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Патент USA US2106548

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Jan. 25, 1938.
F. w. COOPER
2,106,548
RAIL ANCHOR
Filed ‘Oct. 25, 1930
éSheets-Sliee’c 1 v
5am
Jan. 25‘, 1938.
' > F_ w, COOPER
2,106,548
RAIL, ANCHOR
Filed Oct. 25, 1930
2 Shgets-Sheet 2
Patented Jan. 25‘, 1938
2,106,548
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,106,548
RAIL ANCHOR
Francis W. Cooper, Montreal, Quebec, Canada,
assignor to The Stead Rail Anchor Company,
Limited, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, a corpora
tion of Canada
Application October 23, 1930, Serial No. 490,635
25 Claims.
This invention relates to improvements in rail
anchors of the general type shown in U. S. Patent
No. 1,366,558, granted the 25th January 1921,
to Cooper and Steadworthy, which anchors com
5 prise, broadly speaking, a U-shaped rail gripping
member having the arms thereof notched to em
brace one ?ange of a rail base, the web con
necting the arms of said member providing a seat
beneath the rail, and a spring retaining member
10 including a hook at one end to engage the edge
of the other rail base ?ange and a wedge shaped
15
de?ning a large open loop at one end of the mem
ber adapted to be held in compression by engage
ment in the aperture of the gripping member web
and to receive that ?ange of a rail base carrying
the gripping member. The long arm of the re
taining member is adapted to extend beneath a
rail transversely thereof and is formed at the
end opposite the loop with a hook adapted to en
gage the other rail base ?ange. The short arm
of the retaining member is designed to bear with 10
upward pressure on the gripping member web
loop adapted to be compressed between the grip
above the aperture and to bear with downward
ping member seat and the bottom of the rail base
pressure on the upper surface of the rail base
?ange carrying the gripping member.
?ange engaged by the gripping member. The
The primary object of the invention is to pro
vide in anchors of the aforesaid general type a
novel relation of the retaining member to the
gripping member and to the rail thereby to fa
cilitate application of the anchor to a rail; to
effect a novel and advantageaus distribution of
stresses in the retaining member; to produce a
long arm of the retaining member is designed to, 15
bear with downward pressure on the gripping
member web below the aperture and with upward
novel and advantageous rail gripping action in
the retaining member; and to enable the anchor
parts to be assembled in the factory into a unitary
25 structure in which the parts are arranged, rela
tively to one another, in positions of readiness
for application to a rail, the said unitary struc
ture being highly resistant to dismemberment and
permanent alteration of the relation of its parts
30 by the forces ordinarily encountered in handling,
transporting and distributing devices of this
character. A further object is to provide a novel
form of rail gripping member which will be
stronger than the form disclosed in the aforesaid
0:. ill
(Cl. 238—329)
patent and less liable to disturbance, displace
ment or damage in service. Various other objects
and the advantages of the invention may be
ascertained from the following disclosure.
The anchor comprises a substantially rigid rail
40 gripping member adapted to engage one ?ange of
a rail base and a resilient retaining member
adapted to engage the gripping member and the
other ?ange of the rail base. In one aspect of
the invention the rail gripping member is U
45 shaped or channel shaped and comprises a pair of
spaced arms each notched in one edge to embrace
one ?ange of a rail base and a web connecting
the‘ notched edges of the arms, the web being
formed with an aperture extending above and
below the arm notches for reception of the rail
base ?ange and the retaining member. The re
taining member is preferably formed of a ?at
bar of spring metal, of a width to pass between
the arms of the gripping member, bent upon itself
55 toward one end to .form shortand long arms
pressure upon the lower surface of the other rail
base ?ange. In one embodiment of the inven
tion, the _long arm also bears upwardly onthe 20
bottom of that rail base ?ange engaged by the
short arm. Another aspect of the invention is
that the gripping member constitutes, irrespec
tive of its U or channel shape, a ring encircling
the loop of the retaining member.
25
In the accompanying drawings which illustrate,
by way of example and for purposes of explana
tion, various embodiments of the invention, but
to which embodiments and the details thereof the
invention is not con?ned as other embodiments 30v
and modi?cations of detail are possible and con
templated;—
-
I
Fig. 1 is a side elevation of an anchor in posi
tion on a rail illustrating one embodiment of the
invention, the gripping member of said anchor 35~
being in vertical section.
Fig. 2 is a view similar to Figure 1, illustrating
another embodiment of the invention and certain
modi?cations of detail.
Fig. 3 is a plan view of the gripping member 40
of Figures 1 and 2 in the position occupied on _a
rail.
‘
Fig. 4 is a side elevation of a fragment of a
retaining member illustrating a modi?cation of
detail of the retaining member shown in Figure 1. 45
Figs. 5 and 6 are views similar to Figures 1 and
2 illustrating further embodiments of the inven
tion and further modi?cations of detail.
Referring more particularly to thedrawings,
I i designates a rail having base ?anges I2 and I3. 50
The anchor forming the subject of thisinven
tion comprises a gripping member l4 and a re
taining member l5.
'
»
The gripping member is a.v U-shaped or channel
shaped structure comprising ,aqpair “of "spaced .55
q
2
2,106,548
arms I6 and a connecting web [1. The arms l6
are each notched in one edge, as at [8, to receive
one rail base ?ange, the notches being prefer
ably, but not necessarily, disposed so as to posi
divergent portion 28 and the convergent portion
21 and designated 28. The purpose of the limited
size of bend 22 and of the divergent arm portions
28 is to facilitate assembly of the anchor parts.
tion the arms on a rail base ?ange at an edge
10
15
20
25
The short arm 23 may take a variety of forms.
wise inclination upwardly away from the rail, as It may be straight between the bend 22 and the
illustrated. The web I? of the member extends hook 25, as shown in Figure 2, or it may be bent
between the notched edges of the arms and is at an intermediate point 30 in its length to pro
formed with an aperture l9 extending, in terms of vide a portion3 l ,which‘may‘converge toward the
the service position of the anchor as illustrated. , long arm as shown in Figure 1, or it may be con
above and below the notches l8, said aperture - tinuously curved as shown at 3|a in Figure 5.
