Патент USA US2106511код для вставки
Jan. `25, 1938. R_ A_ wlLLlAMS 2,106,511 BOOKBINDING MEANS Filed June 16, 1936 1, ” . 1:. .Erie i INVENTOR. ßoberí Amigo Wißßiam/s HIS ATTORNEY. - Patented Jan. 25, 1938 2,106,511' UNITED STATES .eM/ENT orme-EL y 2,106,511 ` BooKßINmNGMEANs » Robert Anmzò Williams, chicago, Y111. ` Application June 16, 1936,-,Seria1~No. 85,4471 16 claims. This invention relates to bookbinding means, and has for a particular object the provision of a `means applicable to the .art of edition book binding. 6:1 15 "The >invention resides in the novel combina tion and form 'of parts, `to be hereinafter Ñparticu larly described in View of the annexed drawing in which: Fig. 1 ’isfarperspe‘ctive View of a >complete book bound in 'edition style; `Fig. 2 is a Vertical section taken along 4the lines 22-2 of Fig. "1; Fig. ‘3 is an enlarged sectional detail taken along’the linesï3-3 of Fig. 2; Fig. 4lis an enlarged fragmentary section taken along the lines lI-Il of Fig. 2, While Fig. 5 isran exploded perspective view 'of the book of Fig. “1. The present invention is directed particularly tothe art'o'f edition bookbinding and is adapted to simplify the heretofore elaborate and expensive methods peculiar to this art, with a -iparticu'lar View Yto eliminating certain of the -more compli cated Aand expensive steps necessary in the‘meth ods of 'modern edition bookbinding, and at ’the Sametime lto ' provide ka 'binding which is superior plicity and ruggedness and 4novel structural‘fea ' ‘Referring to Fig. 5, the method contemplates the preliminary steps of cutting and folding 'a pliu‘ality of printed sheets `into 'folded groups Aor signatures Il) and gathering -`these into an initial bookform or outline, each signature being îitself ' ì suitably` beveled :rear longitudinal edges t4’ :are joined lby :a îiiexibleîhinge Vmember itS @which ~fmay be iof fabric ¿or :the llike îand which fis- l.preferably glued :by methods also >Well-known in fthe art to theinnerss'rdes‘off‘the cover boards 1I 4 fifnëthe'region :5; thereof iadgîacent -the »said flongitudin'al'fbeveled edges I4’.. - ' - The hinge membery I6 :may -then be 'provided with fa îlateral îkey slot ‘lil’ lcorresponding'to «the key 7islot 'Il .iin the 'formedsign‘atures -above de- l0 scribed,l orîthe' ‘slot "N ' lmay have @been ¿previously applied to -fthe hinge Vfstripsßas desired. « In ïthis condition rthe‘assembled covers ' I 4 joined by the >ehinge VI6 wvi'llïform ÀWhat îisïtermed a “Cas ing” `‘represented >by Jrthe step ¿genel‘ally indicated l5 at.B'inîFig. 5. ' ' " " 'The @casing ‘B :may ¿then Vbefiittedup'on 'the ibook form 'A "so .that the respective‘ïkey ‘slots II-'and III" -are registered, whereupon Ja *key member for wedge ¿20, gtheV form of l‘which 'will `"be Íhereinafter particularly-described, "'is _inserted in Ythe ~regis» tered fslots lïII `and IIII' 1in such vmanner'tha't the lower key surface î2-2 >thereof rests snugly Within the said slots (see‘Fig.i2-particularly). ‘This step ofthe procedurey is generally indicated at VC‘îin 25 Fig. 5. to -any heretofore >known in the matter of sim tures. <01'. ‘2in-L25) " ‘ ' ' ' At‘this ljuncture the paper end sheets I8, :being the louter 'leaves of >the outermostïsignatures -or sections> I0, `may ‘be-suitably glued Vto the Vinner orback' sides ofjeach ofthe respective covers I4, so >‘as to lcover y'the Aentire vinner surfaces >'thereof and‘particularly tlnejuncture` of Athe hinge mem ber I6 with the said cover -boards -(see Figs. 2 inthe nature of -a small unbound sheaf or book, andB‘particularly) `. and the group of signatures vbeing preferably gathered ’in the form shown, ‘and stapled as by the Wire staple I2, shown'in ïE‘ig."2, to facilitate the handling of -=rthe gathered signatures inthe succeeding ’steps of the method. 'These cutting, 'Thereafter la__rigid backbone `member or back ing channel "34g, a ¿preferred form and construc tion of `Which will .be hereinafter Iparticularly described, is’ fitted upon the `combined casing and book form so that its free longitudinal vedges A36 insidewalls `35 Vthereof substantially confront the rear _longitudinally .extensive .beveled edges lI4' .of the ,cover ÍI4. ~Thisstep being generallyrepre~ sented -at.D_'in Rig. 5, >the result of Whichis shown in assembled fform. in Figs. 2 and 3 particularly. .gathering and Ifo'lding operations are usually ac complished by automatic -machine `means well known in the art. ’When the‘signatures are‘gathered in `bookform ".