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Патент USA US2106511

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Jan. `25, 1938.
R_ A_ wlLLlAMS
Filed June 16, 1936
1, ”
ßoberí Amigo Wißßiam/s
Patented Jan. 25, 1938
.eM/ENT orme-EL y
Robert Anmzò Williams, chicago, Y111.
Application June 16, 1936,-,Seria1~No. 85,4471
16 claims.
This invention relates to bookbinding means,
and has for a particular object the provision of
a `means applicable to the .art of edition book
"The >invention resides in the novel combina
tion and form 'of parts, `to be hereinafter Ñparticu
larly described in View of the annexed drawing
in which:
Fig. 1 ’isfarperspe‘ctive View of a >complete book
bound in 'edition style;
`Fig. 2 is a Vertical section taken along 4the
lines 22-2 of Fig. "1;
Fig. ‘3 is an enlarged sectional detail taken
along’the linesï3-3 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 4lis an enlarged fragmentary section taken
along the lines lI-Il of Fig. 2, While
Fig. 5 isran exploded perspective view 'of the
book of Fig. “1.
The present invention is directed particularly
tothe art'o'f edition bookbinding and is adapted
to simplify the heretofore elaborate and expensive
methods peculiar to this art, with a -iparticu'lar
View Yto eliminating certain of the -more compli
cated Aand expensive steps necessary in the‘meth
ods of 'modern edition bookbinding, and at ’the
Sametime lto ' provide ka 'binding which is superior
plicity and ruggedness and 4novel structural‘fea
‘Referring to Fig. 5, the method contemplates
the preliminary steps of cutting and folding 'a
pliu‘ality of printed sheets `into 'folded groups Aor
signatures Il) and gathering -`these into an initial
bookform or outline, each signature being îitself
suitably` beveled :rear longitudinal edges t4’ :are
joined lby :a îiiexibleîhinge Vmember itS @which ~fmay
be iof fabric ¿or :the llike îand which fis- l.preferably
glued :by methods also >Well-known in fthe art to
theinnerss'rdes‘off‘the cover boards 1I 4 fifnëthe'region :5;
thereof iadgîacent -the »said flongitudin'al'fbeveled
The hinge membery I6 :may -then be 'provided
with fa îlateral îkey slot ‘lil’ lcorresponding'to «the
key 7islot 'Il .iin the 'formedsign‘atures -above de- l0
scribed,l orîthe' ‘slot "N ' lmay have @been ¿previously
applied to -fthe hinge Vfstripsßas desired.
In ïthis condition rthe‘assembled covers ' I 4 joined
by the >ehinge VI6 wvi'llïform ÀWhat îisïtermed a “Cas
ing” `‘represented >by Jrthe step ¿genel‘ally indicated l5
at.B'inîFig. 5.
" 'The @casing ‘B :may ¿then Vbefiittedup'on 'the ibook
form 'A "so .that the respective‘ïkey ‘slots II-'and
III" -are registered, whereupon Ja *key member for
wedge ¿20, gtheV form of l‘which 'will `"be Íhereinafter
particularly-described, "'is _inserted in Ythe ~regis»
tered fslots lïII `and IIII' 1in such vmanner'tha't the
lower key surface î2-2 >thereof rests snugly Within
the said slots (see‘Fig.i2-particularly). ‘This step
ofthe procedurey is generally indicated at VC‘îin 25
Fig. 5.
to -any heretofore >known in the matter of sim
<01'. ‘2in-L25)
‘ '
At‘this ljuncture the paper end sheets I8, :being
the louter 'leaves of >the outermostïsignatures -or
sections> I0, `may ‘be-suitably glued Vto the Vinner
orback' sides ofjeach ofthe respective covers I4,
so >‘as to lcover y'the Aentire vinner surfaces >'thereof
and‘particularly tlnejuncture` of Athe hinge mem
ber I6 with the said cover -boards -(see Figs. 2
inthe nature of -a small unbound sheaf or book,
andB‘particularly) `.