The portion 21 of the long arm is formed to
being formed to permit passage of the rail base
provide on its outer surface two seating surfaces
?ange into the notches. The aperture may ex
tend from arm to arm, as shown, or any suitable 32 and 33 at different points in the length of the
arm and adapted to rest at different times upon
lesser distance. Preferably, the aperture is ar
ranged asymmetrically of the notches, so as to the inner or upper edge of the Web portion 2|.
leave less distance between the upper surface of A projection 34 is preferably provided between
the seating surfaces32. and 33 and may be formed
the rail base and the adjacent end of the aper
ture than between the lower surface of the rail by offsetting the arm through the ‘whole of its
base and the adjacent end of the aperture. The width as in Figure 6 or through only a portion
of its width, as in Figures 1, 2, 4, ,and‘5. ,The
aperture, in effect, divides the web into two por
tions 20 and 2! adapted to lie respectively above seating surfaces 32 and 33 may be substantially
and below the rail base ?ange and these portions in line with each other, as shown in Figure 2, or
may, ifsdesired, be considered as separate spaced may occupy distinctly different planes as shown
webs connecting the notched edges of the arms in Figures 1, 4, 5, and 6, as a result ofv offsetting
the arm between them through the whole of its
adjacent the ends thereof.
_ Comparing the form of gripping member herein
with the corresponding member of the aforesaid
patent, it will be observed that, in terms of service
30 position, the web connects the lower ends of the
arms in the patent, leaving the notched edges
free whereas in the present invention the web
connects the notched edges of the arms above
and below the rail leaving the lower ends free.
The retaining member is formed of a flat bar
10
15
20
25
width‘ as in Figuresjl, 2, 5, and 6, or through only
a portion of its width as in Figure 4.
The seat
ing surface 32, which is‘ nearest the hook 26, may
be a' continuation of the projection 34 as in 30
Figures 4 and 6, or may be quite distinct from
the projection as in Figures 1, 2, and 5. Also,
the seating surface 32' may be ?ush with the
projection 34 as in Figures 1 and 6, or the pro
jection may extend outwardly of the seating sur
of spring metalof a width to pass easily through
face 32, as in Figures 2, 4, and 5.
the aperture [8 and between the arms It. The
bar is bent upon itself toward one end at any
In Figure 5, the bend 22 is shown to be of a
diameter so much larger than in Figures 1 and 2
that the divergent arm portions 23 and 24 are
absorbed in the bend. The short arm portion 40
3| a‘ adjacent the hook 25 is curved oppositely to
suitable radius as at 22 to form a short arm 23
40 and a long arm 24, said arms and the bend 22
de?ning, a large open loop. The extremities of
the‘short and long arms are bent substantially
at right angles to form hooks 25 and 26 respec
tively. The hook 25 of the short arm projects
45 away from the long arm and the hook 26 of the
long arm projects toward the plane of the short
arm. The loop 22 and the arms 23 and 24 may
take various forms, as will be seen from com
parison of Figures 1, 2, 5, and 6. The long arm
includes
a portion 21, locatedapproximately op
50
posite the end of the short arm, which converges
from the bend 22 toward the line of the short
arm.
’
>
The retaining member is preferably so formed
55 that in the relaxed condition of the member, the
distance from the outside of the short arm adja
cent the hook 25 to the outside of the long arm
portion 21, measured approximately at right
angles to the said portion 21, is somewhat great-er
60 than the depth of the gripping member aperture
19 and somewhat less than the distance from out
side to outside of the arms measured nearer to
the bend 22. The ?rst of the aforesaid distances
is shown in Figure 1, which illustrates the re
65 laxed condition of the retaining member in
broken lines for the short arm and dotted lines
for the long arm. The-outside diameter of the
bend 22' is preferably not greater than the depth
of the aperture l9. As shown in Figures 1 and 2,
70 it is slightly less, while in Figure 5 it is more.
The effect of these relative dimensions is to pro
duce in-the structures shown in Figures 1 and 2
_
the bend 22 and the long arm portion 21 adjacent
ghedbend may also be curved oppositely to the
en
.
Figure 6 shows the long arm 24 ‘provided with 45
a hump 35 extending toward the short arm. This
hump may be’ formed integral with the arm ‘by
reversely bending the material thereof, as shown,
or-may be provided" in any other suitable way.
The top of the hump 35 is preferably located
somewhat nearer the bend 22 than the hook 25 is
but may be otherwise located.
From the foregoing, it will be seen a. great
many modi?cations of detail are possible, the in
vention not being, con?ned to those illustrated. 55
It will also be understood that the combination
of details is not con?ned to the particular com
binations shown, but the details illustratedor
equivalents thereof may be otherwise combined.
It will be understood further that many degrees 60
ofv modification are possible, for example, be
tween the forms of Figures land 2 or between
the forms of these ?gures and Figure 5.
The twohpa'rts of anchors as shown in Figures 1
and 2 are assembled in the factory by passing 65
the retaining member, loop end ?rst, through the
aperture of the gripping member. This assembly
maybe accomplished by pressing the two arms
_of the ‘I retaining member toward one another
until the loop will pass freely through the aperé 70
ture or the assembly may; be accomplished by
forcing the loop‘, through the aperture in which
arm portions 28 which diverge away from~ the
bend...22 to a point of maximum loop depth
case the divergent‘ ‘arm portions engage opposite
ends of the‘ aperture an'diare pressed toward one
76 marked in the: long armby the meeting ',of_:.the
anothenby reason rofcamming-i or .wedgingaction
3,.
due to their divergent relation. in either case
the retaining member is advanced until the hook
taining member a combined swinging and slid-3
25 engages the web portion 20 and arrests move
ment of the short arm and causes the retaining
1 member to swing around this pointof engage-1
taining member advances transversely of the rail,
the rounded end of the short arm formed by’
ment during further advance, so that only the
bending the hook 25 advances up the inclined
upper surface of the base flange 12 and causes
long arm slides over the lower web portion and
the short arm to act as a lever fulcrumed on the
?nally locates the seating surface 32 in contact
with the upper end of the web portion 2!. The
retaining member in this factory assembled re
lation to the gripping member is illustrated in
broken lines in Figures 1 and 2. It will be ob
lower edge of the upper web portion 20, thereby
swinging the bend 22 downwardly and tending
to swing the hooked end of the long arm upward-e 10
1y. This swinging effect will be increased if the
short arm 23 is inclined, as in. the‘ portion 3|,
served by comparing the factory assembled form
of the retaining member with the relaxed form of
15' the member indicated for the long arm in dotted
lines, Figure 1, that the loop has been compressed
in the assembly. The expansive action of the
loop holds the arms tightly against the ends of
the aperture. The upper web portion 2!! is se
curely engaged in the angle or recess between
the arm 23 and the hook 25, while the lower web
portion 2! is securely engaged with the seating
portion 32 in the angle or recess between the
protruding arm portion and the projection 34.