î and stapled for'handling they are Aprovided'with a 'lateral key or Wedge slot II (Figs. '2 and `5) adjacent the rear longitudinal extremities of the signature folds, and these slots are directed sub~ stantially toward'the center of the book'form and individual signatures thereof` at an angle `pref erably :of 45 degrees relative to `the lateral axes -of the sheets or signatures. The formed signa tures are then represented in the completed step generally indicated at “A” in Fig. 5. l l .By .the -foregoing method of ' binding a . number 45 of ; heretoforeinecessary Ysteps .peculiar to -the art of `edition .bookbinding .are eliminated, >as those skilled yin theartwill readily recognize. »In par ticular, -“the .necessity `for sewing the ,signatures together in any of the several recognized Iman 50 ners :is eliminated, as is also the heretofore es~ senti-a1 .-step 1of »gluing-up'of the signatures for rounding and backing. In addition, the `present ‘Subsequently a ¿pair of cover boards I4 having . .method-makes -`unnecessary thevlheretofore Jre 2 2,106,511 quired step of “casing-in” which included gluing the signatures into the cover. By the elimination of the foregoing particu larly specified steps which are recognized as es sential in the art of edition bookbinding as here tofore practiced, I have correspondingly elimi nated the need for certain expensive machinery and handling operations involved in these pre vious methods, and, while I am aware that other 10 methods have been proposed for the elimination of certain of the foregoing steps, the method here presented provides an edition bound book which is superior in the matters of simplicity and rug gedness to anything thus far developed, as will 15 appear from the following particular description of the novel keying and channeling members used in my above described method. A preferred form of a keying or wedging mem ber 20 for use in the above described bookbind 20 ing method is desirably constructed of metal and has a vertical wall 2| with an angularly disposed keying or locking surface 22 and opposite side wings 24 and 25 (Fig. 5). This member 20 may conveniently be struck from a suitable die in 25 large numbers for use in the binding operation. The backing channel 34 is also preferably made of metal and has opposite side Walls 35 corre sponding generally in their lateral Width to the width of portions 24 and 25 o-f the key member 20 30 and is so dimensioned that the said key member may be slidably ñtted therein with its vertical wall 2| confronting the bottom portion of the channel 34, the wing portions 24 and 25 sliding against the walls 35 of the channel member. In placing the backing channel 34 upon the cased book in conformance with step D of Fig. 5, the channel member may be slid 'longitudinally upon the hinge portion of the cased signatures after the keying members 20 have been applied thereto in the manner indicated in the dotted line 40 representation of Fig. 1. Or, if desired, the chan nel member 34 may be pressed or formed direct ly upon the said hinge portion of the cased signatures after the keys have been inserted, and for this purpose the side walls 35 of the channel 45 member may be spread apart slightly to facili tate such application and thereafter the said side walls »35 may be pressed or crimped to com channel in a longitudinal direction upon the cas ing, as indicated in Fig. 1, or by placing the channel squarely upon the cased signatures and thereafter crimping it into place, the said key member will be securely engaged and its move ment therein limited in the particular manner set forth. However, should the sliding method of applying the channel member be used, it will be apparent that the lateral edge extremities of the channel side walls 35, which form the lips 39, 10 will necessarily be left in their originally extend ed condition, as indicated by the dotted line representation in the upper part of Fig. 2, and after the channel has been thus applied the said edge portions may be pressed into place to form 15 the lips 39, as shown in Fig. 5. By the use of my improved method