 24, 1934 Tg2. ' 73. . >2,106,488- - " *4 sheets-sheet 2 288 IINVENTORV JOSEPH o. Mc @UNE A TTORNE Jam 2‘5, 1193s. J_ C, MCCUNE 2,106,488 COMPRESSOR Fiìed Feb. 24, 1934 , 4 sheets-‘sheet s 3E. ’ l 0 36 32 22 36 ‘ " _ ’ ' ATTORNEY Jan. 25, 1938. J. C. MCCUNE 2,106,488 » COMPRES SOR Filed Feb. 24, 1954 8 4 Shee‘lZs-Shee?I 4 „__ 28 IIE ~3O 2@ 40 II / q@ INVENTOR JOSEPH C. Mc CUNE ATTORNEY _ Patented Jan. 2li,- 1938 2,106,488 ‘ UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,106,488 COMPRESSOR Joseph C. McCune, Edgewood, Pa., assigner to The Westinghouse Air BrakeCompany, Wil merding, Pa., a-corporation of Pennsylvania Appiièation February 24, 1934, serial No. 712,731 (cl. 23o-211)" My invention relates to fluid compressors and ' particularly to electric motor driven compressors of the multi-cylinder type. accompanying drawings, wherein _It is an object of my invention to provide a 5 compact and relatively light weight multi-cylin der compressor. quently are attained by means of the compressor unit hereinafter described and illustrated in the ' tures of the invention; Another' object is to provide a self-contained motor driven iluid compressor unit _wherein a sectional casing constituting the housing for the 10 compressor, the motor, and a fan may be readily formed and assembled into a compact unit oc cupying a minimum of space. Another object of my invention is to provide an improved fluid compressor casing adapted to 15 form a crank case chamber, a cooling chamber or passage,~a discharge chamber or passage, and an intake chamber or passage within the casing. Another object is to provide a compressor. unit wherein iluid to be compressed may be supplied g() to the compressor cylinders under pressure from the cooling chamber oi the compressor or from anexternal source. - Another object is to provide a highly efficient ñuid compressor capable of operating at high ‘_¿5 speeds which I, in part, accomplish by radially _ _ _ Fig. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view, partly in elevation, of a compressor unit embodying fea- 5 » Y Fig. 2 is a transverse sectional view through the unit taken on the line 2--2 of Fig. 1; ^ ` Fig. 3 is a fragmental sectional view of a detail, »_ taken on the line 3-3 of Fig. 2; ' 10 Fig. 4 is av transverse sectionalview ol' the unit taken on the line 4_4 of Fig.` 1, with- a portion broken away; Fig. 5 is atransverse sectional view of the unit~ taken on the line 5-5 of Fig. l; ` 415 Fig. 6 is a' transverse sectional view of the unit taken on the line 6-6 of Fig. 1; Fig.`7 is a iragmental sectional view through a compressor cylinder, taken on the line 'l-'l of Fig. 1; - - 20 Fig. 8 is a top plan view of a fragment of the 1 unit showing a compressor cylinder and head; Fig; »9 is a fragmental vertical sectional _view of a cylinder and headshowing an improved form of discharge valve device; - disposing thecompressor cylinders a'ndby pro Fig. .10 is an -enlarged».«isometric view .of the viding ñuidinlets for the compressor -cylinders,- spring retainer of the discharge valve shown in which inlets are controlled by the corresponding ' Fig. 9; fluid compressing pistons inthe respective cyl 3i, inders. - Fig. 11 is a i‘ragmental sectional View of the plunger pump of the lubricating system; and Another object is to provide an improved com pressor unit having a casing for a radial cylinder type compressor, a fan, and a driving motor, in which the cooling air for the motor and the com ;-.-, pressor enters one end of the casing> axially, passes the motor, and discharges past' the com 25 ~ _ 30 Fig. -12 is a transverse sectional view of-'the plunger pump, taken on the line I2--I2 of Fig. 11_.' Referring to the drawings and particularly to Figs. 1 to 6, the compressor unit comprises acas ing or housing made of metal section comprising 35 a fan housing section I2 including a part of the pressor cylinders through radial openings at the motor housing or casing, motor casing sections ~ other end of the casing, which openings respec-' I3 and I4 and a compressor casing section I5 tively cooperate with the compressor cylinders. «which contains a suitable number of radially dis qu Another object is to provide a compressor unit, posed compressor cylinders IB such as the three 40 having above noted characteristics, with improved show_n, crank arms of the compressorand the means for separating foreign particles from the lubricant circulating system for the compressor. cooling air before the cooling air contacts motor According to my invention, the compressor cas and compressorparts. ing I5 is divided by partitionwalls 2|.an‘d 22 i‘nto 4.'