25 To move the retaining member out of the rela
tion to the gripping member thus established will
cause further compression of the loop and the
resistance of the loop to such further compression
is su?‘lcient to hold the members in their factory
30 assembled relation against any of the forces ordi
narily encountered in the handling, transporta
tion and distribution of the anchors. Owing to
the angular relation of the seating surface 32
with the surfaces immediately on each side of it,
the parts will return to the factory‘ assembled
relation after any slight disturbance of the rela
tion. In the factory assembled relation, the
parts are in proper relation for the preliminary
steps of assembly to a rail.
40
ing movement relatively to the rail. As the re-
'
~
The method of factory assembly of an anchor
as shown in Figure 5 is somewhat different from
that just described. The retaining member is
passed through the gripping member aperture
with the hook 28 leading and the loop is com
45 pressed by external means su?iciently' to enable
the hook 25 to be passed through the aperture Hi.
In assembling the anchor to a rail, the hook
26 is passed beneath the rail and the gripping
member notches caused to receive one rail base
?ange. The gripping member may be now driven
' into tight engagement with the rail base ?ange
by striking on the corners farthest laterally from
the rail or this setting of the gripping member
may be deferred until the retaining member has
55 been ?nally positioned. It will be noted from
the broken line illustration of the factory as
sembled relation of the parts that the retaining
member will not interfere with the positioning
of the gripping member. When the gripping
60 member is in applied position on one rail base
?ange, the hook 25 of the retaining member may
be still out of contact with the bottom of the
other rail base or only lightly in contact there
with, the exact condition depending upon the
angular relation of the protruding arm portion
to the remainder of the member.
The assembly is completed by driving the re
taining member transversely of the rail until
the hook 26 snaps up into position against the
70 vertical edge surface of the ?ange l3 and the
member assumes the position shown in full lines,
Figures 1 and 2. The driving is preferably ac
complished by striking with a hammer in an ap
proximately horizontal direction on the outside
75 Jof the bend 22, The driving imparts to the re-
Figure 1, so as to have a camming orwedging
action of its own in passing under the webpor
tion 20. As the length of the short arm 23 be 15
tween its points of contact with the’web and with
the rail. base is very much less than the distance
between the hooks 25 and 26, a small angular
movement of the short arm will tend to cause
considerable upward movement of} the hook 26. 20
This upward movement is prevented by the rail
base .and as the loop is forced downwards by the
lever action of the short arm, it follows that the
long arm is tensioned and ?exed‘beoause of its
rigid support on the lower web portion 2|. The
long arm becomes, in eifect, a ‘lever fulcrumed
on the lower web portion 2|. The tensioning and
?exing of the long arm are increased by the,
movement of its portion 21 over the web portion
2!, the portion 21 being inclined to the direc 30;
tion of movement and thereby exerting a cam
ming or wedging action which increases the up
ward thrust imparted to- the hook 26. >The?ex~
ing of the long arm and upthrusting of the hook I
26 increase until the projection 34 passes over 35
the lower web portion 21, bringing the seating
surface 33 into ?nal seating engagement with
the web portion 2|. .When this occurs,.the hook ‘
26 snaps up into engagement'with the vertical
edge surface of the base ?ange IS. The seating 40
of the surface 33 on the web and the ?nal upward
movement of the hook combine to partially re
lieve the tension in the long arm of the retaining ,
member, but it will be understood that, owing
to the swinging movement of the entire retaining 45
member about the web portion 28 and owing to
the advance of the inclined arm portion 2'! over
the web portion 2!, there is considerable residual
?exion and tension in the long arm operating to
hold it tightly against the base ?ange l3‘a'nd to 50.:
hold the hook 26 up in ?ange edge engaging
position. The projection 34 operates to hold thev
long arm against any retreating tendency if the
hook 226 should be accidentally depressed below
the base ?ange i3. If the gripping member has
not been already driven tightly onto the ?ange
i 2, this is now done. If the gripping member
has been previously driven tight, it is advisable
to give it one or two blows to remedy any possible
loosening incident to driving the retaining mem 60
ber, but more particularly to cause the retaining
member to recoil suf?ciently to draw the hook 26
tightly against the vertical edge of the ?ange I3.
Realization of the effects last described ‘ de
pends primarily upon engagement of the member 65
M with the bottom of the rail base and with the
top of the short arm of the retaining member;
and depends to lesser extent upon the support
of the long arm by the lower web portion 2 i. In
other words, the swinging movement of the re 70
taining member and the wedging action of the
rail base are effected by driving the retaining
member short arm between the upper web por
tion 20 and the upper inclined'surface of the
base ?ange ‘l2. 7 The support afforded» bytheqs
2,106,548
lower web portionf2l and'the camming action of
the loop is compressedas aforesaid and the short
the long arm portion'Z'I on the web portion 2|
serve merely to augment or multiply the effect
arm caused to press down on the top of one ‘rail
base ?ange, while the long arm is caused to'press
up against the bottom‘ of the other rail base
produced by the short arm. If the inclination
of the short arm 23 is? of the order shown in ?ange, the gripping member meanwhile holding
Figure 2' but increased until the arm is parallel the‘ retaining member against movement which
would relieve these pressures. The retaining
with the upper surface of the ?ange, the swing
ing'movement will be lost but there will remain member thus obtains a tight grip on the rail both
a certain wedging action by co-operation with the vertically and transversely. As already stated,
rail base. In such an arrangement the major driving the retaining member through the grip
portion of long arm tension and ?exion would ' ping member serves to compress the retaining
depend on a camming action of the long arm member loop. At the same time, driving the
portion 21. Alternatively, if the spacing of the retai'ning'member onto the rail tends to open the
web portion 20 above the rail is such that the loop by reason of wedging engagement of the
short arm'does not engage: the upper surface of base ?ange in the loop. These two opposed ac 15
tions are capable of simultaneous occurrenceby
the base, there will not be any swinging move
ment of the retaining member nor any wedging reason of the gripping member encircling the:
effect of the base ?ange and the tensioning and loop between its ends, so that the loop may be
?exion of the retaining member will depend en
compressed where it contacts the gripping mem
20 tirely upon the camming action of the lower arm ber and at the. same time expanded in that its 20
extremities are forced apart by movement rela
portion 21 on the lower web portion 2|, the re
taining member being, in effect, merely a lever tive to the rail. The result is the arms of the
fulcrumed on the web portion 2| and bearing at retaining member are fulcrumed independently
one end against the bottom of the ?ange l3 and on‘the portions 20 and 2| of the gripping member
the other end against the upper web portion 20. web and tend to swing in opposite directions and 25
I25 at' The
driving of the retaining member through to reduce the diameter of the bend 22.