and bind ing means, books, and particularly those in edi tion form, are very ruggedly bound with particu lar respect to the securing of the signature sec tions against movement in any direction relative to one another, or their backing or casing, and also from tearing-out of folds or leaves Vof the individual sheets comprising the signatures, and other deformations to which edition-bound books 25 manufactured by previous methods are common ly subject. It is also important to observe that my novel binding permits the use of covers of any Weight, and that whereas the covers provided in methods heretofore used were secured to the formed sig natures largely through the medium >of the end sheets, the covers in my present construction are supported entirely by the hinge member I6, which 35 may be attached to the cover members as secure ly as the circumstances may warrant, the hinge member being held in assembled relation to the signatures by the conjoint action of the keying members 20 over limited surface areas thereof, and the compressing and binding action of the 40 channel member over its entire areas. . Attention is also called to the fact that th keying member, once it is inserted in the key slots, can move in only one direction, namely, out of the said slots at the particular angle at which 45 they are pitched; and that movement in any other direction is entirely prevented, for the lock ing action of the key member increases in sub pressably grip the fold portions of the signa tures, together with the hinge portion of the cas 50 ing, and thus rigidly secure the several members, indicated in the steps A to D, in Fig. 5, in the stantially direct proportion to the displacing assembled relation shown in Fig. 1. In either of the above alternative methods of applying the channel backing to the cased sig natures, the free longitudinal edges of the side walls 35 of the channel 34 are bent back upon companion key member, being pitched oppositely themselves to provide the lip portions 38, which are adapted to confront the free longitudinal edges 24' and 25’ of the wings 24 and 25 of the 60 key member 2D, and in this manner the said key member is secured for slidable longitudinal move ment in the channel member 34, but will resist any displacement laterally of the channel. In like manner, the lateral edges of the side 65 walls 35 of the channel member 34 are bent back upon themselves to form lip portions 39 which are adapted to confront the lateral edge portions 29 of the key member 20, when the latter is se cured in the channel, and are adapted to limit the longitudinal movement of said key members therein. It will thus be apparent that with either of the alternative methods of applying the back ing channel to the cased signatures with the key member in place, that is to say by sliding the stress which is put upon it. When the channel 50 member has been assembled with the key mem ber, the latter is incapable of displacement in a direction to remove it from the key slots since the to the first key member, prevents any pivotal movement of the channel member, which would be necessary to move the other key member of the pair out of its slot. The resulting binding structure is therefore extremely rugged and makes possible the production of edition books 60 which will withstand a very high degree of abuse; and this advantage, together with others already pointed out, distinguishes the invention as a de cided advance in the art of edition bookbinding. It will be understood that the number of keys or wedges which may be applied to a given book in the practice of this method is not restricted to two. In heavier books, for example, it may be necessary or desirable to apply multiple wedges 29, and where this is done, I prefer to cut a pair of key slots l I” at a distance from the middle line of the signature form, and on either side of the staple l2 (Fig. 2), and these latter slots il" are also preferably pitched at an angle of less than 90 degrees relative to the lateral axis of the grouped 75 asocian signatures, ‘the ïlon'gitudina'l lfaxis, r`~o'f- course, fb'e'ing that parallel to the ïfoldedfedgesof ’the Vsi'ïg’fna'tures boneanember. l5. `fBut, >Whereas the fendm'ost wedges~2ll yare pitched iconvergently ‘toward ith-e icenter of the vention, and