. A. further object is to `provide a compressor a crank chamber I'I, a cooling chamber lßthrough 45 wherein an improved plunger pump serves to which cooling air is circulated in a manner toA circulate iiuid lubricant in the lubricating system _ be _hereinafter described, and a compressed air for the moving parts. ‘ discharge chamber I9. The wally 2| has three- An additional object is to provide a compressor radially disposed cylinder portions 23, as'shown wherein is employed an improved discharge valve _ in Figs. 1 and 5 in which the compression cylin-~ 50“ device which may be assembled as a unit and re- ` lciers I6 are respectively mounted so that an an moved from the compressor as a unit f'or the pur-Y nular inlet chamber 20 for the fair to be com- ' pose of inspection, repair or replacement. ; pressed is formed between each of the cylinders The above objects and other additional objects I6 and the wall- portion 23. Furthermore, the 1.1 _ of my invention that will be made apparent lubse- - cylinders are suitably adapted to be removable ,f recess 45 in the head casing32 when the head is in assembled position upon the cylinder I5. The spring retainer 41 is provided at its other poses of repair or replacement. The annular inlet chamber 2li surrounding each end with a portion 5I having an inwardly directed compression fcylinder I6 communicates with an flange 52 that is provided with a slot 55 of such UI arcuate inlet chamber 24, as shown in_Figs. 1 shape that it permits o! the assembly of the spring and 4, through passages 215, the inlet chamber 24 y retainer upon the valve seat disc 4I by a _lateral being formed in the casing section I4, ythe upper movement with respect to the disc, the head 45> portion of the chamber being connected to an of the stem 45 serving to limit the longitudinal inlet pipe 30 which is open to the atmosphere. displacement of the spring'retainer 41 with re 10 The wall 25 of the casing section I4 is provided . spect to the disc 4I when the head casing 32 is with threaded openings 21 for receiving threaded removed from the cylinder casing I5. A helicalk plugs 28 which may be removed in the event that spring 53 is disposed concentrically around the it is desired to supply air to the inlet chamber 24 spring retainerA 41 and extends between the flange 15 through the openings 21 from the motor chamber 45 of the latterj'and the valve disc 44 to yieldingly retain the valve disc upon the seat disc whereby II for a purpose to be hereinafter described. the discharge ports 4,3 are closed. The ñuid com 'I‘he upper end of each of the compression cyl pressed within the compression chamber of the inders I5 is provided with longitudinally ex tending vanes 29, as shown in Figs. 1, ’1; and 8, cylinder I5 passes into the discharge chamber 20 which project radially from the cylinder wall 33 in the head casing 32 when the pressure of 20 within the radial air discharge passages 3i in the the fluid compressed therein is sumcient to over casing section I5, so that the air forced through come the combined pressure of the ñuid within the motor chamber II into the cooling air cham-` the discharge chamber 33` and that exerted by ber I8 is caused to flow past the cooling vanes 29 the spring 53 which opposes opening movement from the wall portions 23, as shown in Figs. 1 and 5, by being lifted radially outward, for pur for the purpose of maintaining the cylinders and , of the valve disc 44. l From the foregoing, it is apparent that’ the discharge valve assembly consists .of the seat disc ture. ` 4I, the valve disc 44, the spring retainer 41 and The upper end of each of the compression cyl inders I5 is closed by- means of a head casing 32, the spring 53, which elements are retained in as shown in Figs. 1, 5, and 9, which is suitably assembled position by reason of the engagement 30 secured to the casing- ,IW as by machine screws of the enlarged head 45 with the flange 52 of the spring retainer. To assemble the discharge or bolts, and which serves to secure the cylin ders I6 to the wall portions 23. Each of the valve unit upon the cylinder casing I5, the valve `head casings 32 is provided with a discharge disc seat 4I is ñrstplaced in the recess 42.