the gripping member to fully assembled position
In some respects, the forms of short arm shown
in Figures 1 and 5 are preferable. The effective
on a rail serves to further compress the loop.
inclination of the parts 3! or Sin is considerable
vIn the embodiment shown in Figure 1, the ad
30 vance of the short arm up the inclined top of and applies a more pronounced swinging force to
the base ?ange 12 ‘combined with the opposite
inclination of the arm portion 3| moving under
the web portion 20 creates a very considerable
resistance to the longitudinal movement of the
35 retaining member. ' In'the embodiment of‘ Figure
2, the entire short arm is‘inclined in the same
direction as the top of the base ?ange l2, so that
the resistance to driving is materially less. The
effective inclination of the arm in any part of its
40 movement is the inclination of the part thereof
in engagement with the upper web portion 20
relative to the upper surface of the base ?ange l 2.
The exact degree of effective inclination of the
short arm may be made as desired and may be
45 more than shown in Figure l, or less than shown
in Figure 2, or anything between the two.
In the forms shown in:Figures l and 2, the
effective inclination of the short arm 23 decreases
as the retaining member is driven to ?nal posi
: tion, owing to the downward swinging movement
of the loop. In the form shown in Figure 5, the
effective inclination may decrease or remain con
stant or even increase during the driving, depend
ing upon the degree of curvature of the arm
551 portion
3|“.
7
'
'
the retaining member than does the less inclined
short arm of Figure 2. Also, the inclination of
the parts 3| or 3IP~ provides above the rail base
a more effective gripping member holding means
than does the less inclined corresponding arm of V 35
Figure 2. ‘In fact, the'gripping member holdingl
effect is substantially the same above and below
the railin the anchor of Figures 1 or 5, whereas
in the anchor of Figure 2 the holding effect above
the ‘rail is less than the holding e?ect below the 40
rail. The holding effect above and below the rail
base is valuable in that it holds the gripping mem
ber at the top against swinging away from the
rail and against any tendency to oscillate about
the base ?ange.
Figure 6 exhibits structural features and func
tional characteristics additional to those already‘
described. The hump 35 is so forme'd'that it will
engage the lower surface of the same base ?ange
that the short arm engages. At the outset of
applying the anchor, this engagement does not
exist or if it‘ does exist the pressure of the en
gagement is so tri?ng as not to interfere with the
manual location of the gripping ‘member on the
The inclination of the lower arm part 21 be
base ?ange. When driving of the retaining
tween the seating surface 33 and the hump‘ 29,
relative to the direction of movement, serves to
member commences, the swinging movement
forces the hump 35 laterally and upwardly against '
the bottom of the base ?ange. The hump 35
preferably engages the base ?ange nearer its edge
resist over driving of the retaining member.
The
60 ‘inclination of this part may be uniform as shown
in Figures 1 and 2 or may be gradually increasing
as shown in Figure 5, so as to strongly resist over
driving, or may be of a decreasing order.
than the upper arm does, so that the hump es
tablishes a fulcrum point about which the retain
tend to recoil if not fully ‘driven in one blow and,
when once in position on. a rail, is practically
ing member will swing, independently‘ of the
gripping member, with upward thrusting of the
book 26 and ultimate engagement of the armad
jacent the hook with the lower surface of the"
base ?ange I3. As the retaining member ad
vances the base ?ange, is grippingly wedged be
impossible to displace accidentally. In removing
tween the upper arm and the hump, independ
The application of the anchor to a rail is com
65 paratively easy and only a-small amount of move
ment is required. The retaining member does not
'70.'the anchor, the hook 26 is struck down and caused
to catch on the lower edge of the base ?ange l3
and the gripping member is then struck off the
?ange I2, the two parts coming away as?a unit.
45
That embodiment of the invention shown in
ently of any positioning function of the gripping 70
member. Thus the retaining member alone will
function similarly to the combination of retain.
ing member and gripping member of vthe other
In driving the retaining member through the embodiments. The gripping memberffunctions
75.. gripping member to assembledipositionpn a rail; to supplement or multiply the effects produced,
5
2,106,548
by the retaining member, to the end that the
relatively light and. yielding retaining member
exerts a serviceably tight grip on the rail base.
The functioning of the gripping member in the
embodiment of Figure 6 is similar to its func
tioning in the embodiments of Figures 1, 2, and 5.
In anchors formed as in Figures 1, 2, and 5,
there are found pairs of jaws engaging the up
per and lower surfaces of the same base ?ange,
10 said jaws being the upper arm of the retaining
member and the lower portion of the gripping
member. In anchors formed as in Figure 6 the
two jaws are the upper and lower arms of the
15
retaining member.
Apart from the hump 35, the lower arm may
be formed in any of the ways already described
and may co-operate with the gripping member as
already described.
From the foregoing, it will be seen the novel
20 forms of retaining members herein disclosed
present, among others, four important differences
over the retaining member of the aforesaid pat
ent, viz; ?rst, the retaining member grips the
rail both transversely and vertically; second, the
25 retaining member loop is compressed in the
gripping member independently of assembly to
a rail; third, the retaining member loop tends
to be expanded by movement relatively to the
rail; and fourth, the retaining member holds
30 the gripping member both above and below the
rail base ?ange.
The gripping member herein is an improve
ment over the gripping member of the patent, in
that it is stronger owing to the arms being con
35 nected both above and below the rail base and is
less liable to damage in service from pounding in
ballast, owing to the fact that-it presents to the
ballast only the edges of the arms whichlwill
readily penetrate the ballast. While it is pref
40 erable to dispose the gripping member at the in
clination illustrated, so as to keep the lowest and
substantially all ballast engaging points thereof
directly beneath the rail base, it will be under
stood the invention is not con?ned to an in
4.5 clined disposition of the gripping member.