and in a >:convergent direction relative ‘to their slanted. I also ñnditcOnVenÍent inthe practice fof this method Where the aforementionedfdivergling lcen tra] -key slots are employed, to form fîth‘e central Wedge v2li’ with integral lkey surfaces 222", fand thus expedite ' the manufacture rof the ‘wedges »for keys vas >Well -as the 'method êby -'which the 'ibook ‘ is bound in »edition style. ’ 1t should ffurther -be :explained that my lmetho'd, where-it refers tocasin'g-'infandfthe cas'ing‘repre sented in step B of Fig. 5, refers ‘to the igenerally used term by which the step o'f `pr-‘ovîidingïth‘e book form with a-#coverji-s »known to those ¿familiar with the art fof edition `=b`ookloinding. And in 'ëthis re gard,'I desire to `~point «out ‘that I fdo «not intend to be restricted‘to lthe form o'f casing shown in Fig. 5, step B, ’wherein «the cover "boards »t4 have The casing to befused -in step B Vof lFig. -5 'may be Iof the‘full-c'lo'thlcoveritype in Which'the-'cover boards have no «rear beveled "edge Hl', 'and the cloth llS is'extendedentirely over rthe-cover boards in such manner that ‘they ~ are completely »encased in cloth‘and preferably have asdou'ble Ithickness of cloth or fabric over the hinge -portion,~one facing the outer most side 'o’f vtheïhinge part' (|16) and the other, facing 'the innermost ‘sideo'f ithis ¿hinge part. Where the type of casing >justabove’describedis used, the vsliding method o’f 'applying‘the'channel or backbone member=34 as indicated in the dotted lines of Figs. ‘1 and "2, :is ‘particularlyconvenient, and it Willbe apparent‘tha‘t when >lthe Tull-“cloth covers such as described ’are V`used, the )juncture between the hinge `part 'and ‘the 'cover boards, which is visible'in‘the endw'ise section 'of Fig. ’3, is less pronounced, since there‘will be'another thick ness of cl'oth‘passing from the topmojst ’surface of the cover (and also ‘the bottommost) Aunder -the side wall 35 `of `the 'channel :34. ' ît'h'erefore fdo `not `Wish to 'be .re striotedfto'the precise details recited, but :desire to .avail :myself v>of Aall rthe 'modifications and varia tions '.co'ming Within fth'e lscope <of Athe :following claims: , Having -izhus »described- my invention, what I claim ian'diparticularly desiretoîprotect by Letters Patent‘ofëtheUnited States is: i1. .A ‘book comprising sa plurality of gathered signatures having :lateral >slots cut at an oblique angle iin Atheliin‘ge 'portions thereof, a cover `for saidîibook including-:a’pair of cover boards hinged ly joined and havingxopenings inthe yhinge `part thereof =in -registration `with said slots ¿in said sig natures, .Ia lplur'alityof 'key >members .each having an »'obliqu'e‘ly <disposed >fkey part `linserted in said registered :slots and 1a `longitudinally extensive channel member ì‘itted‘upon the said signatures and ihinged :partfo'f said Ycovers fan'd‘having parts grippingly y engaging ‘the aforesaid signatures and cover fmembers i'and the said rkey members in as sembled relation. a'rear longitudinal beveled'edge >I4’ and are joined by a - cloth or vthe llikev hinge strip 176. ~ characterizing ¿my ¿invention for purposes of il lustration, iit ‘will »be apparent ito íthose skilled `in Ul the .fart that ~¿the inventionissusceptible to modi cationfwithout departing from the spi?it'of the in sheets of the signatures, and :thus ’toward each other, 1I prefer to slant the inner pair o'f Wedges 2U’ vaway --from the said center of the :book îf‘orm used as `indicated `'in Fig. l2, fare I'correspondingly . iWhileV îI Vîh‘ave :described .-a preferred ¿means ¿in book or the center Iof fthe -`plane iof #the several respective endmostkeysror vWedgesîZll. "1I-linge slots H", cut‘in theoover hinge f6, whereîkeys 20'1are 3 ingfandsignatures with afsubstantiallyirigidfback ' ' f2. A 'book "comprising: fifa 2.plurality -of folded " sheets-gathered in groups ~with theirfold portions in superposed relation 4‘and having lateral slots cut into `said lsheets :across "the fold ‘portions >hereof at-'an oblique fang‘le irelative to the »long member including tcover vboards.'hingedly joined and :having `a cut-away ‘portion :in registration with the- ‘said slots in said :folded sheets; a plu rality offkeymembers-each'having a bottom Wall and fa spair‘of fopp'ositely îdisposedfside Walls'with a 1 ' key part 'extended :between ‘the "said vside walls at an L'.obliquexangle Sto :theisai'dì‘biottom walLsaid key members fbeingiñtted‘uponïsaid folded sheets and cover »members-.in ¿assembledfrelation so that lthe said "key rpartszareìfitted ?