- A chamber 33 containing a discharge valve device gasket 54 is then placed over the valve seat disc 35 4I and the head casing 32 is next placed over ‘to be hereinafter described, the discharge cham the spring retainer 41 so that the flange 45 enters ber 33 being connected to the discharge cham the recess 49, as indicated in Fig. 9. when the ber I9 in the casing section I5 by means of pas sages 434 which register 'with openings 35 in the head casing 32 is forced into engagement with the end of the wall of cylinder I 5 by means of the 40 discharge chamber I9. ' The discharge chamber. head bolts 55, the spring 53 is compressed and 40 I9' is adapted to be connected to a receiver, not shown, by a discharge pipe 36, Figs. 5 and 6, one the parts occupy the position shown in Fig. 9. side of the discharge chamber being provided Opening travel of the valve disc 44 is limited by engagement of the disc with the flange v52 of the with 'a threaded opening 31 for -receiving a dis associated parts at the proper operating tempera spring retainer 41. ~ 45 charge pipe in the event that it is desired to .con- ' When it is desired to inspect or repair the dis nect the discharge pipe tothe opposite side of the compressor. vAs indicated in Fig, 5 the threaded opening 31 is closed by means of a screw plug 35. ' . l . The head casing 32 is provided with radial cool ing ñns 39 spaced apart so that air passages 40, Figs. ’I andß, are provided between them through which air passing to the atmosphere from the radial passages 3|, flows, thereby carrying away 65 the heat conducted tothe head from the asso ciated parts of the mechanism. charge valve, the head casing 32 is first removed after which the discharge -valve unit may be readily removed as a unit. ThevcompressorY unit herein@ disclosed is of the multi-cylinder type comprising, for example, three compression cylinders. each of which con- tains a' piston 55 operated by the usual connecting rod 51 that is connected by meari's of anti-friction bearings 58 to a crank arm 55 carried on the end of a crank shaft 5I. The crank shaft is mounted Alfeature 'of the improved compressor appa-l for rotation in_„antifricticn bearings `52 and 53, ratus is the discharge valve device which, as will ' secured'within the casing sections I4 and' l12, re- u I hereinafter appear, is a self-contained unit which spectively, and is provided with a counter-weight may be assembled in the mechanism as a unit and 54 for counterbalancing the crank arm 55 and its associated moving parts. As will be clearly seen withdrawn therefrom for the purpose of inspec in Fig. 1, the motor armature 55 is secured to tion and repair as a unit. Referring to Figs. 9 and 10 the ‘discharge valve shaft 5I between the bearings 52 and 53, and device includes a valve seat disc 4I that is adapt ed to~be seated in an annular recess 42 in the the rotative impulse is thus applied to the shaft outer face of the compression cylinder I6 and which is provided with a series of discharge ports 43 that are adapted to be closed by an annular The motor armature and ltsmassociated parts, 1 valve disc 44. Disc 44 is; mounted for sliding en 70 gagement upon a central stem 45 which is inte gral ’with the valve seat disc 4I and which is provided at its end with an enlarged head 45 for a purpose that will hereinafter appear. A tubular spring retainer 41 is provided, having a flange 75 45 that is adapted to be centered in a circular bythe motor. ' ' as well as the compressor cylinders I5 are adapted to be cooled by air drawn into the casing sections through an end opening 55 in the casing section I2. A protection screen 51 is provided to cover the opening 55 and a conicai inlet collar 55 which is secured to the casing section I2 with the screen, serves to direct air into the central- portion of a `centrifugal fan 55. The ian 55 is of the centrifugal blower type, in 6.1 2,106,488 which a series of spaced arcuate vanes 1| are ar ranged about the periphery of the disc-like body 12 as indicated in Figs. 1 and 2 so that when the fan is rotated by the motor in a >clockwise direc tion in Fig. 2, the air drawn through the screen 61 and inlet collar 68 leading to the central por tion of the fan is discharged radially- and in the direction of rotation of the ian so that the air discharged from the fan is given a gyratory mo tion within the`fan chamber 13. The Wall of the fan chamber casing section |2 is formed in the shape of a