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Патент USA US2106488

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Jan. 25, 1938.
2,106,488 _
Filed Feb. 24, 1934
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
Jan. 25, 193s.
'~ Jg;> MCCUNE.
Filed Feb. 24, 1934
' 73.
" *4 sheets-sheet 2
Jam 2‘5, 1193s.
Fiìed Feb. 24, 1934
4 sheets-‘sheet s
Jan. 25, 1938.
Filed Feb. 24, 1954 8
4 Shee‘lZs-Shee?I 4
Patented Jan. 2li,- 1938
2,106,488 ‘
Joseph C. McCune, Edgewood, Pa., assigner to
The Westinghouse Air BrakeCompany, Wil
merding, Pa., a-corporation of Pennsylvania
Appiièation February 24, 1934, serial No. 712,731
(cl. 23o-211)"
My invention relates to fluid compressors and
' particularly to electric motor driven compressors
of the multi-cylinder type.
accompanying drawings, wherein
_It is an object of my invention to provide a
5 compact and relatively light weight multi-cylin
der compressor.
quently are attained by means of the compressor
unit hereinafter described and illustrated in the
tures of the invention;
Another' object is to provide a self-contained
motor driven iluid compressor unit _wherein a
sectional casing constituting the housing for the
10 compressor, the motor, and a fan may be readily
formed and assembled into a compact unit oc
cupying a minimum of space.
Another object of my invention is to provide
an improved fluid compressor casing adapted to
15 form a crank case chamber, a cooling chamber
or passage,~a discharge chamber or passage, and
an intake chamber or passage within the casing.
Another object is to provide a compressor. unit
wherein iluid to be compressed may be supplied
g() to the compressor cylinders under pressure from
the cooling chamber oi the compressor or from
anexternal source.
Another object is to provide a highly efficient
ñuid compressor capable of operating at high
‘_¿5 speeds which I, in part, accomplish by radially
_ _
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view, partly in
elevation, of a compressor unit embodying fea- 5
Fig. 2 is a transverse sectional view through the
unit taken on the line 2--2 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a fragmental sectional view of a detail, »_
taken on the line 3-3 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is av transverse sectionalview ol' the unit
taken on the line 4_4 of Fig.` 1, with- a portion
broken away;
Fig. 5 is atransverse sectional view of the unit~
taken on the line 5-5 of Fig. l;
Fig. 6 is a' transverse sectional view of the unit
taken on the line 6-6 of Fig. 1;
Fig.`7 is a iragmental sectional view through a
compressor cylinder, taken on the line 'l-'l of
Fig. 1;
Fig. 8 is a top plan view of a fragment of the
1 unit showing a compressor cylinder and head;
Fig; »9 is a fragmental vertical sectional _view of
a cylinder and headshowing an improved form
of discharge valve device;
disposing thecompressor cylinders a'ndby pro
Fig. .10 is an -enlarged».«isometric view .of the
viding ñuidinlets for the compressor -cylinders,- spring retainer of the discharge valve shown in
which inlets are controlled by the corresponding ' Fig. 9;
fluid compressing pistons inthe respective cyl
3i, inders.
Fig. 11 is a i‘ragmental sectional View of the
plunger pump of the lubricating system; and
Another object is to provide an improved com
pressor unit having a casing for a radial cylinder
type compressor, a fan, and a driving motor, in
which the cooling air for the motor and the com
;-.-, pressor enters one end of the casing> axially,
passes the motor, and discharges past' the com
~ _ 30
Fig. -12 is a transverse sectional view of-'the
plunger pump, taken on the line I2--I2 of Fig. 11_.'
Referring to the drawings and particularly to
Figs. 1 to 6, the compressor unit comprises acas
ing or housing made of metal section comprising 35
a fan housing section I2 including a part of the
pressor cylinders through radial openings at the motor housing or casing, motor casing sections
~ other end of the casing, which openings respec-' I3 and I4 and a compressor casing section I5
tively cooperate with the compressor cylinders.