It will be observed the member I4 is in effect a
ring member encircling the retaining member 15
and holding the arms thereof against separation
so that when the retaining member is moved
50 transversely of a rail, the wedging effect of the
divergent upper and lower rail base surfaces
tending to spread the arms of the retaining
member is resisted by the encircling member It,
thus causing ?exure and severe tensioning of
55 the retaining member with consequent gripping
engagement with the rail base. This effect is in
dependent of the ring formation of the member
M and independent of tensioning resulting from
relative movement of the members, in that
60 either may be produced separately. It is obvious
that if the top of the loop (in the forms of Fig
ures 1, 2 and 5) is held, at a point outwardly of
the engagement with the top of the rail base,
against upward movement, the tensioning ef-'
65 fect of forcing the retaining member trans
versely of the rail base will persist even though
there is no ring member. For example, in the
form of Figure 6, the hump 35 affords in effect
the necessary holding against upward movement.
70 Likewise, if the two members are relatively
moved, either on or off the rail, tensioning of the
retaining member results. When the two con
ditions are concurrent, the two‘ tensions are not
merely additive but react upon one another with
75 multiplying effect, whereby a very tight gripping
engagement of the retaining member and. rail re
sults. In the forms of Figures 1, 2, and 5, the
tensioning and ?exing of the member [5 by
wedging engagement with the rail is dependent
on the engagement of the member M with the
rail only to the extent that the member‘ l4 so
positions and supports the member l5 that the
wedging action results, while in. the form of Fig
ure 6 the tensioning and ?exing of the member
I5 is primarily independent of the member M,
which serves merely to augment the effects in
herent to the retaining member.
It has already been shown in connection with
the embodiments of the invention illustrated in
Figures 1, 2, and 5 that so far as retention of the
retaining member in operative relation to the rail
is concerned, the function of the gripping mem
ber is solely one of holding down the upper arm
of the retaining member in such manner that
the retaining member and rail base co-operate
with wedging effect to tension the retaining
member. In the embodiment illustrated in Figure
6, the aforesaid holding down effect is obtained
by the hump 35 quite independently of the grip
ping member, so that the latter does not neces
sarily contribute to the fact of retention of the
retaining member on the rail base. It therefore
10
15
20
25
follows that all of the gripping member arms
below the rail (excepting such as is necessary to
constitute jaws engaging the lower surface of the 30
rail base) are idle in theretention of the retain
ing member on the rail. Their function and the
function of the lower web 2| is to increase the
grip of the retaining member and render the an
chor capable of resisting great creeping tendency
35
in the rail. Without this function of the‘lower
arm portions and lower web 2|, the anchor ‘would
be quite operative, but to a lesser degree, in re
sisting rail creeping. The same applies to the
embodiment of Figure 6. In the absence of the
lower arm portions shrouding the loop of the re
taining member the resistance to rail creeping
would result from engagement of the retaining
member with a tie.‘ As the retaining members
shown present only a small surface area for tie
engagement and,'as the retaining members do
not depend any great distance below the tie, it is
obvious the tie would suffer by reason of the re
taining member cutting into it and that the rail
holding effect would be partly lost. It will be
seen from the foregoing that the arms (6, which
will be interposed between the retaining member
and tie and which depend below the retaining
member, materially increase the tie engaging sur~
face of the anchor and also increase depth of
such engagement. This invention therefore pre
sents the added feature of means, not contribut
ing to the retention of the anchor on a rail, asso
ciated with an anchor for the purpose of a?ord
ing an extended tie engaging surface.
60
,
Having thus described my invention, what I
claim is:——
'
1. A rail anchor comprising a member formed
to engage the bottom surface of one base ?ange of
a rail and the relatively inclined top surface only 65
of the other base ?ange of the rail and adapted
to be moved transversely of the rail, and a second
member adapted to engage the lower surface of
said other rail base ?ange and thereby to be
positioned on said other rail base ?ange and to 70
engage the upper surface of said ?rst member at
a point above the rail base and outwardly of the
engagement of the ?rst member with thetop of
the rail base ?ange and to hold said ?rst mem
ber against upward movement at said outwardly 75
2,106,548
located point during movement transversely of
member notched to grippingly embrace one ?ange
the rail whereby said ?rst member will be ten
sioned by wedging co-operation with the rail base
and will grippingly engage the top and'bottom
of a rail base and formed with upper and lower
seat portions to be spaced respectively above and
below the engaged base ?ange with the lower
seating portion nearer the central longitudinal
vertical plane of the rail than the upper seat
portion, and a retaining member adapted to ex
tend beneath a railv transversely thereof, formed
surfaces of the rail base, and means to hold the
?rst member against movement in a reverse di
rection to that causing tension of said ?rst mem
ber.
2. A rail anchor comprising a member formed
10 to engage the bottom surface of one base ?ange
of a rail and the relatively inclined top surface
only of the other base ?ange of the rail and
adapted to be moved transversely of the rail and
a second member formed with jaws to grippingly
.15 engage that ?ange of the rail base engaged on
its upper surface by the ?rst member and thereby
to be positioned thereon and formed to engage
the upper surface of the ?rst member at a point
above the rail base and outwardly of the engage
20 ment of the ?rst member with the top of the rail
base ?ange and to hold said ?rst member against
upward movement at said outwardly located
point during movement transversely of the‘rail,
whereby said ?rst member will be tensiened by
25 wedging co-operation with the rail base and will
grippingly engage the top and bottom surfaces
of the rail base, and means carried by the’ ?rst
member adapted to engage the rail base opposite
said second member to hold the ?rst member
30 against movement such as would reduce’ its grip
on the upper and lower surfaces of the rail base.
3. A rail anchor comprising a member formed
to engage the bottom surface of one base ?ange of
a rail and the relatively inclined top surface
V35 only of the other base ?ange of the rail- and
adapted to be moved transversely of the rail and
a second member adapted “to engage the lower
surface of that ?ange of the rail base engaged on
its upper surface by said ?rst member, said sec40 ond member engaging the upper surface of said
?rst member at a point located above the rail
base and outwardly of its engagement with the
upper surface of the rail base and holding said
?rst member against upward movement relatively
to the rail at the point of vengagement of the
members, whereby the ?rst member is rocked
about its point of engagement with the second
member and is thrust upwardly against the bot
tom surface of one base ?ange upon movement
~50 transversely of the top surface of the other base
?ange, and a hook on the upthrusting end of said
?rst member adapted to engage the adjacent ver
tical edge surface of the rail base and hold the
?rst member against retrograde movement; rela
.55 tively to the engaged upper surface of the base
?ange.