spiral, with an inner extension 14 ‘ 3 for closing a port 99 in the lower end ,of the plunger. A pin |00 is provided which extends transversely through the plunger a short distance from the valve member 98 for vthe purpose of limiting the extent of movement thereof with re spect to port 99. ' ì . The plunger 95 is journaled at its upper end upon a crank pin- |0|, Fig. 1, that is carried upon ihe crank arm 59 and which is'eccentric to the axis of rotation of the crank shaft 6| so that as the crank shaft 8| is rotated, the plunger 95 is reciprocated. The.l passage 91 in the plunger is thereof terminating at a point 15 adjacent the connected to the passage 81 in the crank arm 59 periphery of the fan, so that a discharge chan and crank- pin |0|, so that fluid lubricant which is forced into the passage 91 in the plunger, flows -to the bearings through the passages 81 and 88, the lubricant passing the bearings and the choke L', nel 16 i's defined by the extension 14, which chan nel expands spirally in cross-sectional area to a point opposite the point_15 at the extremity of the extension 14. From a point opposite the point 15, the channel defined by the outer face of passage |02 in the crank arm 59 after which it flows into the crank chamber |1 from whence it the extension 14 and the outer wallof the casing may reàurn to the chamber. 92 in the piston 9|. 20 The lower end of the plunger, that is, the en larged head thereof, is provided with a substan tially spherical surface |03l which is adapted to position to close the opening 'l1 by4 a spring 19 engage the inner conical end surface |04 of the under the control of a latch member 8| which is piston 9| so as to make sealing engagement there -pivot-ally connected to the casing i2 and which with on the downstroke of the plunger and main , engages the spring 19 so that when the latch tain such sealing engagement regardless of angu member 8| is in the position shown, the spring lar movement of the plunger 95 with respect lo is retained in closure closing position. ` the piston 9|. The enlarged head 96 is loosely The partition wall 82 of the casing section I2, connected to the piston 9| by means of a bushing which constitutes one of the walls of the chan- ` |08 having a conical end surface |09 flaring nel 16, is provided with an opening 83 in a part downwardly toward thehead 96, the bushing be- ' thereof between the wall 14 and the outer wall ing supported on an interìorly extending shoulder of the casing section l2, through which opening ||0 in the wall of pis‘on 9|, and secured thereon the air discharged from the fan within the -fan by bending orfpeening over the end of the piston chamber may flow tothe motor chamber ||. A wall. ` screen 84 that is removably connected to the cas When the plunger -95 is raised from the position ing section l2 by means of the screws 85,~ is pro shown in Fig. 11, it moves a short distance before vided for covering opening 83. The lower ex the enlarged head 96 strikes the -conical surface tremity of the passage 16 adjacent the opening |09 of the bushing |08, and thereby is effected 11 constitutes a trap for receiving foreign p_ar the lost motion or loose connection between the ticles carried into the- fan chamber in suspension plunger 95 and the piston 9|, above referred to.` in the air, the wall 14 being provided with a Upon the upward stroke of the piston plunger section I2, diminishes in cross-sectional area un til it reaches an opening 11. A hinged cap or cover 18 is yieldingly held in a downwardly depending web 88 for preventing 95, the spherical 4surface of the enlarged head96 f such a back flow of air from the trap as would . manually opening the cover 18 against the action is separated from the conical surface |04 of thc piston 9| so that as the pisîzonl 9| is moved up wardly by the plunger, oil or lubricant ñuid may flow through the opening 93 in the piston past the enlarged head 96 of the plunger` and through of the spring 19. A further feature of the improved compressor mechanism is an vimproved pump for circulating the ball check` valve member 98 at such time re~ maining seated so that it closes the port 99 in the carry the foreign particles out ofA the trap. Ac cumulations of foreign particles within the trap may be removed through the opening 11 4by fluid lubricant so that the lubricant is forced through a passage 81 into the crank arm 59 from which it ñows to the bearings 