«which contains a suitable number of radially dis
Another object is to provide a compressor unit, posed compressor cylinders IB such as the three 40
having above noted characteristics, with improved show_n, crank arms of the compressorand the
means for separating foreign particles from the lubricant circulating system for the compressor.
cooling air before the cooling air contacts motor
According to my invention, the compressor cas
and compressorparts.
ing I5 is divided by partitionwalls 2|.an‘d 22 i‘nto 4.'.
A. further object is to `provide a compressor a crank chamber I'I, a cooling chamber lßthrough 45
wherein an improved plunger pump serves to which cooling air is circulated in a manner toA
circulate iiuid lubricant in the lubricating system _ be _hereinafter described, and a compressed air
for the moving parts.
discharge chamber I9. The wally 2| has three-
An additional object is to provide a compressor radially disposed cylinder portions 23, as'shown
wherein is employed an improved discharge valve _ in Figs. 1 and 5 in which the compression cylin-~ 50“
device which may be assembled as a unit and re- ` lciers I6 are respectively mounted so that an an
moved from the compressor as a unit f'or the pur-Y nular inlet chamber 20 for the fair to be com- '
pose of inspection, repair or replacement.
pressed is formed between each of the cylinders
The above objects and other additional objects
I6 and the wall- portion 23. Furthermore, the
1.1 _ of my invention that will be made apparent lubse- - cylinders are suitably adapted to be removable ,f
recess 45 in the head casing32 when the head
is in assembled position upon the cylinder I5.
The spring retainer 41 is provided at its other
poses of repair or replacement.
The annular inlet chamber 2li surrounding each end with a portion 5I having an inwardly directed
compression fcylinder I6 communicates with an flange 52 that is provided with a slot 55 of such UI
arcuate inlet chamber 24, as shown in_Figs. 1 shape that it permits o! the assembly of the spring
and 4, through passages 215, the inlet chamber 24 y retainer upon the valve seat disc 4I by a _lateral
being formed in the casing section I4, ythe upper movement with respect to the disc, the head 45>
portion of the chamber being connected to an of the stem 45 serving to limit the longitudinal
inlet pipe 30 which is open to the atmosphere. displacement of the spring'retainer 41 with re 10
The wall 25 of the casing section I4 is provided . spect to the disc 4I when the head casing 32 is
with threaded openings 21 for receiving threaded removed from the cylinder casing I5. A helicalk
plugs 28 which may be removed in the event that spring 53 is disposed concentrically around the
it is desired to supply air to the inlet chamber 24 spring retainerA 41 and extends between the flange
15 through the openings 21 from the motor chamber 45 of the latterj'and the valve disc 44 to yieldingly
retain the valve disc upon the seat disc whereby
II for a purpose to be hereinafter described.
the discharge ports 4,3 are closed. The ñuid com
'I‘he upper end of each of the compression cyl
pressed within the compression chamber of the
inders I5 is provided with longitudinally ex
tending vanes 29, as shown in Figs. 1, ’1; and 8, cylinder I5 passes into the discharge chamber
20 which project radially from the cylinder wall 33 in the head casing 32 when the pressure of 20
within the radial air discharge passages 3i in the the fluid compressed therein is sumcient to over
casing section I5, so that the air forced through come the combined pressure of the ñuid within
the motor chamber II into the cooling air cham-` the discharge chamber 33` and that exerted by
ber I8 is caused to flow past the cooling vanes 29 the spring 53 which opposes opening movement
from the wall portions 23, as shown in Figs. 1
and 5, by being lifted radially outward, for pur
for the purpose of maintaining the cylinders and , of the valve disc 44.