4. A rail anchor comprising a rail gripping
member notched to grippingly embrace one ?ange
of a rail base and formed with upper and lower
60 seat portions to be spaced respectively above
and below the engaged base ?ange with the lower
‘seating portion nearer the central longitudinal
vertical plane of the rail than the upper seat
portion,,and a retaining member adapted to ex
65 tend beneath a rail transversely thereof, formed
at one end with a shoulder adapted to engage the
edge of the rail base opposite said gripping mem
ber and formed at the other end with a loop ly
ing between and engaging said upper and lower
70 seat portions and adapted to engage the inclined
upper surface of the base ?ange engaged by said
gripping member at a point between vertical
planes extending longitudinally of the rail and
containing said seat portions.
5. A rail anchor comprising a rail gripping
at one end with a shoulder adapted to engage
the edge of the rail base opposite said gripping 10
member and formed at the other end with a
loop lying between and engaging said upper
lower seat portions and adapted to engage
inclined upper surface of the base ?ange
gaged by said gripping member at a point
and
the
en
be 15
tween vertical planes extending longitudinally of
the rail and containing said seat portions, the
portion of said loop engaging the upper seat
portion and the upper ?ange surface being in
clined relatively to the upper ?ange surface and ~20
the portion of said loop engaging the lower seat
surface being inclined relatively to the direction
of retaining member movement, whereby upon
movement of the retaining member loop relative
ly to said seat portions and transversely of the r25
rail the retaining member will be swung about its
point of engagement with the ‘upper seat portion
by the combined effects of the inclined rail base
surface and theinclined loop portions engaging
the upper and lower seat portions, with upward 30
thrusting effect upon the shouldered end caus
ing the shoulder to rise into and be held in rail
?ange edge engaging position.
6. A rail anchor comprising a member formed
to engage the relatively inclined top and bottom
surfaces of one ?ange of a rail base and the bot
tom surface of the other base ?ange at laterally
spaced points and to be elsewhere spaced from
said surfaces and adapted to be moved trans
versely of the rail thereby to wedgingly engage 40
said ?rst mentioned rail base ?ange in said
member, the points of engagement of said mem
ber with the ?rst named base ?ange being so
spaced transversely of the rail as to cause up
ward pressure of the member against the second
named ?ange upon transverse wedging movement
of the member, and means provided with seat
portions respectively positioned above and below
the rail base to resist ?exion of said member by
reason of its wedging engagement with the rail 50
base, whereby the member will be caused to grip
pingly engage the upper and lower surfaces of
the rail base and means to hold said member
against retreat from its rail gripping position.
7. A rail anchor comprising a member formed ' ‘
to engage the relatively inclined top and bottom
surfaces of one ?ange of a rail base and the bot
tom surface of the other base ?ange at laterally
spaced points and to be elsewhere spaced from
said surfaces and adapted to be moved trans 60
versely of the rail thereby to wedgingly engage
said ?rst mentioned rail base ?ange in said
member, the point of engagement of said mem
ber with the upper surface of the ?ange being
spaced farther from the edge of said ?ange than
the point of engagement of said member with the
lower surface of the same ?ange, and means
positioned above and below the rail base at dif
ferent distances from the adjacent edge, of the
rail base to resist ?exion of said member by 70
reason of its wedging engagement with the rail
base, whereby the member will be caused to grip- pingly engage the upper and lower surfaces of
the rail base and means to hold said member
against retreat from its rail gripping position. 75
2,106,548
' ' 8; A rail anchor comprising a member formed
to engage laterally restricted areas of the rela
tively inclined top and bottom surfaces of one
?ange of a rail base and the bottom surface of
the other base ?ange and to be elsewhere spaced
from said surfaces and adapted to be moved
transversely of the rail thereby to wedgingly
engage said ?rst mentioned rail base ?ange in
said member, the point of engagement of said
member with the upper surface of the ?ange be
ing spaced farther from the edge of said ?ange
than the point of engagement of said member
with the lower surface of the same ?ange, and
rigid means engaging said member above and
below the rail base at points spaced transversely
of the rail relatively to the points of engagement
of said member and the base ?ange, and sup
porting the member to resist ?exion by reason
'20
of its wedging engagement with the rail base
whereby the member will be caused to grippingly
engage the upper and lower surfaces of the rail
base and means on said member to engage the
vertical edge surface of said second rail base
?ange with member retaining effect.
9. A rail anchor comprising a member formed
to engage laterally restricted areas of the rela
tively inclined top and bottom surfaces of one
?ange of a rail base and the bottom surface of
the other base ?ange and to be elsewhere spaced
from said surfaces and adapted to be moved
transversely of the rail thereby to wedgingly
engage said ?rst mentioned rail base ?ange in
rail base ?ange in said member, the point of
engagement of said member with the upper sur—
face of the ?ange being spaced farther from the
edge of said ?ange than the point of engage
ment of said member with the lower surface of
the same ?ange, and means, adapted to grip
pingly engage the upper and lower surfaces‘of
said ?rst named base ?ange, encircling that
portion of said member embracing the ?rst
named base ?ange, said means engaging said 10
member above and below the rail base at points
spaced transversely of the rail relatively to‘ the
points of engagement of said member and the
base ?ange, and supporting themember to re
sist ?exion by reason of its wedging engagement 15
with the rail base, whereby the member will be
caused to grippingly engage the upper and lower
surfaces of the rail base, said member being
formed to further engage said other base ?ange in
suchwise as to hold the member against retreat 20
from its rail gripping position.
12. A rail anchor comprising a rail: gripping
member including upper and lower seat portions
and a retaining member including upper and
lower arms de?ning a spring loop, said arms'be 25.
ing formed to provide recesses in their outer sur
faces for reception of the seat portions, the re
cesses being so located that when engaged by
the seat portions the members will be relatively
positioned in readiness for assembly to a rail, 30
said loop being disposed in compression between
said seat portions and operating by its expansive
vsaid member, and means, adapted to grippingly
action to hold the seat portions in the recesses
engage the upper and lower surfaces of said ?rst
against the forces ordinarily encountered in han
dling whereby the parts may be factory as
35 named base ?ange, encircling that portion of
said member embracing the first named base
?ange and supporting the member to resist
?exion by reason of its wedging engagement
with the rail base, whereby the member will
40 be caused to grippingly engage the upper and
lower surfaces of the rail base and means on said
member to engage the vertical edge surface of
said second rail base ?ange with member re~
taining effect.