58 for the connect ing rods through passages 88. Referring to Figs. 1, 11 and 12, the pump mechanism comprises a member forming a compression chamber 89, re movably secured to casing section i5, and a pump 00 piston 9| which is adapted to reciprocate within the chamber 89. The piston 9| is provided with the port 94 into the compression chamber 89, lower end of the plunger. ' Upon the downward stroke of the plunger, the spherical surface |03 ' initially moves into sealing engagement with fr Ll the conical surface |04 of the piston, thereby pre venting any passage of fluid lubricant from the compression chamber -89 into the chamber 92 in the piston and transmitting a downward force to move the piston 9| downwardly. As the piston (30 is movedY downwardly by the plunger 95, it exerts a valve chamber 92 that is open to the crank > a compressive force on thefiuid lubricant within chamber |1 through an opening 93 through . the chamber 89 and causes the fluid to pass which fluidl lubricant in the crank chamber |1 may flow into the valve chamber 92 of the piston through thel ports 94 and 99', past the check valve a longitudinal passage 91 extending therethrough ball member 9_8 into the passage 91, and thence to the bearings through the passage 81. Upon the subsequent upward stroke of the plunger 95, the ball member 98 seats and thereby closes thc port 99, thus preventing the fluid in the passage `91 from fic-wing therefrom back into chamber 89 through the passage 99. As previously stated, during the upward stroke of the plunger 95, the spherical surface of the head _96 separates from the conical surface-|04 of the piston, and fiu‘d in which a ball check valve member 98 is disposed lubricant flows into the chamber 92 of the pis 75 9|. The piston is' provided at its lower end with a port or opening 94<through which fluid flows from the chamber 92 into the compression cham ber 89. A reciprocating plunger 95 for moving piston 9| is provided with an enlarged head 9S which is adapted to reciprocate through a short distance within the chamber- 92, as will be herc inafter further explained, the plunger also having 4 2, 100,488 fluid under pressure from the cooling chamber of thence through the port 94 in the lower end of the piston into the chamber 89 from whence it is discharged into the 'passage 91 in the plunger upon the subsequent downward stroke of the the compressor to be supplied to the compression cylinders of the compressor, while also providing optionally for the supply of ñuid at atmospheric or other pressure to the compression cylinders plunger. from an external source. . By -reason of the pump construction just de scribed, wherein a free passage is provided for the flow of iluid ‘into the compression chamber under a gravitational head, the compression chamber 89 is completely ñlled during every cycle of operation of the pump, regardless of the speed of operation of the plunger. Consequently re 15 gardless of the speedof operation of the com pressor, the bearings for the connecting rods are lubricated properly, thus prolonging the life of the compressor. i _ L In the operation of the compressor, the rota tion of the fan 69 within the fan chamber 13 causes air to be drawn into the fan chamber in the manner described- and forced through the screened opening 83 in the partition wall'82 into the motor chamber || containing the motor 25 armature 6,5. The large volume of air forced past the motor armature and its associated stator winding maintains the motor at the proper oper ating temperature. Subsequently the air passes from the motor chamber || into the cooling 30 chamber I8 through the openings |05 in the end _ wall 26 of the casing section |4, around the - It will also be seen that there has been dis closed an improved compressor of the radial cyl inder type in which the fluid inlets for the re spective compressor cylinders are controlled by the compressor pistons operating in the cylinders. It will also be seen, furthermore, that there has been disclosed a compressor wherein is pro vided an improved plunger pump for circulating ñuid lubricant for the moving parts of the com pressor, and wherein is provided an improved dis charge valve device capable of assembly and dis assembly as a unit. ~ It will be seen, lastly, that there has been dis 20 closed a compressor unit provided withan im proved means for cleaning the cooling fluid there for. ’ While but one embodiment of my invention is herein disclosed, it is obvious that omissions. 