ïinto 'the said registered slots ‘with .the .said fbottom walls »thereof fitted substantially against the folded edges of said sheets and lâthe ihinge‘partof saidrcovers thereon; and:arbinding.ëmemberîin'thefformof a longitudi nally extensive'channel'spiece:ha-ving‘bottomand -~ i quired the sizing, 'foldingandgatherïing of sheets side walls and ~)fitted onto .the said :'folded‘sheets 'and icoverrmemb'er-With the bottom Wall thereof in confrontation Iwith .the said ibottomV Wall of vsaid key smembers fand the V»said :hinge member, and having :itsfsideiwalls ,clamped upon -the» said 'hinge r into signatures; sewing or stitching the signa tures; ,gluing-up the signatures 'for rounding and ing‘thefsaidifolkzbparts,` thefedge extremities of the backing; rounding and backing thevsignatures; said ibottom 'and side Walls ëof Isaid .channel mem summarily, 'the heretofore >commonly ~practiced methods of binding books in .edition stylehavere member'an‘d sheets 'thereinìin the region adjoin gluing a lining clothron thebackboneof -the signa ber being -lbent jback'zupon :themselves to form lip tures; gluing the lining (orïhinge) clothontocover .parts -fior »limiting the fmovemezit of 'said -key i boards to form a case or cover; andrñnally casing members. in by gluing therend sheets .of .the signatures onto .A-«bopk vcomprising .alplurality of gathered sheets having a-plurality of lateral lslots cut ob >liquely into 4an edge `thereoìa'plurality of U the inside surfaces of the .casezor covers. In accordance «with ythe `present `invention, Ãthe binding of a bocklin editionstylezis.accomplished lby the following steps: (A) Forming the book sheets vin signatures; gathering the signatures Vin anelementarybook form; slotting the backbone of the signatures; (B) Applying a casing to the gathered signa .tures ; (C) Keying the said casing LAand signatures lto gether; (D) And-compressibly securing said keyed'cas ` ` shaped keying clamps ñtted-‘uponi-said edge, vsaid clamps :each having :a keying tongue extended obliquely‘from the bottom thereof. and into a said-slot,fand«afU-shaped backbone member fitted upon .said »'edge’and :the l‘clampstthereon With its side portionsflrmly ’clamped :upon the Aoutermost ones'of said :sheets k\in thefregion adjoining said edge thereof, said ybackbone having parts along itsiedge portions‘for retaining said-clamps there in. ' 4. A .book .comprising :.a v.group of superposed ¿ 2,106,511 4 sheets having registered lateral slots‘ cut ob liquely into the sheets along one edge thereof, and binding means including locking keys in the lateral sense and further preventing longitudinal movement vof the backbone relative to said edge. form of members having a back surface fitted against the slotted edge ofl said group of sheets and each said member having a keying tongue part extended into one of said slots and having side surfaces overlying the outermost sides of the group of sheets in the region adjacent said 10 edge, said means further including a grooved member having .a bottom surface fitted upon the slotted edge of said group of sheets and the key members thereon and having a pair of opposite side surfaces extended from the said bottom sur 9. Aebook comprising a stack of leaves having a binding edge provided with a plurality of lat eral slots'cut obliquely into the stack in a direc tion away from said edge, a plurality of keying members each having a bottom and adjoining opposite side portions and fitted onto and around face thereof and clamped upon the outermost sides of the group of sheets'adjoining said slot ted edge and upon the said side surfaces of said locking key members, said grooved member hav ing parts securing said locking key members against withdrawal therefrom. - 5. A book comprising a group of superposed sheets having a plurality of registered, lateral slots cut obliquely into one edge of the group, and a longitudinally grooved backbone fitted upon said edge and having a plurality of locking keys in the grooved part of the backbone, each of said locking keys having a part-extended in a direction obliquely vaway from said backbone to ward and into one of said slots, said backbone 30 having parts turned back upon itself toward the grooved part thereof to prevent the withdrawal of said locking keys therefrom. 