45
7
10. A rail anchor comprising a member formed
to engage laterally rectricted areas of the rela
tively inclined top and bottom surfaces of one
?ange of a rail base and the bottom surface of
the other base ?ange and to be elsewhere spaced
50 from said surfaces and adapted to be moved
transversely of the rail thereby to wedgingly en
gage said ?rst mentioned rail base ?ange in said
member, the point of engagement of said mem
her with the upper surface of the ?ange being
spaced farther from the edge of said ?ange than
the point of engagement of said member with
the lower surface of the same ?ange, and means,
adapted to grippingly engage the upper and
lower surfaces of said ?rst named base ?ange,
60 encircling that portion of said member embrac
ing the ?rst named base ?ange and engaging
the member from above and beneath it to support
the same to resist ?exion by reason of its wedg
ing engagement with the rail base, whereby the
65 member will be caused to grippingly engage the
upper and lower surfaces of the rail base and
means on said member engageable with said other
base ?ange to hold the member in its rail grip ~
ping position.
11. A rail anchor comprising a member formed
to engage the relatively inclined top and bottom
surfaces of one ?ange of a rail base and the
bottom surface of the other base ?ange and
adapted to be moved transversely of the rail
75 thereby to wedgingly engage said ?rst mentioned
35
sembled to constitute in effect a unitary struc
ture.
~
_
13. A rail anchor comprising a rail gripping
member including upper and lower seat portions
and a retaining member including upper and 40
lower arms de?ning a spring loop, said arms
presenting de?ned seat surfaces for engagement
with said seat portions, the seat surfaces being
so located that when engaged by the seat por
tions the members will be relatively positioned in 45
readiness for assembly to a rail, said loop being
disposed in compression between said seat por
tions and operating by its expansive action to
hold the seat portions and seat surfaces in en
gagement, the arms being formed to provide por 50
tions adjacent said seat surfaces so disposed rela
tively to the seat surfaces as to hold the retain
ing member against movement relatively to the
gripping member such as would disengage said
seat surfaces and seat portions. '
14. A'rail anchor comprising a rail gripping
member including upper and lower, seat portions
and a retaining member including upper and
lower arms de?ning a spring loop, said upper
arm presenting a seat surface for engagement
with the upper seat portion and said lower arm
presenting a pair of seat surfaces for engage
55
ment selectively with said lower seat portion, the
relation of one of said lower arm seat surfaces
to the upper arm seat surface being such that 65
when the two surfaces are engaged with the ‘seat
portions the members will be in relative posi
tions of readiness for application'to a rail and
the relation of the other lower arm seat surface
to the upper arm seat surface being such that
when the two surfaces are'engaged with the
seat portions the members will be in relative
positions of operative assembly on a rail. '
15. A rail anchor comprising a rail gripping
member including upper and, lower seat portions
70
8
2, 106,548
and a retaining vmember including upper and
lower arms de?ning a spring ‘loop, said upper arm
presenting a seat surface for engagement with
the upper seat portion and said lower arm pre
ing member including upper and lower arms.de
?ning a spring loop adapted to receive the em;
braced base ?ange, said loop being in compres-‘
senting a pair of seat surfaces for engagement
selectively with said lower seat portion, the rela
sion between said seat portions, the upper and
lower arms being adapted to bear adjacent their
tion of one of said lower arm seat surfaces to the
extremities on the upper and lower surfaces, re
spectively, of the rail base, said lower arm being
formed with a seat surface adapted for engage
ment with said lower seat portion and being 10
formed on either side of said seat surface with
portions which upon transit over, the lower seat
portion will cause increased compression of said
loop whereby the members when operatively en.
gaged will be releasably locked in predetermined .15
upper arm seat surface being such that when
the two surfaces are engaged with the seat por
10 tions the members will be in relative positions
of readiness for application to a rail and the
relation of the other lower arm seat surface to
the upper arm seat surface being such that when
the two surfaces are engaged with the seat por
15 tions the members will be in relative positions
of operative assembly on a rail, said loop being
in compression between the seat portions and
operating by its expansive action to hold the
seat surfaces and seat portions in engagement
20 thereby to maintain the members in the rela
tive positions to which they are adjusted.
16. A rail anchor comprising a rail gripping
member including upper and lower seat portions
and a retaining member including upper and
lower arms de?ning a spring loop, said upper arm
presenting a seat surface for engagement with
the upper seat portion and said lower arm pre
senting a pair of seat surfaces for engagement
selectively with said lower seat portion, the rela
so tion of one of said lower arm seat surfaces to' the
upper arm seat surface being such that when the
two surfaces are engaged with the seat portions
the members will be in relative positions of
readiness for application to a rail and the rela
35 tion of the other lower arm seat surface to the
upper arm seat surface being such that when the
two surfaces are engaged with the seat portions
the members will be in relative positions of oper
ative vassembly on a rail, said loop being in com
40 pression between the seat portions and operating
by its expansive action to hold the seat surfaces
and seat portions in engagement thereby to
maintain the members in the relative positions
to which they are adjusted, said arms being
45
formed to provide portions adjacent said seat
surfaces so disposed relatively to the seat sur
faces as to hold the retaining member against
movement relatively to the gripping member such
as would disengage said seat surfaces and seat
50
embraced base ?ange, respectively, and- a retain
portions.
17. A rail anchor comprising ‘a member adapt
ed to grippingly embrace one ?ange of a rail base
and including upper and lower seat portions
adapted to be spaced above and below the em
braced base ?ange, respectively, and a retaining
member including upper and lower arms de?n
ing a spring loop adapted to receive the embraced
base ?ange, said loop being in compression be
tween said seat portions, the upper and lower
60 arms being adapted to bear adjacent their ex
tremities on the upper and lower surfaces, re
spectively, of the rail base, said arms being
formed with seat surfaces so disposed that when
engaged with the seat portions the members will
65 be relatively positioned in readiness for applica
tion 'to a rail, said arms being further formed
to provide portions adjacent said seat surfaces
so disposed relatively to the seat surfaces as to
hold the retaining member against movement
70 relatively to the gripping member such as would
disengage said seat surfaces and seat portions.
