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Патент USA US2106593

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Jan- 25, 1938-
R. F. DENISTON ET AL
2,106,593
APPARATUS FOR DETERMINING THE DEW POINT OF A VAPOR PRODUCT
Filed May 5, 1936
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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INVENTORJ
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ORNEY
Jan. 25, 1938.
R. F. DENISTON ET AL
'
2,106,593
APPARATUS FOR DETERMINING THE DEW POINT OF A VAPOR PRODUCT
Filed May 5, 1956
2 Sheets-Sheet 2‘
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LEMWMQI
INVENTORJ
BY
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Patented Jan. 25, 1938
' 2,106,593
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,106,593
APPARATUS FOR DETERMINING THE DEW
POINT OF A VAPOR PRODUCT
Robert F. Deniston, Mount Vernon, Ill., and Wen
dell P. Hawthorne, Augusta, Kans., assignors
to Socony-Vacuum Oil Company, Incorporated,
New York, N. Y., a corporation oi.’ New York
Application May 5, 1936, Serial No. 77,942
2 Claims. (CI. 73—51)
This invention relates to a device for contin
uously testing the product‘oi' a continuously op
erating distilling, stabilizing, or fractionating
device.
An object of this invention is to provide a device
Cl
capable of association with a iractionating device
to continuously observe the dew point,.or tem
perature of total equilibrium vaporization of the
product of such apparatus.
C
'
Another object is to permit the observation of
such quality in such a manner as to permit it
to be used for control oi’ the operation producing
the product. Other objects and advantages are
possessed by this invention, some of which will
be referred to hereinafter and some of which will
be obvious to those skilled in the art.
While pertinent to all distillation operations in
which the end boiling point of the product must
be controlled to avoid the inclusion of materials
50 heavier than desired, the discussion will be herein
limited to motor gasoline for simplicity. Most of
the desirable properties of gasoline are tied up
with its end distillation point and its volatility.
observed in a convenient manner, and the control
of equipment automatically accomplished thereby.
The dew point oi.’ a vapor is the temperature at
which initial condensation occurs when a whole,
completely vaporized sample is'cooled. Converse- ‘
1y, when considering a material such as gasoline,
which has a boiling range rather than a boiling
point, it is the temperature at which a sample
heated under non-vaporizing conditions, will just
be 100% vaporized on releasing or "flashing."
The dew point is thus a comparatively sensitive
measure of heavy material in the product. It
has the advantage of having a direct physical
significance. Carburetion in an internal combus
tion engine, or analogous operations, are in reality
“?ash” vaporizations. The dew point, or 100%
equilibrium ?ash vaporization point, is directly
responsible for completeness of vaporization un
der any given conditions and easily correlated
therewith. ‘No other commonly observed prop 20
erty is so directly a measure of this valuable char
acteristic of gasoline. Vapor pressure alone is
only part of the story, because vapor pressure is
matically observing, and recording total vapor
highly sensitive to percentage of highly volatile
components, and relatively insensible to high
boiling components. A. S. T. M. distillation end
point is not completely signi?cant, because two
gasolines of the same end point will vary greatly
in ability to be volatilized under given conditions
30 pressure and basing the control onthat have been
worked out for application to stabilizers and sim
ilar apparatus for the reduction of volatility or
upon each other and thus compel interpretation
oi.’ results and prevent simple automatic control
So great is the truth of this statement that free
25 tionating equipment for the production of gaso
line is practically always operated by the control
of_ end boiling point on the one hand and total
vapor pressure on the other.
Methods for auto
vapor pressure in excess of that desired. No
‘ simple method has as yet been presented for the
35 automatic control-oi end boiling point.
Methods at present used for the control of end
because of variation in relative amount oi! lighter -
components present. These two properties bear
from observation of such properties. Dew point
is the one determinable property which ties these
things together, and when it becomes possible to
continuously observe and record the dew point,
it is possible to continuously'control still condi
boiling point involve periodic removal of a sam
ple, manual distillation in a batch process-the
tions in a simple and convenient manner without
A. S. T. M. distillation, interpretation of results,
the necessity of an operator's interpretation of 40
40 and subsequent change of distillation conditions
if the control test has shown this to be necessary.
This method presents several di?lculties. Con
siderable time elapses between tests, manual con
trol is involved, and a chemist’s time is required
for the distillation. The results 01' the test are
not, in themselves, a direct measure of the char
acteristics desirable in the product. The nearest
approach to automatic operation of which we are
aware accomplishes automatic withdrawal and
analysis of sample, but leaves the entire inter
pretation of results and adjustment for correction
just where it was before.
~
This invention is based ‘upon the discovery that
results.
'
We have devised an apparatus for continuously
observing and recording the dew point and which
lends itseli to such control. In order that this
device may be more readily understood, reference 45
is now made to the drawings attached to and made
a part 0! this speci?cation, in which Figure 1
shows the dew point apparatus and Figure 2
shows the manner in which it may be applied to
50
still control.