and the group of signatures vbeing preferably
gathered ’in the form shown, ‘and stapled as by
the Wire staple I2, shown'in ïE‘ig."2, to facilitate
the handling of -=rthe gathered signatures inthe
succeeding ’steps of the method. 'These cutting,
'Thereafter la__rigid backbone `member or back
ing channel "34g, a ¿preferred form and construc
tion of `Which will .be hereinafter Iparticularly
described, is’ fitted upon the `combined casing and
book form so that its free longitudinal vedges A36
insidewalls `35 Vthereof substantially confront the
rear _longitudinally .extensive .beveled edges lI4'
.of the ,cover ÍI4. ~Thisstep being generallyrepre~
sented -at.D_'in Rig. 5, >the result of Whichis shown
in assembled fform. in Figs. 2 and 3 particularly.
.gathering and Ifo'lding operations are usually ac
complished by automatic -machine `means well
known in the art.
’When the‘signatures are‘gathered in `bookform
".î and stapled for'handling they are Aprovided'with
a 'lateral key or Wedge slot II (Figs. '2 and `5)
adjacent the rear longitudinal extremities of the
signature folds, and these slots are directed sub~
stantially toward'the center of the book'form and
individual signatures thereof` at an angle `pref
erably :of 45 degrees relative to `the lateral axes
-of the sheets or signatures. The formed signa
tures are then represented in the completed step
generally indicated at “A” in Fig. 5.
.By .the -foregoing method of ' binding a . number 45
of ; heretoforeinecessary Ysteps .peculiar to -the art
of `edition .bookbinding .are eliminated, >as those
skilled yin theartwill readily recognize. »In par
ticular, -“the .necessity `for sewing the ,signatures
together in any of the several recognized Iman 50
ners :is eliminated, as is also the heretofore es~
senti-a1 .-step 1of »gluing-up'of the signatures for
rounding and backing. In addition, the `present
‘Subsequently a ¿pair of cover boards I4 having . .method-makes -`unnecessary thevlheretofore Jre
quired step of “casing-in” which included gluing
the signatures into the cover.
By the elimination of the foregoing particu
larly specified steps which are recognized as es
sential in the art of edition bookbinding as here
tofore practiced, I have correspondingly elimi
nated the need for certain expensive machinery
and handling operations involved in these pre
vious methods, and, while I am aware that other
10 methods have been proposed for the elimination
of certain of the foregoing steps, the method here
presented provides an edition bound book which
is superior in the matters of simplicity and rug
gedness to anything thus far developed, as will
15 appear from the following particular description
of the novel keying and channeling members used
in my above described method.
A preferred form of a keying or wedging mem
ber 20 for use in the above described bookbind
20 ing method is desirably constructed of metal and
has a vertical wall 2| with an angularly disposed
keying or locking surface 22 and opposite side
wings 24 and 25 (Fig. 5). This member 20 may
conveniently be struck from a suitable die in
25 large numbers for use in the binding operation.
The backing channel 34 is also preferably made
of metal and has opposite side Walls 35 corre
sponding generally in their lateral Width to the
width of portions 24 and 25 o-f the key member 20
30 and is so dimensioned that the said key member
may be slidably ñtted therein with its vertical
wall 2| confronting the bottom portion of the
channel 34, the wing portions 24 and 25 sliding
against the walls 35 of the channel member.
In placing the backing channel 34 upon the
cased book in conformance with step D of Fig. 5,
the channel member may be slid 'longitudinally
upon the hinge portion of the cased signatures
after the keying members 20 have been applied
thereto in the manner indicated in the dotted line
representation of Fig. 1. Or, if desired, the chan
nel member 34 may be pressed or formed direct
ly upon the said hinge portion of the cased
signatures after the keys have been inserted, and
for this purpose the side walls 35 of the channel
45 member may be spread apart slightly to facili
tate such application and thereafter the said side
walls »35 may be pressed or crimped to com
channel in a longitudinal direction upon the cas
ing, as indicated in Fig. 1, or by placing the
channel squarely upon the cased signatures and
thereafter crimping it into place, the said key
member will be securely engaged and its move
ment therein limited in the particular manner
set forth. However, should the sliding method of
applying the channel member be used, it will be
apparent that the lateral edge extremities of the
channel side walls 35, which form the lips 39, 10
will necessarily be left in their originally extend
ed condition, as indicated by the dotted line
representation in the upper part of Fig. 2, and
after the channel has been thus applied the said
edge portions may be pressed into place to form 15
the lips 39, as shown in Fig. 5.