18. A rail anchor comprising a member adapt
ed to grippingly embrace one ?ange of a rail
base and including upper and lower seat por
75 tions adapted to be spaced above and below the
relation.
1
..
,
_
19. A rail anchor comprising a spring retain
ing member including upper and lower arms de
?ning an open loop adapted to receive one flange
of a rail base and adapted to respectivelyengage .20
the upper surface of one rail base ?ange and the
lower surface and edge of the other rail base
?ange and to be elsewhere spaced from the rail
base, in combination with means holding the
loop of said retaining member in compression 25
both while off and while on a rail, the lower arm
of the retaining member having spaced recesses
formed on its lower surface, said means'being
formed for rigid interlocking engagement with
said member disposed in one of said recesses to 30
position the member and the means in relative
positions of readiness for application‘ to a rail,
said member and means being forcibly movable
from said relative positions to relative positions
of operative engagement with ,a rail with said 35
member disposed in the other of said recesses. ,
20.’ A rail anchor comprising a spring retain
ing member including upper and lower arms de-_
?ning an open loop adapted to receive one ?ange
of a rail base and adapted to respectively engage 40
the upper surface of one rail base ?ange and the
lower surface and edge of the other rail base
?ange and to be elsewhere spaced from thejrail
base, in combination with a gripping member
adapted to hold the loop of said retaining mem 4.5
ber in compression both while off and while on
a rail and to grippingly embrace the rail base
?ange received in said loop, the lower arm of
the retaining member having spaced recesses
formed on its lower surface, the members being 50
formed for rigid interlocking-engagement with
the gripping member disposed in one of said re
cesses with the parts in relative positions of
readiness for application to a rail when separate
from a rail, said retaining member being forcibly 55
movable from said relative position to a relative
position of operative engagement with a rail with
said gripping member disposed in the other of
said recesses.
21. A rail anchor comprising a member formed 60
to grippingly embrace one ?ange of a rail base
and including upper and lower seat portions
adapted to be disposed above and below the en
gaged rail base ?ange with the lower seat por-i
tion farther in from the edge of the ?ange-than 65
the upper seat portion, in combination with‘ a
retaining member including upper and lower
arms forming a loop disposed in compression be?
tween said seat portions, said upper arm being
adapted to extend between the upper seat por 70
tion and the upper surface of the aforesaid rail
base ?ange and to engage the upper ?ange sur
face at a location spaced farther in from the
?ange edge than the upper seat portion, said
lower arm being adapted to extend between the 75
9
2,106,548
bottom of the rail base and the lower seat portion
and to engage the bottom and edge of the other
rail base ?ange, said lower arm including a por
tion located, in the transverse direction ‘of the
rail, between the lower seat portion and the ?rst
named ?ange edge and depending below the en
gaged surface of the seat portion thereby to hold
the gripping member against movement away
from the rail, said retaining member being mov
10' able relatively to the gripping member and
transversely of the rail with wedging eiTect in
the gripping member and on the rail, whereby
the retaining member is tensioned and ?exed
and caused to! grippingly engage the top of the
15 ?rst named base ?ange and the bottom of the
other base ?ange with upthrusting effect to main
tain engagement with the edge of the ?ange.
22. A rail anchor comprising a member formed
to grippingly embrace one ?ange of a rail base
20 and including upper and lower seat portions
adapted to be disposed above and below the en
gaged rail base ?ange with the lower seat portion
farther in from the edge of the ?ange than the
upper seat portion, in combination with a retain
ing member including upper and lower arms
forming a loop disposed in compression between
said seat portions, said upper arm being adapted
to extend between the upper seat portion and
the upper surface of the aforesaid rail base ?ange
and to engage the upper ?ange surface at a loca
tion spaced farther in from the ?ange edge than
the upper seat portion, said lower arm being
adapted to extend between the bottom of the rail
base and the lower seat portion and to engage
the bottom of said rail base ?ange and the bot
tom and edge of the other rail base ?ange, said
lower arm including a portion located, in the
transverse direction of the rail, between the lower
40
seat portion and the ?rst named ?ange edge
and depending below the engaged surface of the
seat portion thereby to hold the gripping mem
ber against movement away from the rail, said
retaining member being movable relatively to
the gripping member and transversely of the
rail with wedging e?fect in the gripping member
and on the rail, whereby the retaining member
is tensioned and ?exed and caused to grippingly
engage the top and bottom of the ?rst named
base ?ange and the bottom of the other base
?ange with upthrusting effect to maintain en
gagement with the edge of the ?ange.
23. A rail anchor comprising a bar of spring
metal bent upon itself toward one end to form
an open loop adapted to receive one ?ange of a
rail base and bent toward the other end to form
a hook adapted to engage the other ?ange of '
the rail base, said bar being formed to provide
points of engagement with the upper and lower v10
surfaces of the ?rst mentioned ?ange and to be
elsewhere spaced from said ?ange, said points
being so related to one another as to cause the
bar to be tensioned upon movement transversely
of the rail with upthrusting e?ect at the hooked 15
end of the bar, and a separately formed mem
ber embracing the looped end of the bar and
adapted to engage a rail base and to position the
bar relatively to the rail base.
24. A rail anchor comprising a rail gripping
member and a separately formed associated bar
adapted to engage the upper and lower diverging
surfaces of a rail base at points spaced in the
width of the rail ‘base and to be elsewhere spaced
from said surfaces and tensioned by movement
relatively to the rail base and rail gripping mem
ber.
I
i
I
25. A rail anchor comprising abar of spring
metal bent upon itself toward one end to form
an open loop adapted to receive one ?ange of a 30
rail base, said loop, being formed to engage the
upper and lower surfaces'of the received ?ange
at points spaced in the width of the rail base
and to be elsewhere spaced from said surfaces,
the point of engagement with the lower surface 'i'
of the base being nearer the edge thereof than
the point of engagement with the upper surface
whereby upon movement of the bar transversely
of the rail base an upthrusting effect will be im
parted to the other end of the bar, and means 40
at the other end of the bar adapted to engage
the other ?ange of the rail to hold the bar
against retreat and a separately formed member
engaging the rail base and the bar and operating
to- increase the tension of the bar incident to loop 45
movement relatively to the rail base.
FRANCIS W. COOPER.
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