6. Binding means for leaf matter arranged in a stack, said means including. a longitudinally channeled backbone fitted onto an edge of the stack and a plurality of recessed key members secured in said backbone against movement lat erally out of the same and each fitted around said edge of the stack and having an oblique 40 lateral tongue extending into an oblique lateral slot formed in said edge, there being one of said key members positioned near each of the ends of said stack edge, and said backbone having endwise parts engageable with said key members near the ends of the stack edge as aforesaid to prevent longitudinal movement of the backbone on said edge. '7. A folio device including a stack of leaves having a binding edge provided with a plurality of lateral oppositely inclined oblique slots cut 50 therein, there being one of said slots nearfeach of the ends of said binding edge, a plurality of locking keys fitted around said edge and each having an oblique. tongue extended into one of 55 said slots, together with an elongated channel shaped backbone fitted onto said binding edge and the keys thereon and having its longitudinal side portions closely overlying the side'portions of said stack adjoining said binding edge, said 60 backbone further having its free edge portions turned inwardly toward adjacent underlying por tions of said key members and preventing sepa ration of the latter from the backbone and fur ther preventing longitudinal movement of the backbone on said edge. 8. A book comprising a stack of leaves having a binding edge provided with a plurality of lat eral slots cut obliquely into the stack, a plural ity of locking keys fitted around said edge and each having an oblique tongue extending into 70 one of said slots, and an elongated backbone strip fitted around said binding edge and the keys thereon and having free edge portions bent in a direction against said keys and preventing separation of the latter from the backbone in a said binding edge, each of said keying members further having a tongue portion extended ob 10 liquely up from the bottom thereof between said side portions and extending into one of said slots, together with an elongated channel-like binding strip fitted onto and around said binding edge of the stack and the keying members thereon 15 and having free edge portions bent back upon itself toward said binding edge and preventing separation of saidV keying members laterally therefrom, and said binding strip having means at its ends preventing movement of said keying 20 members longitudinally out of the same. 10. A book comprising a stack of leaves hav ing abinding edge provided with a plurality of lateral slots cut obliquely into the stack in a direction away from said edge, there being one of said slots near each end of‘said edge and each of the latter slots being obliquely inclined oppo sitely to the other, a plurality of key members each having a bottom and adjoining opposite side portions and fitted onto said binding edge and 30 each further having an integral, rigid tongue extended obliquely up from an end of said bot tom between said side portions and said tongues each being engaged in one of said slots, together with an elongated channel-shaped binding strip fitted vonto said binding edge and the key mem bers thereon and having rims formed along its free edgeportions and preventing lateral separa tion of the same and said key members and also effective in cooperation with the said key mem 40 bers disposed near the ends of said binding edge to prevent longitudinal movement of the bind ing strip relative to said edge. y l1. A book comprising a stack of leaves hav. ing a binding edge provided with a plurality of 45 lateral slots cut obliquely into the stack in a direction away from said edge, at least two of said slots being oppositely inclined in an oblique sense, a plurality of locking wedges each shaped to fit around said edge` and each having a rigid 5o, integral and obliquely extending tongue, said wedges being fitted onto said binding