By the use of my improved method and bind
ing means, books, and particularly those in edi
tion form, are very ruggedly bound with particu
lar respect to the securing of the signature sec
tions against movement in any direction relative
to one another, or their backing or casing, and
also from tearing-out of folds or leaves Vof the
individual sheets comprising the signatures, and
other deformations to which edition-bound books 25
manufactured by previous methods are common
ly subject.
It is also important to observe that my novel
binding permits the use of covers of any Weight,
and that whereas the covers provided in methods
heretofore used were secured to the formed sig
natures largely through the medium >of the end
sheets, the covers in my present construction are
supported entirely by the hinge member I6, which
may be attached to the cover members as secure
ly as the circumstances may warrant, the hinge
member being held in assembled relation to the
signatures by the conjoint action of the keying
members 20 over limited surface areas thereof,
and the compressing and binding action of the 40
channel member over its entire areas.
Attention is also called to the fact that th
keying member, once it is inserted in the key
slots, can move in only one direction, namely, out
of the said slots at the particular angle at which 45
they are pitched; and that movement in any
other direction is entirely prevented, for the lock
ing action of the key member increases in sub
pressably grip the fold portions of the signa
tures, together with the hinge portion of the cas
50 ing, and thus rigidly secure the several members,
indicated in the steps A to D, in Fig. 5, in the
stantially direct proportion to the displacing
assembled relation shown in Fig. 1.
In either of the above alternative methods of
applying the channel backing to the cased sig
natures, the free longitudinal edges of the side
walls 35 of the channel 34 are bent back upon
companion key member, being pitched oppositely
themselves to provide the lip portions 38, which
are adapted to confront the free longitudinal
edges 24' and 25’ of the wings 24 and 25 of the
60 key member 2D, and in this manner the said key
member is secured for slidable longitudinal move
ment in the channel member 34, but will resist
any displacement laterally of the channel.
In like manner, the lateral edges of the side
walls 35 of the channel member 34 are bent back
upon themselves to form lip portions 39 which
are adapted to confront the lateral edge portions
29 of the key member 20, when the latter is se
cured in the channel, and are adapted to limit the
longitudinal movement of said key members
therein. It will thus be apparent that with either
of the alternative methods of applying the back
ing channel to the cased signatures with the key
member in place, that is to say by sliding the
stress which is put upon it. When the channel 50
member has been assembled with the key mem
ber, the latter is incapable of displacement in a
direction to remove it from the key slots since the
to the first key member, prevents any pivotal
movement of the channel member, which would
be necessary to move the other key member of
the pair out of its slot. The resulting binding
structure is therefore extremely rugged and
makes possible the production of edition books 60
which will withstand a very high degree of abuse;
and this advantage, together with others already
pointed out, distinguishes the invention as a de
cided advance in the art of edition bookbinding.
It will be understood that the number of keys or
wedges which may be applied to a given book
in the practice of this method is not restricted to
two. In heavier books, for example, it may be
necessary or desirable to apply multiple wedges
29, and where this is done, I prefer to cut a pair
of key slots l I” at a distance from the middle line
of the signature form, and on either side of the
staple l2 (Fig. 2), and these latter slots il" are
also preferably pitched at an angle of less than 90
degrees relative to the lateral axis of the grouped 75
signatures, ‘the ïlon'gitudina'l lfaxis, r`~o'f- course, fb'e'ing
that parallel to the ïfoldedfedgesof ’the Vsi'ïg’fna'tures
l5. `fBut, >Whereas the fendm'ost wedges~2ll yare
pitched iconvergently ‘toward ith-e icenter of the
vention, and
and in a >:convergent direction relative ‘to their
I also ñnditcOnVenÍent inthe practice fof this
method Where the aforementionedfdivergling lcen
tra] -key slots are employed, to form fîth‘e central
Wedge v2li’ with integral lkey surfaces 222", fand
thus expedite ' the manufacture rof the ‘wedges »for
keys vas >Well -as the 'method êby -'which the 'ibook ‘ is
bound in »edition style.