25 additions, and other changes may be made in the construction without departing from the spirit of » the invention. l . Having now- described my invention, what I vclaim as new and desire to secure by Letters 30 Patent, is: « cylinders` I6, and is discharged to the atmos phere through the respective radial passages 3|, past the iins 29 and 39 on the cylinders I6 and the head casings 32, thus carrying away the heat -cylinder, controlled by the movement of said 35 generated during the compressing operation of piston, a iluid inlet passage providing an inde 1. A iluid compressor comprising a casing, a cylinder mounted in said casing, a piston oper able in said cylinder, a fluid inlet port in said the compressor. pendent connection with the atmosphere for” said . Air for _compression is drawn into inlet cham inlet port, means providing a cooling chamber for said cylinder, means providing a communi cation between saidv inlet passage and said cooling 40 ber 24 of the compressor unit through the inlet 40 pipe 30 which is connected thereto, and thence it passes to the inlet chamber 20 surrounding each of the`piston cylinders i6 through corre sponding passages 25, the air entering the com pression chambers |06 above the various pistons 56 through a plurality of peripheral ports' |01 in the wall of each cylinder I6 when the corre sponding piston is at the bottom of its stroke. l , Upon the upward stroke of each of the pistons, Íthe ports |01 are ñrst closed and then the 50 trapped air is forced past the discharge valve device, Ypreviously described, into the associated discharge chamber 33, and is dischargedy to the receiver pipe 36 through passage 34 and discharge chamber 55 arrangement. land which is adapted to permit ton due to the gravitational force or pressure head of the fluid lubricant within the crank case, I9. . ' , In the event that it is desired to force air into the compression chambers under pressure, the inlet pipe 30 is closed in vany suitable manner chamber whereby iluid supplied to said cooling chamber may also be supplied td said inlet pas sage, and means for closing the communication between said inletV passage and said cooling chamber. ' ' 2. A fluid compressor comprising a casing, va plurality of radially disposed compressor cylin ders mounted on said casing, a piston for each of said cylinders operable respectively therein, a“ fluid inlet passage for each'of said cylinders con trolled by the movement of the piston in the corresponding cylinder, means providing a pas sage connecting said inlet passages and having a connection to the'atmosphere, means provid ing a cooling chamber for said cylinders and hav 55 ing a connection between said cooling-chamber and said connecting passage whereby fluid sup and the plugs 28 are removed from their respec- Ü plied to said cooling chamber may also be sup tive threaded openings 2T, thereby permitting - plied to said connecting passage, and means for air under pressure to ilow 'from the »motor cham 60 closing said last connection. ber |I into the inlet chambery 24 through the 3. A iluid compressor comprising a casing, a threaded openings 21 and from thence through the ports |01 in the cylinders I6 to the com pression chamber above the piston. The man 65 ner of supplying air to the compression cham bers of the compressor is therefore, optional. vIt will,',therefore, be seen that an improved, compact and 4self-contained fluid compressor unit has been disclosed wherein is provided an improved sectional casing which serves in direct ing the iiow of cooling air for the compressor and its driving motor in a novel manner, which is adapted to form a crank case chamber, a cool ing chamber and a compressed fluid discharge 75 chamber for the compressor in a simple compact plurality of radially disposed cylinders mounted in said casing, a ñuid compressing piston in each cylinder, a crank shaft operatively connected to said pistons for operating the said pistons in 65 their respective cylinders, and a motor for driv ing said crank shaft, said casing having an outer arcuate wall,„an inner arcuate wall- forming a crank case chamber for said crank shaft,- and an intermediate arcuate wall forming at one side thereof. a cooling chamber for said cylinders and at the opposite side thereof a fluid discharge chamber for said cylinders. JOSEPH C. MCCUNE.