From the foregoing, it is apparent that’ the
discharge valve assembly consists .of the seat disc
4I, the valve disc 44, the spring retainer 41 and
The upper end of each of the compression cyl
inders I5 is closed by- means of a head casing 32, the spring 53, which elements are retained in
as shown in Figs. 1, 5, and 9, which is suitably assembled position by reason of the engagement 30
secured to the casing- ,IW as by machine screws of the enlarged head 45 with the flange 52 of
the spring retainer. To assemble the discharge
or bolts, and which serves to secure the cylin
ders I6 to the wall portions 23. Each of the valve unit upon the cylinder casing I5, the valve
`head casings 32 is provided with a discharge disc seat 4I is ñrstplaced in the recess 42.- A
chamber 33 containing a discharge valve device gasket 54 is then placed over the valve seat disc 35
4I and the head casing 32 is next placed over
‘to be hereinafter described, the discharge cham
the spring retainer 41 so that the flange 45 enters
ber 33 being connected to the discharge cham
the recess 49, as indicated in Fig. 9. when the
ber I9 in the casing section I5 by means of pas
sages 434 which register 'with openings 35 in the head casing 32 is forced into engagement with
the end of the wall of cylinder I 5 by means of the
40 discharge chamber I9. ' The discharge chamber. head bolts 55, the spring 53 is compressed and 40
I9' is adapted to be connected to a receiver, not
shown, by a discharge pipe 36, Figs. 5 and 6, one the parts occupy the position shown in Fig. 9.
side of the discharge chamber being provided Opening travel of the valve disc 44 is limited by
engagement of the disc with the flange v52 of the
with 'a threaded opening 31 for -receiving a dis
associated parts at the proper operating tempera
spring retainer 41.
45 charge pipe in the event that it is desired to .con- '
When it is desired to inspect or repair the dis
nect the discharge pipe tothe opposite side of
the compressor. vAs indicated in Fig, 5 the
threaded opening 31 is closed by means of a screw
plug 35.
' .
The head casing 32 is provided with radial cool
ing ñns 39 spaced apart so that air passages 40,
Figs. ’I andß, are provided between them through
which air passing to the atmosphere from the
radial passages 3|, flows, thereby carrying away
65 the heat conducted tothe head from the asso
ciated parts of the mechanism.
charge valve, the head casing 32 is first removed
after which the discharge -valve unit may be
readily removed as a unit.
ThevcompressorY unit herein@ disclosed is of the
multi-cylinder type comprising, for example,
three compression cylinders. each of which con-
tains a' piston 55 operated by the usual connecting
rod 51 that is connected by meari's of anti-friction
bearings 58 to a crank arm 55 carried on the end
of a crank shaft 5I. The crank shaft is mounted
Alfeature 'of the improved compressor appa-l for rotation in_„antifricticn bearings `52 and 53,
ratus is the discharge valve device which, as will ' secured'within the casing sections I4 and' l12, re- u I
hereinafter appear, is a self-contained unit which spectively, and is provided with a counter-weight
may be assembled in the mechanism as a unit and 54 for counterbalancing the crank arm 55 and its
associated moving parts. As will be clearly seen
withdrawn therefrom for the purpose of inspec
in Fig. 1, the motor armature 55 is secured to
tion and repair as a unit.
Referring to Figs. 9 and 10 the ‘discharge valve
shaft 5I between the bearings 52 and 53, and
device includes a valve seat disc 4I that is adapt
ed to~be seated in an annular recess 42 in the
the rotative impulse is thus applied to the shaft
outer face of the compression cylinder I6 and
which is provided with a series of discharge ports
43 that are adapted to be closed by an annular
The motor armature and ltsmassociated parts,
1 valve disc 44. Disc 44 is; mounted for sliding en
70 gagement upon a central stem 45 which is inte
gral ’with the valve seat disc 4I and which is
provided at its end with an enlarged head 45 for
a purpose that will hereinafter appear. A tubular
spring retainer 41 is provided, having a flange
75 45 that is adapted to be centered in a circular
bythe motor.
as well as the compressor cylinders I5 are adapted
to be cooled by air drawn into the casing sections
through an end opening 55 in the casing section
I2. A protection screen 51 is provided to cover the
opening 55 and a conicai inlet collar 55 which is
secured to the casing section I2 with the screen,
serves to direct air into the central- portion of a
`centrifugal fan 55.