1t should ffurther -be :explained that my lmetho'd,
where-it refers tocasin'g-'infandfthe cas'ing‘repre
sented in step B of Fig. 5, refers ‘to the igenerally
used term by which the step o'f `pr-‘ovîidingïth‘e book
form with a-#coverji-s »known to those ¿familiar with
the art fof edition `=b`ookloinding. And in 'ëthis re
gard,'I desire to `~point «out ‘that I fdo «not intend
to be restricted‘to lthe form o'f casing shown in
Fig. 5, step B, ’wherein «the cover "boards »t4 have
The casing to befused -in step B Vof lFig. -5 'may
be Iof the‘full-c'lo'thlcoveritype in Which'the-'cover
boards have no «rear beveled "edge Hl', 'and the
cloth llS is'extendedentirely over rthe-cover boards
in such manner that ‘they ~ are completely »encased
in cloth‘and preferably have asdou'ble Ithickness of
cloth or fabric over the hinge -portion,~one facing
the outer most side 'o’f vtheïhinge part' (|16) and the
other, facing 'the innermost ‘sideo'f ithis ¿hinge part.
Where the type of casing >justabove’describedis
used, the vsliding method o’f 'applying‘the'channel
or backbone member=34 as indicated in the dotted
lines of Figs. ‘1 and "2, :is ‘particularlyconvenient,
and it Willbe apparent‘tha‘t when >lthe Tull-“cloth
covers such as described ’are V`used, the )juncture
between the hinge `part 'and ‘the 'cover boards,
which is visible'in‘the endw'ise section 'of Fig. ’3, is
less pronounced, since there‘will be'another thick
ness of cl'oth‘passing from the topmojst ’surface of
the cover (and also ‘the bottommost) Aunder -the
side wall 35 `of `the 'channel :34.
ît'h'erefore fdo `not `Wish to 'be .re
striotedfto'the precise details recited, but :desire to
.avail :myself v>of Aall rthe 'modifications and varia
tions '.co'ming Within fth'e lscope <of Athe :following
Having -izhus »described- my invention, what I
claim ian'diparticularly desiretoîprotect by Letters
Patent‘ofëtheUnited States is:
i1. .A ‘book comprising sa plurality of gathered
signatures having :lateral >slots cut at an oblique
angle iin Atheliin‘ge 'portions thereof, a cover `for
saidîibook including-:a’pair of cover boards hinged
ly joined and havingxopenings inthe yhinge `part
thereof =in -registration `with said slots ¿in said sig
natures, .Ia lplur'alityof 'key >members .each having
an »'obliqu'e‘ly <disposed >fkey part `linserted in said
registered :slots and 1a `longitudinally extensive
channel member ì‘itted‘upon the said signatures
and ihinged :partfo'f said Ycovers fan'd‘having parts
grippingly y engaging ‘the aforesaid signatures and
cover fmembers i'and the said rkey members in as
sembled relation.
a'rear longitudinal beveled'edge >I4’ and are joined
by a - cloth or vthe llikev hinge strip 176.