In Figure 1, which is diagrammatic, 3 is a pipe
through which the distillate product to be tested
\ is introduced in condensed or partially condensed
form to coil 4, placed in heating bath 6, which
55 the dew point of a product may be continuously . is ?lled with a suitable liquid‘ and heated by 55
.51
‘
2,106,595;
iectrlcal heater:
lne heated to
in diagrammatic form how this
dew point, in this apparatus
rgvurc l
r the control of a distillation
gure
ell.
b a
which feed
by
coal
.
which is .
is likewise
pipe ET,
‘
to
8»
below the lowest dew point er
; n th- lower end of coil '9‘ is placed‘.
onstru"
Material uncon
passesthrough trap l0 and is
apparatus by pipe ll. Material
~.
coil ‘J falls from the lip [2’. at the
, end of the coil upon
which is preferably
nonmagnetic material, and which
-
supported by solenoid. rod [5,
l5.
the temperature
coll.
c dew point, liquid will constantly
‘ e pan it“.
pols; and instrument 23 indicates and records
it. In this set-up however, instrument 2! has an
additional function. Condensate from drum 3!)
is returned by pump 33 through pipe 34 as wet
re
" for control of top temperature of tower
" eturned being controlled by valve
23 in this case is also a control 20
instrument, so designed that when the dew point
'
.".
exceeds
‘
stream
corrosion.
The inductance bridge consists of
solenoid coils l8 surrounding solenoid core M,
which supports the pan, and solenoid coils ll
surrounding core i8. The inductance bridge is
actuated by a source of alternating current 20,
which also supplies the various heating services.
Without considering in detail the makeup of the
inductance bridge, which is well known, its prop
erties are such that when actuated by alternating
current as shown, the two cores are suspended at
certain points as determined by their weights,
the properties of the coils, etc., and any change
in the position of one is followed by a corre
sponding proportional change in the position of
the other. Thus, when coil 1 is below the dew
point and pan l3 becomes heavy, core l4 moves
down, and avcorresponding movement of core
i8 relayed by contacts l9 admits current to aux~
iliary heater 2!. When coil 1 is above the dew
U! in point, pan 13 becomes lighter, and core I8 is
correspondingly moved to cut out heater II. The
bath in heating vessel 8 and coil 1 immersed
therein are thus kept at the dew point of the
vapor analyzed, proportions of bath and coil be
60 ing so selected that “hunting” is minimized. It
is of course understood that while direct con
tacts are shown at I9, it will probably be prefer
able to employ some convenient form of relay
system, the direct contacts being shown for sim
plicity. Since the bath in vessel 8 is maintained
at the dew point of the substance analyzed, it is
simple to observe the temperature of the bath or
in the trap ID by any convenient form oi’ ther
mocouple as 22, here shown in the bath near
trap ID, to which is attached the indicating and
recording pyrometer designated by 23.
a
predetermined
maximum,
"is admitted to tower 24, and when
"
too low, less is admitted.
capable of so acting are
own, and of many forms, and
1'10 part of this invention, and
motion is consequently indicated
' ‘1'- cm. temperature of the bath and indi
'
we and record
point. Any
springs, etc, mounted. in the vapor
5; exposed to possible gumming and.
point analyzer comprising vessels
trap Hi, as previously described.
rmocouple 22 observes the dew
a 3 becomes lighten-until empty.
~' in weight
pan i3 is employed to
2 e orefe to employ an inductance
ce it enables us to dispense with mov»
awn through pipe 3!, and pipe
end a continuous sample of dis— 10
5
r vaporate from the pan £3 to the gas stream.
bel w the dew pol
‘the pan regularly be»
comes hes.
--until it
filled. Above the dew
nose.
Cl
v "ors pass overhead through pipe
29 to receiver 30. Distillate
tillate to a use
If the temperature in.
dew point, no liquid will drop on
and c evaporation will/occur therefrom.
temperature above the dew point liquid
c
product is
32 is provide.'
24 is a. columnar still, to
reduced by pipe 26, and heated
Residue is withdrawn through
a
onnection between instrument 23
30'
i that equivalents of the device
disclosed will occur to those skilled in the
art, and it
our intention to claim all that is
move} 5. ermn, except as limited by the following
claims.
We claim:
Means for continuously observing the dew
point of a continuously flowing stream of va
porizable substance comprising means Ior con
tinuously sampling said stream, means for con
verting said sample to a slightly superheated va
40
por, a tube through which said vapor flows, a
heater to maintain said tube at a temperature
below the dew point of said vapor, said tube in
cluding a trap, pan in said trap, means to di
rect condensate formed in said tube on said pan,
an auxiliary heater for said tube, means respon
sive to the weight of the condensate in said pan
to control said auxiliary heater to add more heat
in response to an increase and less heat in re
sponse to a decrease in condensate, whereby said
tube is maintained at the dew point temperature
of said vapor, and means to observe the tempera
ture of the tube.
2. Means for continuously observing the dew 55
point of» a ?owing stream of vaporizable sub
stance, comprlsing means to extract a sample
therefrom, means to convert such sample to a
slightly superheated vapor, means to cool such
vapor to a controlled temperature, means to col 60
lect any condensate so formed in a position ex
posed to uncondensed vapors, means actuated
by the amount of condensate collected to so con
trol the cooling temperature that the condensate
amount tends neither to decrease nor increase,
and means to observe the controlled temperature.
ROBERT F. DENISTON.
WENDELL P. HAWTHORNE.
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