The ian 55 is of the centrifugal blower type, in
which a series of spaced arcuate vanes 1| are ar
ranged about the periphery of the disc-like body
12 as indicated in Figs. 1 and 2 so that when the
fan is rotated by the motor in a >clockwise direc
tion in Fig. 2, the air drawn through the screen
61 and inlet collar 68 leading to the central por
tion of the fan is discharged radially- and in the
direction of rotation of the ian so that the air
discharged from the fan is given a gyratory mo
tion within the`fan chamber 13. The Wall of the
fan chamber casing section |2 is formed in the
shape of a spiral, with an inner extension 14
‘ 3
for closing a port 99 in the lower end ,of the
plunger. A pin |00 is provided which extends
transversely through the plunger a short distance
from the valve member 98 for vthe purpose of
limiting the extent of movement thereof with re
spect to port 99.
The plunger 95 is journaled at its upper end
upon a crank pin- |0|, Fig. 1, that is carried upon
ihe crank arm 59 and which is'eccentric to the
axis of rotation of the crank shaft 6| so that as
the crank shaft 8| is rotated, the plunger 95 is
reciprocated. The.l passage 91 in the plunger is
thereof terminating at a point 15 adjacent the
connected to the passage 81 in the crank arm 59
periphery of the fan, so that a discharge chan
and crank- pin |0|, so that fluid lubricant which
is forced into the passage 91 in the plunger, flows
-to the bearings through the passages 81 and 88,
the lubricant passing the bearings and the choke
L', nel 16 i's defined by the extension 14, which chan
nel expands spirally in cross-sectional area to
a point opposite the point_15 at the extremity of
the extension 14. From a point opposite the
point 15, the channel defined by the outer face of
passage |02 in the crank arm 59 after which it
flows into the crank chamber |1 from whence it
the extension 14 and the outer wallof the casing
may reàurn to the chamber. 92 in the piston 9|.
The lower end of the plunger, that is, the en
larged head thereof, is provided with a substan
tially spherical surface |03l which is adapted to
position to close the opening 'l1 by4 a spring 19 engage the inner conical end surface |04 of the
under the control of a latch member 8| which is piston 9| so as to make sealing engagement there
-pivot-ally connected to the casing i2 and which with on the downstroke of the plunger and main
, engages the spring 19 so that when the latch tain such sealing engagement regardless of angu
member 8| is in the position shown, the spring lar movement of the plunger 95 with respect lo
is retained in closure closing position.
` the piston 9|. The enlarged head 96 is loosely
The partition wall 82 of the casing section I2, connected to the piston 9| by means of a bushing
which constitutes one of the walls of the chan- ` |08 having a conical end surface |09 flaring
nel 16, is provided with an opening 83 in a part downwardly toward thehead 96, the bushing be- '
thereof between the wall 14 and the outer wall ing supported on an interìorly extending shoulder
of the casing section l2, through which opening ||0 in the wall of pis‘on 9|, and secured thereon
the air discharged from the fan within the -fan by bending orfpeening over the end of the piston
chamber may flow tothe motor chamber ||. A wall.
screen 84 that is removably connected to the cas
When the plunger -95 is raised from the position
ing section l2 by means of the screws 85,~ is pro
shown in Fig. 11, it moves a short distance before
vided for covering opening 83. The lower ex
the enlarged head 96 strikes the -conical surface
tremity of the passage 16 adjacent the opening
|09 of the bushing |08, and thereby is effected
11 constitutes a trap for receiving foreign p_ar
the lost motion or loose connection between the
ticles carried into the- fan chamber in suspension plunger 95 and the piston 9|, above referred to.`
in the air, the wall 14 being provided with a
Upon the upward stroke of the piston plunger
section I2, diminishes in cross-sectional area un
til it reaches an opening 11.
A hinged cap or cover 18 is yieldingly held in a
downwardly depending web 88 for preventing
95, the spherical 4surface of the enlarged head96
f such a back flow of air from the trap as would
. manually opening the cover 18 against the action
is separated from the conical surface |04 of thc
piston 9| so that as the pisîzonl 9| is moved up
wardly by the plunger, oil or lubricant ñuid may
flow through the opening 93 in the piston past
the enlarged head 96 of the plunger` and through
of the spring 19.