characterizing ¿my ¿invention for purposes of il
lustration, iit ‘will »be apparent ito íthose skilled `in Ul
the .fart that ~¿the inventionissusceptible to modi
cationfwithout departing from the spi?it'of the in
sheets of the signatures, and :thus ’toward each
other, 1I prefer to slant the inner pair o'f Wedges
2U’ vaway --from the said center of the :book îf‘orm
used as `indicated `'in Fig. l2, fare I'correspondingly
iWhileV îI Vîh‘ave :described .-a preferred ¿means ¿in
book or the center Iof fthe -`plane iof #the several
respective endmostkeysror vWedgesîZll. "1I-linge slots
H", cut‘in theoover hinge f6, whereîkeys 20'1are
ingfandsignatures with afsubstantiallyirigidfback
f2. A 'book "comprising: fifa 2.plurality -of folded "
sheets-gathered in groups ~with theirfold portions
in superposed relation 4‘and having lateral slots
cut into `said lsheets :across "the fold ‘portions
>hereof at-'an oblique fang‘le irelative to the »long
member including tcover vboards.'hingedly joined
and :having `a cut-away ‘portion :in registration
with the- ‘said slots in said :folded sheets; a plu
rality offkeymembers-each'having a bottom Wall
and fa spair‘of fopp'ositely îdisposedfside Walls'with a 1 '
key part 'extended :between ‘the "said vside walls at
an L'.obliquexangle Sto :theisai'dì‘biottom walLsaid key
members fbeingiñtted‘uponïsaid folded sheets and
cover » ¿assembledfrelation so that lthe
said "key rpartszareìfitted ?ïinto 'the said registered
slots ‘with .the .said fbottom walls »thereof fitted
substantially against the folded edges of said
sheets and lâthe ihinge‘partof saidrcovers thereon;
and:arbinding.ëmemberîin'thefformof a longitudi
nally extensive'channel'spiece:ha-ving‘bottomand -~ i
quired the sizing, 'foldingandgatherïing of sheets
side walls and ~)fitted onto .the said :'folded‘sheets
'and icoverrmemb'er-With the bottom Wall thereof
in confrontation Iwith .the said ibottomV Wall of vsaid
key smembers fand the V»said :hinge member, and
having :itsfsideiwalls ,clamped upon -the» said 'hinge r
into signatures; sewing or stitching the signa
tures; ,gluing-up the signatures 'for rounding and
ing‘thefsaidifolkzbparts,` thefedge extremities of the
backing; rounding and backing thevsignatures;
said ibottom 'and side Walls ëof Isaid .channel mem
summarily, 'the heretofore >commonly ~practiced
methods of binding books in .edition stylehavere
member'an‘d sheets 'thereinìin the region adjoin
gluing a lining clothron thebackboneof -the signa
ber being -lbent jback'zupon :themselves to form lip
tures; gluing the lining (orïhinge) clothontocover
.parts -fior »limiting the fmovemezit of 'said -key i
boards to form a case or cover; andrñnally casing
in by gluing therend sheets .of .the signatures onto
.A-«bopk vcomprising .alplurality of gathered
sheets having a-plurality of lateral lslots cut ob
>liquely into 4an edge `thereoìa'plurality of U
the inside surfaces of the .casezor covers.
In accordance «with ythe `present `invention, Ãthe
binding of a bocklin editionstylezis.accomplished
lby the following steps:
(A) Forming the book sheets vin signatures;
gathering the signatures Vin anelementarybook
form; slotting the backbone of the signatures;
(B) Applying a casing to the gathered signa
.tures ;
(C) Keying the said casing LAand signatures lto
(D) And-compressibly securing said keyed'cas
shaped keying clamps ñtted-‘uponi-said edge, vsaid
clamps :each having :a keying tongue extended
obliquely‘from the bottom thereof. and into a
said-slot,fand«afU-shaped backbone member fitted
upon .said »'edge’and :the l‘clampstthereon With its
side portionsflrmly ’clamped :upon the Aoutermost
ones'of said :sheets k\in thefregion adjoining said
edge thereof, said ybackbone having parts along
itsiedge portions‘for retaining said-clamps there
4. A .book .comprising :.a of superposed ¿
sheets having registered lateral slots‘ cut ob
liquely into the sheets along one edge thereof,
and binding means including locking keys in the
lateral sense and further preventing longitudinal
movement vof the backbone relative to said edge.