edge with their respective tongues in one of said slots, and an elongated- channel-shaped backbone fitted 'onto said binding edge and the wedges thereon and having longitudinal sidewall portions closely overlying the side portions of said stack adjoin ing said edge, said backbone further having means arranged along its free edge portions pre venting both lateral and longitudinal displace 60 ment of said backbone relative to said wedges and said binding edge. l2. A book comprising gathered leaves having a binding edge with a plurality of oblique lateral slots cut therein, a plurality of keys of substan 65 tially channel-like cross section fitted onto said binding edge of the stack and each having rigid oblique tongue portions extending into one of said slots, together with an elongated backbone fitted over said binding edge and the keys thereon 70 and having longitudinally extensive groove for mations along its opposite sides and fitting over the underlying edge parts of said keys, said back bone also having means at its ends engaging the outermost ones of said keys and preventing move 75 2,106,511 ment of the backbone in a longitudinal direction on said binding edge. 13. Binding means for a stack of leaf matter and including an elongated channel member hav ing therein a plurality of channel-shaped keys adapted to move longitudinally in said. channel member, and the latter having parts along its longitudinal free edge portions elîective to pre vent movement of said keys laterally out of the 5 means at its ends engaging endwise portions of the said keys nearest the extremities of said edge and preventing longitudinal movement of the channel member on said edge. 15. Binding means for book signatures and pages, said means including a plurality of lock ing keys disposed along the binding edge of said signatures or pages and each having a tongue extended obliquely into said signatures or pages same, said channel member and the keys therein ' and one of said tongues being inclined in a di being ñtted over an edge of said stack, each of rection opposite to another of the same, together 10 said keys having a lateral tongue extending ob liquely therefrom into said stack and at least two of said tongues being inclined oppositely to 15 each other in an oblique sense, said channel mem ber having means engaging said keys nearest the longitudinal ends of said binding edge to prevent longitudinal movement of the channel relative to said last-mentioned keys and said edge. 14. Binding means for a stack of leaf -matter and including an elongated channel-shaped mem ber provided with longitudinally extensive grooves on opposite sides thereof, and a plural ity of locking keys in said member and each hav ing opposite longitudinal side portions engaged in said grooves in a manner to permit longitudi nal sliding movement of the keys in said member and eiîective to prevent movement of the keys 30 laterally out of the same, the channel-shaped member aforesaid and keys therein being fitted with an elongated channel ñtted onto said edge and the keys thereon and having its free edge portions bent for engagement with said keys to prevent movement of the same laterally out of the channel and also to prevent longitudinal movement of the latter relative to said keys and said signatures or pages. 16. A book including a stack of leaves, a chan nel-shaped backbone of elongated form fitted 20 around an edge of said stack and having disposed therein a plurality of keys substantially chan nel-shaped in cross section, each of said keys hav ing an oblique tongue extended into said edge of the stack and one of said tongues being inclined oppositely in an oblique sense to another one of said tongues, said backbone being provided with means along its free edge parts catching each of said keys against separation therefrom in a lat eral sense, said means catching the keys being “ around an edge of said stack and each of said . further operable to prevent longitudinal move keys having a tongue formation extended ob liquely into the aforesaid edge of the stack, at least two of said tongues being oppositely in clined, and said channel-shaped member having ment of the backbone relative to said keys in their assembled relation with the stack as afore said. ROBERT ALONZO WILLIAMS.