A further feature of the improved compressor
mechanism is an vimproved pump for circulating
the ball check` valve member 98 at such time re~
maining seated so that it closes the port 99 in the
carry the foreign particles out ofA the trap. Ac
cumulations of foreign particles within the trap
may be removed through the opening 11 4by
fluid lubricant so that the lubricant is forced
through a passage 81 into the crank arm 59 from
which it ñows to the bearings 58 for the connect
ing rods through passages 88. Referring to Figs.
1, 11 and 12, the pump mechanism comprises a
member forming a compression chamber 89, re
movably secured to casing section i5, and a pump
00 piston 9| which is adapted to reciprocate within
the chamber 89. The piston 9| is provided with
the port 94 into the compression chamber 89,
lower end of the plunger. ' Upon the downward
stroke of the plunger, the spherical surface |03 '
initially moves into sealing engagement with fr Ll
the conical surface |04 of the piston, thereby pre
venting any passage of fluid lubricant from the
compression chamber -89 into the chamber 92 in
the piston and transmitting a downward force to
move the piston 9| downwardly. As the piston (30
is movedY downwardly by the plunger 95, it exerts
a valve chamber 92 that is open to the crank > a compressive force on thefiuid lubricant within
chamber |1 through an opening 93 through . the chamber 89 and causes the fluid to pass
which fluidl lubricant in the crank chamber |1
may flow into the valve chamber 92 of the piston
through thel ports 94 and 99', past the check valve
a longitudinal passage 91 extending therethrough
ball member 9_8 into the passage 91, and thence
to the bearings through the passage 81. Upon
the subsequent upward stroke of the plunger 95,
the ball member 98 seats and thereby closes thc
port 99, thus preventing the fluid in the passage
`91 from fic-wing therefrom back into chamber 89
through the passage 99. As previously stated,
during the upward stroke of the plunger 95, the
spherical surface of the head _96 separates from
the conical surface-|04 of the piston, and fiu‘d
in which a ball check valve member 98 is disposed
lubricant flows into the chamber 92 of the pis 75
9|. The piston is' provided at its lower end with
a port or opening 94<through which fluid flows
from the chamber 92 into the compression cham
ber 89. A reciprocating plunger 95 for moving
piston 9| is provided with an enlarged head 9S
which is adapted to reciprocate through a short
distance within the chamber- 92, as will be herc
inafter further explained, the plunger also having
2, 100,488
fluid under pressure from the cooling chamber of
thence through the port 94 in the lower end of
the piston into the chamber 89 from whence it is
discharged into the 'passage 91 in the plunger
upon the subsequent downward stroke of the
the compressor to be supplied to the compression
cylinders of the compressor, while also providing
optionally for the supply of ñuid at atmospheric
or other pressure to the compression cylinders
from an external source.
By -reason of the pump construction just de
scribed, wherein a free passage is provided for
the flow of iluid ‘into the compression chamber
under a gravitational head, the compression
chamber 89 is completely ñlled during every cycle
of operation of the pump, regardless of the speed
of operation of the plunger. Consequently re
15 gardless of the speedof operation of the com
pressor, the bearings for the connecting rods are
lubricated properly, thus prolonging the life of
the compressor.
In the operation of the compressor, the rota
tion of the fan 69 within the fan chamber 13
causes air to be drawn into the fan chamber in
the manner described- and forced through the
screened opening 83 in the partition wall'82 into
the motor chamber || containing the motor
25 armature 6,5. The large volume of air forced past
the motor armature and its associated stator
winding maintains the motor at the proper oper
ating temperature. Subsequently the air passes
from the motor chamber || into the cooling
30 chamber I8 through the openings |05 in the end
_ wall 26 of the casing section |4, around the
It will also be seen that there has been dis
closed an improved compressor of the radial cyl
inder type in which the fluid inlets for the re
spective compressor cylinders are controlled by
the compressor pistons operating in the cylinders.
It will also be seen, furthermore, that there
has been disclosed a compressor wherein is pro
vided an improved plunger pump for circulating
ñuid lubricant for the moving parts of the com
pressor, and wherein is provided an improved dis
charge valve device capable of assembly and dis
assembly as a unit.