form of members having a back surface fitted
against the slotted edge ofl said group of sheets
and each said member having a keying tongue
part extended into one of said slots and having
side surfaces overlying the outermost sides of
the group of sheets in the region adjacent said
10 edge, said means further including a grooved
member having .a bottom surface fitted upon the
slotted edge of said group of sheets and the key
members thereon and having a pair of opposite
side surfaces extended from the said bottom sur
9. Aebook comprising a stack of leaves having
a binding edge provided with a plurality of lat
eral slots'cut obliquely into the stack in a direc
tion away from said edge, a plurality of keying
members each having a bottom and adjoining
opposite side portions and fitted onto and around
face thereof and clamped upon the outermost
sides of the group of sheets'adjoining said slot
ted edge and upon the said side surfaces of said
locking key members, said grooved member hav
ing parts securing said locking key members
against withdrawal therefrom.
5. A book comprising a group of superposed
sheets having a plurality of registered, lateral
slots cut obliquely into one edge of the group,
and a longitudinally grooved backbone fitted
upon said edge and having a plurality of locking
keys in the grooved part of the backbone, each
of said locking keys having a part-extended in a
direction obliquely vaway from said backbone to
ward and into one of said slots, said backbone
30 having parts turned back upon itself toward the
grooved part thereof to prevent the withdrawal
of said locking keys therefrom.
6. Binding means for leaf matter arranged in
a stack, said means including. a longitudinally
channeled backbone fitted onto an edge of the
stack and a plurality of recessed key members
secured in said backbone against movement lat
erally out of the same and each fitted around
said edge of the stack and having an oblique
40 lateral tongue extending into an oblique lateral
slot formed in said edge, there being one of said
key members positioned near each of the ends
of said stack edge, and said backbone having
endwise parts engageable with said key members
near the ends of the stack edge as aforesaid to
prevent longitudinal movement of the backbone
on said edge.
'7. A folio device including a stack of leaves
having a binding edge provided with a plurality
of lateral oppositely inclined oblique slots cut
therein, there being one of said slots nearfeach
of the ends of said binding edge, a plurality of
locking keys fitted around said edge and each
having an oblique. tongue extended into one of
55 said slots, together with an elongated channel
shaped backbone fitted onto said binding edge
and the keys thereon and having its longitudinal
side portions closely overlying the side'portions
of said stack adjoining said binding edge, said
60 backbone further having its free edge portions
turned inwardly toward adjacent underlying por
tions of said key members and preventing sepa
ration of the latter from the backbone and fur
ther preventing longitudinal movement of the
backbone on said edge.
8. A book comprising a stack of leaves having
a binding edge provided with a plurality of lat
eral slots cut obliquely into the stack, a plural
ity of locking keys fitted around said edge and
each having an oblique tongue extending into
one of said slots, and an elongated backbone
strip fitted around said binding edge and the
keys thereon and having free edge portions bent
in a direction against said keys and preventing
separation of the latter from the backbone in a
said binding edge, each of said keying members
further having a tongue portion extended ob 10
liquely up from the bottom thereof between said
side portions and extending into one of said slots,
together with an elongated channel-like binding
strip fitted onto and around said binding edge
of the stack and the keying members thereon 15
and having free edge portions bent back upon
itself toward said binding edge and preventing
separation of saidV keying members laterally
therefrom, and said binding strip having means
at its ends preventing movement of said keying 20
members longitudinally out of the same.
10. A book comprising a stack of leaves hav
ing abinding edge provided with a plurality of
lateral slots cut obliquely into the stack in a
direction away from said edge, there being one
of said slots near each end of‘said edge and each
of the latter slots being obliquely inclined oppo
sitely to the other, a plurality of key members
each having a bottom and adjoining opposite side
portions and fitted onto said binding edge and 30
each further having an integral, rigid tongue
extended obliquely up from an end of said bot
tom between said side portions and said tongues
each being engaged in one of said slots, together
with an elongated channel-shaped binding strip
fitted vonto said binding edge and the key mem
bers thereon and having rims formed along its
free edgeportions and preventing lateral separa
tion of the same and said key members and also
effective in cooperation with the said key mem 40
bers disposed near the ends of said binding edge
to prevent longitudinal movement of the bind
ing strip relative to said edge. y
l1. A book comprising a stack of leaves hav.