It will be seen, lastly, that there has been dis 20
closed a compressor unit provided withan im
proved means for cleaning the cooling fluid there
While but one embodiment of my invention is
herein disclosed, it is obvious that omissions. 25
additions, and other changes may be made in the
construction without departing from the spirit of »
the invention.
Having now- described my invention, what I
vclaim as new and desire to secure by Letters 30
Patent, is:
cylinders` I6, and is discharged to the atmos
phere through the respective radial passages 3|,
past the iins 29 and 39 on the cylinders I6 and
the head casings 32, thus carrying away the heat
-cylinder, controlled by the movement of said 35
generated during the compressing operation of
piston, a iluid inlet passage providing an inde
1. A iluid compressor comprising a casing, a
cylinder mounted in said casing, a piston oper
able in said cylinder, a fluid inlet port in said
the compressor.
pendent connection with the atmosphere for” said
. Air for _compression is drawn into inlet cham
inlet port, means providing a cooling chamber
for said cylinder, means providing a communi
cation between saidv inlet passage and said cooling 40
ber 24 of the compressor unit through the inlet
40 pipe 30 which is connected thereto, and thence
it passes to the inlet chamber 20 surrounding
each of the`piston cylinders i6 through corre
sponding passages 25, the air entering the com
pression chambers |06 above the various pistons
56 through a plurality of peripheral ports' |01 in
the wall of each cylinder I6 when the corre
sponding piston is at the bottom of its stroke.
l , Upon the upward stroke of each of the pistons,
Íthe ports |01 are ñrst closed and then the
50 trapped air is forced past the discharge valve
device, Ypreviously described, into the associated
discharge chamber 33, and is dischargedy to the
receiver pipe 36 through passage 34 and discharge
arrangement. land which is adapted to permit
ton due to the gravitational force or pressure head
of the fluid lubricant within the crank case,
In the event that it is desired to force air into
the compression chambers under pressure, the
inlet pipe 30 is closed in vany suitable manner
chamber whereby iluid supplied to said cooling
chamber may also be supplied td said inlet pas
sage, and means for closing the communication
between said inletV passage and said cooling
2. A fluid compressor comprising a casing, va
plurality of radially disposed compressor cylin
ders mounted on said casing, a piston for each of
said cylinders operable respectively therein, a“
fluid inlet passage for each'of said cylinders con
trolled by the movement of the piston in the
corresponding cylinder, means providing a pas
sage connecting said inlet passages and having
a connection to the'atmosphere, means provid
ing a cooling chamber for said cylinders and hav 55
ing a connection between said cooling-chamber
and said connecting passage whereby fluid sup
and the plugs 28 are removed from their respec- Ü plied to said cooling chamber may also be sup
tive threaded openings 2T, thereby permitting - plied to said connecting passage, and means for
air under pressure to ilow 'from the »motor cham
closing said last connection.
ber |I into the inlet chambery 24 through the
3. A iluid compressor comprising a casing, a
threaded openings 21 and from thence through
the ports |01 in the cylinders I6 to the com
pression chamber above the piston. The man
65 ner of supplying air to the compression cham
bers of the compressor is therefore, optional.
vIt will,',therefore, be seen that an improved,
compact and 4self-contained fluid compressor
unit has been disclosed wherein is provided an
improved sectional casing which serves in direct
ing the iiow of cooling air for the compressor
and its driving motor in a novel manner, which
is adapted to form a crank case chamber, a cool
ing chamber and a compressed fluid discharge
75 chamber for the compressor in a simple compact
plurality of radially disposed cylinders mounted
in said casing, a ñuid compressing piston in each
cylinder, a crank shaft operatively connected to
said pistons for operating the said pistons in 65
their respective cylinders, and a motor for driv
ing said crank shaft, said casing having an outer
arcuate wall,„an inner arcuate wall- forming a
crank case chamber for said crank shaft,- and
an intermediate arcuate wall forming at one side
thereof. a cooling chamber for said cylinders
and at the opposite side thereof a fluid discharge
chamber for said cylinders.
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