ing a binding edge provided with a plurality of 45
lateral slots cut obliquely into the stack in a
direction away from said edge, at least two of
said slots being oppositely inclined in an oblique
sense, a plurality of locking wedges each shaped
to fit around said edge` and each having a rigid 5o,
integral and obliquely extending tongue, said
wedges being fitted onto said binding edge with
their respective tongues in one of said slots, and
an elongated- channel-shaped backbone fitted
'onto said binding edge and the wedges thereon
and having longitudinal sidewall portions closely
overlying the side portions of said stack adjoin
ing said edge, said backbone further having
means arranged along its free edge portions pre
venting both lateral and longitudinal displace 60
ment of said backbone relative to said wedges
and said binding edge.
l2. A book comprising gathered leaves having
a binding edge with a plurality of oblique lateral
slots cut therein, a plurality of keys of substan 65
tially channel-like cross section fitted onto said
binding edge of the stack and each having rigid
oblique tongue portions extending into one of
said slots, together with an elongated backbone
fitted over said binding edge and the keys thereon 70
and having longitudinally extensive groove for
mations along its opposite sides and fitting over
the underlying edge parts of said keys, said back
bone also having means at its ends engaging the
outermost ones of said keys and preventing move 75
ment of the backbone in a longitudinal direction
on said binding edge.
13. Binding means for a stack of leaf matter
and including an elongated channel member hav
ing therein a plurality of channel-shaped keys
adapted to move longitudinally in said. channel
member, and the latter having parts along its
longitudinal free edge portions elîective to pre
vent movement of said keys laterally out of the
means at its ends engaging endwise portions of
the said keys nearest the extremities of said edge
and preventing longitudinal movement of the
channel member on said edge.
15. Binding means for book signatures and
pages, said means including a plurality of lock
ing keys disposed along the binding edge of said
signatures or pages and each having a tongue
extended obliquely into said signatures or pages
same, said channel member and the keys therein ' and one of said tongues being inclined in a di
being ñtted over an edge of said stack, each of rection opposite to another of the same, together 10
said keys having a lateral tongue extending ob
liquely therefrom into said stack and at least
two of said tongues being inclined oppositely to
15 each other in an oblique sense, said channel mem
ber having means engaging said keys nearest
the longitudinal ends of said binding edge to
prevent longitudinal movement of the channel
relative to said last-mentioned keys and said edge.
14. Binding means for a stack of leaf -matter
and including an elongated channel-shaped mem
grooves on opposite sides thereof, and a plural
ity of locking keys in said member and each hav
ing opposite longitudinal side portions engaged
in said grooves in a manner to permit longitudi
nal sliding movement of the keys in said member
and eiîective to prevent movement of the keys
laterally out of the same, the channel-shaped
member aforesaid and keys therein being fitted
with an elongated channel ñtted onto said edge
and the keys thereon and having its free edge
portions bent for engagement with said keys
to prevent movement of the same laterally out
of the channel and also to prevent longitudinal
movement of the latter relative to said keys and
said signatures or pages.
16. A book including a stack of leaves, a chan
nel-shaped backbone of elongated form fitted 20
around an edge of said stack and having disposed
therein a plurality of keys substantially chan
nel-shaped in cross section, each of said keys hav
ing an oblique tongue extended into said edge of
the stack and one of said tongues being inclined
oppositely in an oblique sense to another one of
said tongues, said backbone being provided with
means along its free edge parts catching each of
said keys against separation therefrom in a lat
eral sense, said means catching the keys being “
around an edge of said stack and each of said . further operable to prevent longitudinal move
keys having a tongue formation extended ob
liquely into the aforesaid edge of the stack, at
least two of said tongues being oppositely in
clined, and said channel-shaped member having
ment of the backbone relative to said keys in
their assembled relation with the stack as afore
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